Post Classical Important events


Bantu migrations

1000 BCE - 1700 AD

The Bantu migration denotes to the geographic spreading over Africa, from 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D., of the Bantu, a collection of people that spoke the Bantu language. The Bantu includes groups like the Baganda, Banyoro, Batoru of Uganda, Akamba, Kikuyu and many others.


101 - 1400

A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. In the Middle-East, it is often called by its Persian name khan, these rest areas supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and southeastern Europe, particularly along the Silk Road.

Silk Road

101 - 1400

The silk road was an ancient trade network and cultural transmission routes that were central and cultural interaction through regions of Asia. It connected west to east from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, this route is responsible for many of the cultural diffusions at this time, and improved their economy.

Camel Saddle

500 AD

The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth. These saddles were helpful in transporting goods from route to route and gave the rider more comfort throughout the long ride.



Porcelain is a white vitrified translucent ceramic, used for decorative purposes, table wear, lab equipment and electrical insulators. Porcelain was in high demand and the production was large and allowed china’s economy to flourish because of it. (invented in the 7th century)

Travels of Xuanzang


Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang dynasty. His travels included, passing through Hunza and the Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of Gandhara, Purushapura (Peshawar), on the other side.

Trans-Saharan gold/salt/slave trade

701 - 1700

Trans-Saharan trade was the transit of goods between sub-Saharan Africa and the northern Arab and European worlds. Goods included precious metals, such as gold, as well as slaves. The trade route was in operation between the seventh and 14th centuries, expanding the more established trade route of the Silk Road between Europe and the Middle East.

Indian ocean trade using Monsoon winds

800 AD - 1500

The Indian Ocean trade network was a system of maritime trade routes that connected China, India, Thailand, the Indonesian and Malaysian islands, East Africa and Arabia. It dates back at least to the third century B.C. and involved ancient empires like the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty.

Viking raids/expeditions

800 AD - 1066

Viking raids were the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest.

Polynesian migrations

1000 - 1300 AD

Migrations of people from Southeast Asia beginning about 3,000 years ago and completed by 1000 CE. A complex trading network among the dispersed peoples led to the transfer of crops, technology and common culture. (cultural diffusion)


1095 - 1291

Crusades were a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The crusades impacted by improving medical and surgical procedures, architectural ideas concepts, and mathematics.

Travels of Marco Polo

1271 - 1295

Marco Polo was one of the first and most famous Europeans to travel to Asia during the Middle Ages. He traveled farther than any of his predecessors during his 24-year journey along the Silk Road, reaching China and Mongolia, where he became a confidant of Kublai Khan.

Rise of the Italian city states

1301 - 1500

Milan, Venice, and Florence were able to conquer other city-states, creating regional states (a unitary state in which authority has been decentralized to subnational regions.). The 1454 Peace of Lodi ended their struggle for hegemony in Italy, attaining a balance of power.

Mediterranean Sea

1301 - 1453 AD

This trade route was used to transfer raw materials, food, luxury goods from areas that were in abundance to places that were short in supply. Trade routes were a way to share new religions and ideas

Travels of Ibn Battuta

1325 - 1354

Ibn Battuta started on his travels to Asia and Africa when he was 20 years old in 1325. His leading reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, as all good Muslims want to do.

Black plague

1347 - 1350

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1347 and 1350 with 30–60 percent of the entire population killed. It reduced world population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in the 14th century.

Hanseatic League

1400 - 1800

The Hanseatic league was a powerful economic and defensive alliance that left a great cultural and architectural heritage. It is especially renowned for its Brick Gothic monuments, such as St. Nikolai and the city hall of Stralsund.

Credit/checks/flying money

1601 - 1700

Paper money began with the "flying cash" of the Tang (618-907) dynasty around 800.New forms of credit and monetization (bills of exchange, credit, checks/banking houses also contributed towards the growth of inter-regional trade networks.

Use of paper money


Paper money and coins benefitted trade by providing a relatively consistent, reliable and predictable value.