Early Civilizations



Approx. 3300 BC

This was an Egyptian writing system, archaeologist have known about it but did no know what it meant till 1799 that someone got the key they needed to read it.

Old kingdom

Approx. 2700 B.C. - Approx. 2200 B.C.

The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2700 to 2200 B.C.E.They also had great pyramids built as tombs for themselves. Some historians call this time the Age of the Pyramids.

The pharoh khufu

2551 B.C.E - 2528 B.C.E

Khufu was the pharaoh who build the pyramid he ruled in the old kingdom

Kingdom of kush

2000 BC

This city was located on Nile just south of a cataract.

Middle Kingdom

2000 BCE - 1800 BCE

sometimes called the Period of Reunification because it followed years of chaos and disunity.Egyptians enjoyed many great achievements in literature, art, and architecture

New kingdom

1600 BC - 1100 BC

It is often called Egypt’s Golden Age. During this time of peace and stability, ancient Egypt’s power reached its height. Pharaohs increased trade and had huge monuments built

The Ghana Empire

1500 BCE - 300 CE

located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali. Complex societies had existed in the region since about 1500 BCE, and around Ghana's core region since about 300 CE. When Ghana's ruling dynasty began is uncertain, it is first mentioned in documentary sources around 830 CE.

The Songhai Empire

800 CE

The Songhai Empire was a state located in western Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songhai state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger.

Ghana's decline

Approx. 1000 - Approx. 1200

This was empire when it collapsed.

The mali

1230 CE - 1600 CE

The Mali Empire was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces

Mansa Musa

Approx. 1312 - Approx. 1337

He ruled Mali for about 25 years.

Fall of Mali

1431 - 1500

It happened when the raiders from the south east poured into Mail and he couldn't stop them.

The Fall of Songhai


The ,Moroccan army set out for the heart of Songhai with advanced weapons.

Rosetta stone


It is a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics