Early Civilizations



3300 BC

The Egyptians made papyrus by pressing layers of reeds together and pounding them into sheets. These sheets were through and durable yet could be rolled into scrolls Scribes wrote on papyrus using brushes and ink

Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

Age of the pyramids. During this time, early pharaohs set up a strong central government. They also had great pyramids built as tombs for themselves. Some historians call this time the Age of the Pyramids.

Middle Kingdom

2000 BCE - 1800 BCE

is sometimes called the Period of Reunification because it followed years of chaos and disunity. During this era, Egyptians enjoyed many great achievements in literature, art, and architecture.

Kingdom of Kush

2000 BC

The early kings ruled from their capital at Kerma. This city was located on the Nile just south of a cataract or stretch of Rapids. For many years it kept them safe from the king of the North

Rosetta Stone

1799 BC

In 1799 a French soldier gave historians the key they needed to read ancient Egyptian writing.

New Kingdom

1600 BCE - 1100 BCE

is often called Egypt’s Golden Age. During this time of peace and stability, ancient Egypt’s power reached its height. Pharaohs increased trade and had huge monuments built.


1600 BCE - 1230 BCE

The Mali Empire or Mandingo Empire or Manden Kurufa was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces

Fall of Mali

1600 BCE - 1230 BCE

After Ghana fell because of invading forces and internal disputes, Mali rose to greatness under the leadership of a legendary king named Sundiata. Later, another great leader named Mansa Musa extended the empire. ... The Songhai empire, already weakened by internal political struggles and went into decline.

Mali Empire

1600 BC - 1230 BC

The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for its wealth and rulers.

Fall of Songhai

1591 BC - 1375 BC

In 1590, al-Mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar Pasha to conquer the Songhai and to gain control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. After the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Tondibi , the Songhai Empire collapsed.

Songhai Empire

1591 BC - 1375 BC

The Songhai Empire was a state that dominated the western Sahel. At its peak it was one of the largest states in African history.


1500 BCE - 300 CE

The Ghana Empire was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali.Complex societies had existed in the region since about 1500 BCE, and around Ghana's core region since about 300 CE.


1473 bc - 1458 bc

Hatsheput greatest thing she has done is become the first lady to rule Egypt..

Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage to Mecca

1324 BC

His elaborate pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city of Mecca.

Ghana's Decline

1240 BC - 800 BC

Ghana started to decline when the Muslims started an attack on the empire.

Ghana Empire

800 BC

in 800 BC Ghana was firmly in control of West Africa's trade routes. Nearly all trade trade between northern and southern Africa passed through Ghana.


800 BCE

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhai Empire, was a state located in western Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songhai state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger.

Kush conquers Egypt

751 BC

In 751 BC Kashta conquered Upper Egypt. He then established relations with Lower Egypt.

First Historical Records of Kush

700 BC

in 700s BC Kush lost its strength and regained that strength in 850 BC.

Mana Musa Rule

1312 - 1337

Fourteenth century emperor of Mali's Empire. Mana Musa is a medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa.