Colombus finds North America looking for the route to Asia
In 1497, John Cabot (Giovanni Cabotto) set off on a voyage to Asia. On his way he, like Christopher Columbus, ran into an island off the coast of North America. As a result, Cabot became the second European to discover North America. He discovers cod fish, which leads to the first major trade - fish.
On April 20, 1534, Jacques Cartier set sail from St. Malo in Brittany with 2 ships and 61 men. He had been commissioned by King François of France to search for a passage to Cathay (the Orient), either around or through the New World. On May 10, Cartier arrived in Newfoundland and discovered a barren, uninviting land.
Tries to settle, battles scurvy and it fails. Cartier was looking for 3 things: 1) Land, 2) Riches, 3) Route to China. Only found land.
Tadoussac was founded in 1600 by François Gravé Du Pont, a merchant, and Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit, a captain of the French Royal Navy, when they acquired a fur trade monopoly from King Henry IV. First attempted trading post, failed due to lack of fur.
Quebec City was founded by the French explorer and navigator Samuel de Champlain in 1608, commencing a string of French colonies along the St. Lawrence River, creating a region named "le Canada".
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Upon his arrival in Quebec, Louis selected ten acres on a site that is today located in the city of Quebec between Ste. Famille and Couillard Streets, on the grounds of the Seminary of Quebec and Basilica of Notre Dame. Soon afterward, Louis started clearing out some old-growth forest so he could plant crops. This put him in conflict with the fur trading company, who was strongly opposed to deforestation for farming because of its adverse effect on the fur business.
The Company of New France, or the One Hundred Associates, was created by Cardinal Richelieu, in 1627, as part of his programme of developing France's external trade
The English force led by the Kirke brothers succeeded in capturing a supply convoy bound for New France, severely impairing that colony's ability to resist attack.
Trois-Rivières was founded in 1634 by the French explorer Samuel de Champlain and named for the three channels at the mouth of the Saint-Maurice. It lies midway between Montreal and Quebec cities and is one of the oldest settlements in Canada.
In 1639, Madame de La Peltrie financed the founding of a convent and the first school for girls in New France. She left France aboard the St. Joseph with three nuns from the Ursuline convent at Tours.
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In 1641, some fifty French settlers, both men and women, recruited in France by Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière, of Anjou, on behalf of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal, set sail for New France. They hoped to convert the Natives and create a model Catholic community. After a long crossing and a number of stops, the small group, led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, of Champagne, with the energetic assistance of Jeanne Mance, landed on the point of land next to the little river on May 17, 1642, and there founded Ville-Marie.
In 1649, the Iroquois attacked and massacred. They benefitted from the weakened state of the Huron nation, laid waste by epidemics and divided by the presence of so many Christian converts.
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He had to increase the population, increase the industry and increase agriculture.
He increased the population in 4 ways:
1) Filles du Roi: Women sent from France to get married and have children right away.
2) Soldiers: Men who came over to protect New France from the English and Natives. If they stayed after their tour of duty, they were given land. Regular soldiers got lots, officers got seigneuries.
3) Engagés: Men who agreed to work in New France for 3 years, at the end of which they got land if they agreed to stay.
4) Small criminals: Petty thieves, and such who came over to get a new start.
« Filles du Roi » is a term used to refer to the approximately 800 youngFrench women who immigrated to New France between 1663 and 1673 as part of a program sponsored by Louis XIV. The program was designed to boost Canada's population both by encouraging male immigrants to settle there, and by promoting marriage, family formation and the birth of children.
This government is set up to give the king more control over the colony of New France. He appointed two people to represent him in the colony:
a) Governor, who controlled all external issues, such as trade, dealings with the British and Natives and military matters.
b) Intendant, who controlled all internal matters, such as increasing population, agriculture and budget. With the Bishop appointed by the Pope, these people formed the Sovereign Council and controlled New France.
By 1681, the king's Minister of Finance, Colbert, was forced to acknowledge the pull of the fur trade, and he inaugurated the congé system. Each year up to 25 congés (licences to trade) were to be issued by the governor and the intendant. Each congé allowed 3 men with one canoe to trade in the West. It was fondly hoped that the Canadians would wait their turn for a congé, thus leaving the colony only 75 men short each year.
La Salle reassembled a party for another major expedition. In 1682 he departed Fort Crevecoeur with a group of Frenchmen and Indians and canoed down the Mississippi River. He named the Mississippi basin La Louisiane in honor of Louis XIV and claimed it for France.
The Great Peace of Montreal (French: La Grande paix de Montréal) was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. It was signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and thirteen hundred representatives of 40 aboriginal nations.
Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It gave Acadia, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Hudson's Bay to the British.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
In 1706, the Conseil supérieur (grand council) decreed that a road be built along the river shoreline bear settlements. Thanks to ste statute labour of his «corvées du roy», the Grand Voyer (senior road surveyor) Eustache Lanouiller de Boisclerc began work in 1731. When construction was completed in 1737, the chemin du Roy was 7.4 metres wide and streched over 280 kilometers, crossing through 37 seignories.
Ended with Aix-la-Chapelle Treaty, which gave Louisbourg back to France.
Between 1755 and 1763, approximately 10,000 Acadians were deported. With the creation of Halifax in 1749, and a greater British immigration, the British decided to deport all the French Acadians out of the territory for two reasons:
1) Worried the Acadians would join the French in military operations
2) Wanted to use the land to promote British immigration
The Seven Years' War is the name given to the final phase in the century-long struggle between France and Great Britain for dominance in North America and supremacy in the world. It is so named as war officially started in 1756, and the peace treaty that resolved it was signed in 1763.
1) 1758: British capture Louisbourg
2) 1759: British move down St Lawrence River to hopefully capture Quebec City, which would give them access to the heart of North America.
3) 1759: British try to invade at Battle on Montmorency, French win
4) 1759: Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Battle lasts 15 mins, British win, Wolfe and Montcalm dead. British capture Quebec City.
5) 1760: French more to retake Quebec City. They win the Battle of St Foy, but lacking supplies couldn't retake the city.
The Siege of Louisbourg was a pivotal operation of the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War) in 1758 that ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year.
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September 1759) was a pivotal moment in the Seven Years' War and in the history of Canada. A British invasion force led by General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm, leading to the surrender of Québec to the British.
After the Battle of St Foy, the British who are better-supplied than the French then move on to Montreal, which surrenders without a fight. New France is now conquered by the British.
It was a military government rather than a usual government, because the Seven Years War was still ongoing, and the result of the war was not known.
Natives weren't part of the negotiations in the Treaty of Paris, so they mad. A bunch of land was taken away from them, so they (Natives from the Oddawa nation) led a rebellion with a man named Pontiac as their leader. They wanted things the way the were before the Treaty. Rebellions lasted from 1763-1766. Pontiac's men captured a bunch of forts in the Great Lakes region. They signed a peace treaty in 1766.
This makes the British officially get New France. France was given Guadeloupe (for sugar), and the islands St Pierre and Miquelon (for fishing).
Given a few months after Treaty of Paris. Goal: assimilate the French.
1) creates the province of Quebec (much smaller than New France)
2) Set up indian territory for trade
3) English criminal and civil laws
4) French can't speak french if they run a buisness
5) French can't be catholic if they run a buisness
6) No French in government
7) Test Act: tell everyone that you proclaim your British citizenship, are no longer a French citizen.
8) Township System
Imposing tax on sugar
British merchants are mad because Murray likes the French and doesn't want to apply the Royal Proclamation, or assimilate them. The merchants therefore write a petition to the king asking to remove Murray. King accepts. Switches Murray for Guy Carleton.
Forced colonists to pay to send letters within the colony
Carleton completely agrees with Murray and also tries to change things with the French (treat them better). He convinces the king to pass the Quebec Act
Imposed tax on items such as glass and tea
Death of 6 men at the hands of the British
Tax imposed on tea
Rebellious act by colonists destroying tea
Made to make the French happy, and keep them out of the impending war with the 13 colonies.
1) Brought back French civil laws
2) Catholicism allowed
3) A few French now allowed in government
4) Can speak french in buisness
5) Made the province of Quebec bigger, gave them the Ohio Valley
6) Eliminated Test Act
Americans try to invade Canada, particularly Montreal and Quebec. Canadiens joined the British and fought back defeating the Americans handily in both battles and drove the Americans out of Canada.
Led to the creation of the United States of Canada. Not all wanted to become British. Many were loyal to the British - they were known as Loyalists. After the Treaty of Versailles ending the war, many Loyalists moved out of the USA.
War breaks out with battles of Lexington and Concord - the midnight ride of Paul Revere
They moved to four areas:
2) Nova Scotia
3) Great Britain
2) Eastern Townships
This saw the English population of Quebec rise from 1% to 15%, and created some more issues of language and law previously dealt with by the Quebec Act. Also, at the end of the American Revolution, Quebec got smaller by the loss of the Ohio Valley, which was an important fur trade area for the French. Forced the fur trade to the Northwest, into the Northwest territories.
Late 1780s, the Loyalists write a petition to the king asking for an English colony. Why would they be under French civil laws in a place that speaks mostly french?
Splits Quebec in two, Upper and Lower Canada. Done to appease Loyalists, to make them happy and yet honour the Quebec Act.
Upper Canada - everything english
Lower Canada - everything french
Napoleon creates blockade around Europe which forced Great Britain to turn to Upper & Lower Canada for Timber. This lead to new jobs = a bunch of money = banks.
Irish came to escape potato famine. Poor and ill. Cholera outbreak in boats, quarantine in Grosse-Île.
Lead by Louis-Joseph Papineau, who controlled the elected Legislative Assembly.
List of demands and requests, which were things they wanted to change in Lower Canada. Main demand was for a responsible government. Other demands were elimination of Veto, a say in the colony budget, a minimum wage in factories, and allowance of the French to use the bank of montreal.
Look at notes
Lord John Russell was like NOPE. He gave his response on the behalf of the king. It turned down all 92 resolutions and took away the Legislative Assembly's only power - taxes
He comes to make a report on what happened. He was ordered by the king to blame only the french, but instead finds both french and english at fault. Makes his official report with two recommendations:
1) Combine upper & lower canada
2) give them responsible government
Combine upper & lower canada to form United Canada