Early Civilizations



3000 BCE

In the Egyptian writing system, or hieroglyphic, those five symbols together meant "to teach". Egyptian hieroglyphic were one of the world's first writing systems. The hieroglyphic writing system used more than 600 symbols, mostly pictures of objects.

Old Kingdom

2700 bce - 2200 bce

They were called The Age Of The Pyramid-This time period was known for the pharaoh's creating a strong central government and pyramids for themselves as tombs.

Middle Kingdom

2000 bce - 1800 bce

Period of Reunification - During this time periods Egyptians enjoyed art, literature, and architecture.

New Kingdom

1600 bce - 1100 bce

Egypt's Golden Age-Pharaoh's increased trade and had huge monuments built. During this time of peace and stability, ancient Egypt's power reached its height.

Fall of Songhai

1591 BC

A northern rival of Songhai, Morocco, wanted to gain control of Songhai's salt mines. So the Moroccan army set out for the heart of Songhai in 1591.

Fall of Mali

1500 BC - 1431 BC

When Mansa Musa died, his son Maghan took the throne. Maghan was a weak ruler. When raidera from the southeast poured into Mali, he couldn't stop them.

Ghana's Decline

1200 BC - 1000 BC

In the mid-1000s Ghana was rich and powerful, but by the end of the 1200s, the empire had collapsed. Three major factors contributed to its end

First Historical Records Of Kush

1070 BC - 350 AD

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient Nubian kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.

Kingdom of Kush

1070 BC - 350 AD

His new kingdom was called Kush. The early kings ruled from their capital at Kerma. This city was located on the Nile just south of a cataract, or stretch of rapids.

Kush conquers Egypt

671 BC - 654 BC

Kush and Egypt were neighbors. At times the neighbors lived in peace with each other prosper. For example, Kush became a supplier of slaves and raw materials to Egypt.


800 CE

The Songhai are thought to have settled at Gao as early as 800 CE, but did not establish it as the capital until the 11th century, during the reign of Dia Kossoi. However, the Dia dynasty soon gave way to the Sonni, proceeding the ascension of Sulaiman-Mar, who gained independence and hegemony over the city and was a forbear of Sonni Ali.


830 - 1235

located what now is southeastern Mauritania. The empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt. The sources for the earlier period are very strange as to it's society.


1230 - 1600

he empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces

Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage to Mecca

1280 AD - 1337 AD

Mansa Musa, fourteenth century emperor of the Mali Empire, is the medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa.

Mansa Musa rules Kingdom of Mali

1280 CE - 1337 CE

Mali's most famous ruler was a Muslim named Mansa Musa. Under his skillful leadership, Mali reached the height of its wealth, power, and fame in the 1300s.

Rosetta Stone

1799 - 1803

That key was the Rosetta Stone, a huge, stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics. In addition to the hieroglyphic, the Rosetta Stone had text in Greek and a later form of Egyptian.