Ernest Rutherford had a very structured childhood as well as his overall life. Born in New Zealand in 1871, he went to government schools at a young age and then went to Nelson Collegiate School when he was only 16. He was awarded a University Scholarship to go to the University of New Zealand. Here he proceeded to Canterbury College where he graduated M.A. with a double first in mathematics and physical science. After this he did some research work for the college for a short time, this leads to him receive his B.Sc. degree. In 1894 he was given an 1851 Exhibition Science Scholarship that allowed him to Trinity College in Cambridge and would work under J.J. Thomson. Then in 1897 he was awarded the B.A. Research Degree and the Coutts-Trotter Studentship of Trinity College. During his time, Rutherford was alive for World War 1 and Hitler's rise to power. His intelligence caused him to travel all over the world, he moved to Montreal in order to take the position of the Macdonald Chair of Physics. In 1907 Rutherford moved to England to take the role of the Langworthy Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester(succeeding Sir Arthur Schuster at the time). In 1919 he was requested to follow Sir Joseph Thomson and be the Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge, during this time he became the Chairman of the Advisory Council, H.M. Government, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research; Professor of Natural Philosophy, Royal Institution, London; and Director of the Royal Society Mond Laboratory, Cambridge. Rutherford continued working in Cambridge for the rest of his life until he died in 1937. Rutherford used alpha rays and radium emanation to study the atomic theory, what he found changed the view of the atom forever. Executing an experiment known as the Gold Foil Experiment, Rutherford concluded that the particles within the atom(protons, neutrons, and electrons) aren't in the plum pudding model previously thought(the atom was a circle with all of the particles floating inside). The particles are actually concentrated in the center of the atom, he found that protons and neutrons lie in this concentrated area, the nucleus, and electrons orbit around the nucleus. Rutherford obtained an abundance of awards for his work some of these include being knighted in 1914, being granted to be in the Order of Merit, he was given the Nobel Prize in 1908, and receiving honorary degrees from 20 colleges. One of these universities being the Ivy League school Yale. Rutherford continued his work throughout his life till the day he died on October 19, 1937, his remains were burned and lay near some other extraordinary scientists.
Ernest Rutherford was a very awarded scientists who saw that atoms have a nucleus where the protons and neutrons are held. Rutherford used scattering alpha rays to find that protons and neutrons resided in one place, in the middle of the atom. This then led him to his theory of a nucleus in the center of the atom, to prove this he conducted an experiment, the gold foil experiment. In this, small particles were shot at a thin piece of gold, Rutherford saw that a small amount was condensed in one area. He then concluded that atoms all have a nucleus that hold particles instead of them just being scattered amongst the atom.
Rutherford’s atomic model looked similar to Erwin Schrodinger’s, there was a nucleus in the center of the atom that held all of the protons and the neutrons. The electrons were floating around the nucleus in a random order(later proved that the exact placement/paths cannot be told). When labeling the electrons, protons, and neutrons, you label the electrons with a minus(-), the protons with a plus(+), and the neutrons with nothing( ). This is because each particle has a different charge, electrons have a negative charge(1-), protons have a positive charge(1+), and neutrons have a neutral charge(0).
Did you Know?- There is actually an element in the periodic table, number 104 Rutherfordium.