Early Civilizations


Old Kingdom

2700 B.C.E - 2200 B.C.E.

During this time, early pharaohs set up a strong central government. They also had great pyramids built as tombs for themselves. Some historians call this time the Age of the Pyramids.

Pharaoh Khufu

2551 B.C.E - 2528 B.C.E

Had magnificent pyramids

Middle Kingdom

2000 B.C.E. - 1800 B.C.E.

Ssometimes called the Period of Reunification because it followed years of chaos and disunity. During this era, Egyptians enjoyed many great achievements in literature, art, and architecture.

Pharoah Senusret

1971 B.C.E - 1926 B.C.E

He was a strong leader who ruled a stable unified Egypt.

New Kingdom

1600 B.C.E - 1100 B.C.E

Often called Egypt’s Golden Age. During this time of peace and stability, ancient Egypt’s power reached its height. Pharaohs increased trade and had huge monuments built.

Pharaoh Hatshepsut

1473 bce - 1458 bce

Being Egypt's first female Pharaoh .

Pharaoh Rames 2

1290 bc - 1224 bc

Ghana Empire

300 CE - 1200 CE

The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire (existed before c. 830 until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali. Complex societies had existed in the region since about 1500 BCE, and around Ghana's core region since about 300 CE. When Ghana's ruling dynasty began is uncertain, it is first mentioned in documentary sources around 830 CE. The introduction of the camel, which preceded Muslims and Islam by several centuries, brought about a gradual change in trade, and for the first time, the extensive gold, ivory trade, and salt resources of the region could be sent north and east to population centers in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe in exchange for manufactured goods.

Mali Empire

1230 CE - 1600 CE

The Mali Empire or Mandingo Empire or Manden Kurufa was a West African empire of the Mandinka from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. The Mali Empire had many profound cultural influences on West Africa, allowing the spread of its language, laws and customs along the Niger River. It extended over a large area and consisted of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces

Fall Of Mali

1400 CE - 1600 CE

Not long after the rule of Mansa Musa ended, the Mali Empire began to grow weak. In the 1400s, the empire began to lose control along the edges of its borders. Then, in the 1500s, the Songhai Empire rose to power. The Mali Empire came to an end in 1610 with the death of the last Mansa, Mahmud IV.

Songhai Empire

1506 CE - 1687 CE

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was a state located in western Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songhai state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger.

Fall of Songhai

1590 CE - 1591 CE

In 1590, al-Mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar Pasha to conquer the Songhai and to gain control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. After the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Tondibi (1591), the Songhai Empire collapsed.