Early Civilizations


Kingdom of Kush

3500 Bc

The city was located on the Nile just south of a cataract, or stretch of rapids


3300 BC

Egyptian writing system

Old Kigdom

2700 B.C.E - 2200 B.C.E

pharaohs set up a strong government, the pharaohs had great tombs built for themselves, also known as the Age of the Pyramids

The Pharaoh Khufu

2551 B.C.E - 2528 B.C.E

he rulled in the old kingdom. Khufu built the pyramids it took 20 years. it took 20,000 bricks.

Middle Kigdom

2000 B.C.E - 1800 B.C.E

also know as the Period of Reunification, the period where Egyptians enjoyed the achievements in literature, art, and architecture

The Pharaoh Senurst

1971 B.C.E - 1026 B.C.E

Made the white Chapel, it had a thin layer of gold it was a token apart and put back together.

Rosetta stone

1799 BC

a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics

New Kingdom

1600 B.C.E - 1100 B.C.E

known as Egypt’s Golden Age, represented peace and stability, the power of Ancient Egypt reached its highest, trade increased, and pharaohs had huge monuments built

Fall of Songhai

1591 BCE

The Morocco set out to Songhai with advanced weapons and guns.

The Pharaoh Hatseput

1473 B.C.E - 1458 B.C.E

Encouraging trades, loyal advisers in government, the temple of Dayralbahi the main part was above the Nile river with two tall mountains called Obelilsks.

Fall of Mali

1431 BC

When Mansa Musa died, his son Maghan took the throne. Raiders from the south poured into Mali and he couldn't stop them. The raiders set fire to Timbuktu's great schools and mosques. Mali never fully recovered from the terrible blow. The empire continued to weaken and decline.. and in 1431 the Tuareg seized Timbuktu.

Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage to Mecca

1324 BC

through his journey, Mansa Musa introduced his empire to the Islamic world. He spread Mali's fame far and wide.

Mansa Musa's Rule

1312 BCE

religion was very important to Mansa. He left Mali on a pilgrimage to Manca in 1324.

The Pharaoh Abu Simbel the second

1290 B.C.E - 1224 B.C.E

Ghana's Decline

1200 BC

the empire was invaded, overgrazed, and had internal rebellion

Kush Conquers Egypt

850 BC

Kush regained strength and conjured Egypt, because they lost power.

First historical records of Kush

700 BC

when armies from Kush swept into Egypt and conquered it

Ghana Empire

830 C.E - 1235 C.E

This Empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt. The trade produced increasing surplus, allowing for larger urban centers. It also encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the l trade routes.

Mali Empire

1230 C.E - 1600 C.E

The Mali Empire flourished because of trade. It contained three immense gold mines within its borders, which was only a transit point for gold. The empire taxed every ounce of gold or salt. By the beginning of the 14th century, Mali was the source oft half the Old World’s gold exported from mines in Bambuk, Boure and Galam.

Songhai Empire

1375 C.E - 1591 C.E

Trade existed throughout the Empire, due to the standing army stationed in the provinces.economy was based on a clan system. The clan a person belonged to ultimately decided their occupation. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters. Lower caste participants consisted of mostly non-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in society.