Main outcomes were the agreement on the formation of United Nations, Soviet joining and helping with the Pacific War, Declaration for Liberated Europe - pledging democratic governments and free elections in all European countries.
Germany - decided to disarmed, demilitarised, de-Nazificafied and divided into four zones. This division will be temporary and Germany would run as 'one country'. An Allied Control Commission (ACC) will govern Germany. However, Stalin demanded reparations from Germany to restore USSR economy but they only agreed on $20 billion, 50%.
Red Army occupied most of Eastern Europe and by the time of the conference, it was clear that Stalin went back on his word regarding the 'Declaration for Liberated Europe'
An American charge d'affaires in Moscow, sends an 8,000-word telegram to the Department of State detailing his views on the Soviet Union, and U.S. policy toward the communist state. This analysis provided one of the most influential underpinnings for America's Cold War policy of containment.
However, Kennan has always been known to hate Communism and the Soviet government, implying that the telegram was exaggerated.
Roosevelt died of a massive stroke, and Truman, who was the vice-president at the time, was sworn in as president on April 12, 1945
Truman indicated that he was determined to take a "tougher" stance with the Soviets than his predecessor, Roosevelt who believed that cooperation with the USSR is the key to maintain peace, had.
The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States.
At 0530, in a remote section of the Alamogordo Air Base, New Mexico, the first full-scale test was made of the implosion type atomic fission bomb. For the first time in history there was a nuclear explosion. This concludes that US had the upper hand since it had the deadliest and most lethel weapons of mass destruction (US nuclear monopoly). Later, this will soon turn into a nuclear arms race where both nations fight to produce even more deadlier nuclear weapons.
-to deal with Germany in their own ways in their own zones. German economy to be run ‘as a whole’ but was limited to domestic industry and agriculture.
-USSR would receive 25% of their reparation bill from the Western Zones
-Truman demanded that the Polish government be ‘re-organised’ – more London Poles within government and ‘free elections’.
-UN became a reality and was officially created at the Treaty of San Francisco in 1945.
-Truman was unhappy with the ‘percentages agreement’ between the UK/USSR. He didn’t want Eastern Europe to become a Soviet ‘sphere of influence’ – but Stalin was unwilling to budge.
-Truman did not tell Stalin the full story and even boasted of his ‘new power’ to Stalin. Truman did not encourage Stalin to join the war against Japan.
Truman gives permission for the world's first military use of an atomic weapon against the Japanese city of Hiroshima in an attempt to bring the only remaining theater of war from the Second World War in the Pacific to a swift closure.
"An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States". A program under which the United States supplied Free France, the United Kingdom, the Republic of China, and later the USSR and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941 and ended in September 1945.
General Ioannis Metaxas took power with a fascist-style dictatorship and when he died in 1941, Greece was left powerless and the Communist Party took control and created the National Liberation Front, also called the EAM. However, another group was formed that was against the EAM called the National Republican Greek League (EDES). They fought each other in the winter of 1943-1944. The EDES received help from the British since Britain was worried about a communist takeover. Winston Churchill met with Joseph Stalin in 1944. Churchill agreed to give Stalin power in Romania if Stalin gave Churchill power in Greece. The Germans, still there from World War II, began to withdraw from Greece because of this and Stalin gave no help to the communists, even though they were the powerful group in Greece. The nationalists won and the size of the Communist party greatly decreased.
On March of 1946, elections were held in Greece and it was corrupt and as a result, the victory was greatly in favor of the EDES. Therefore, the Communists formed the Democratic Army of Greece (DA), declaring they were fighting to restore Greece to a democracy. DA was ahead since they were receiving help from Yugoslavia and controlled the northern part of Greece. The British became increasingly worried and turned to the United States for help. In 1947, the United States agreed to help so President Truman issued the Truman Doctrine to help Greece fight the Communists. Due to the invovlement of US, DA decided to support Stalin (recieving help) and lost the support of Yugoslavia - since Stalin and Tito relationship ended. However, the nationalists were still be able to defeat the communists by the summer of 1949.
Warns the Americans who knew nothing of what was happening in Europe about the USSR aggressive expansion. It gave them an imagery as if a huge 'iron curtain' separated the west capitalism and the spreading communism.
First public demonstration of America's atomic arsenal
begins fighting communist Huk rebels (Hukbalahap Rebellion).
A US policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. It was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge its communist sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam. It was also a huge change in the US foreign policy, from the Monroe policy, which simply warns European nations that the US would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs and not involve in the European conflict (isolationism) to actively involve in the European conflict (containment).
The combination of the American and the British occupation zones in 1947 during the occupation of Germany after World War II, with desire to rebuild Germany's industry without the consent of USSR.
The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or Communist insurrection. Truman gave a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, stating its urgency, however, the doctrine was seen by the Communists as an open declaration of the Cold War.
European Recovery Program (ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World with certain conditions that involves to the promise to not be a communist and buy goods from US.
U.S. meet 19 Latin American countries and created a security zone around the hemisphere
First issued under Allied occupation in 1948 replacing the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency. But they did not consult Stalin, and he was furious - a united and strong Germany posed a threat to Soviet security. He wanted to unified Germany, just like what was dicussed in Potsdam and having different currency will simply divide Germany even more. Furthermore, if Germany is economically weak, it would be more likely for it to turn to communism due to starvation, desperation and poverty - advantage to USSR. He reacted aggressively by closing all road and rail routes to Berlin. His aim was to force the Western Allies from Berlin.
Brussels Pact organized to protect Europe from communism
A communist insurgency in Malaya begins against British and Commonwealth forces.
When Soviet forces blockaded rail, road, and water access to Allied-controlled areas of Berlin. The US and UK responded by airlifting food and fuel to Berlin from Allied airbases in western Germany.
The American consul and his staff in Mukden, China, are made virtual hostages by communist forces in China. The crisis did not end until a year later, by which time U.S. relations with the new communist government in China had been seriously damaged.
An intergovernmental military alliance that constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. The members within this organisation are the states across North America and Europe, excluding USSR.
Formally established as a separate and independent nation and indicates the ending to any discussion of reuniting East and West Germany. In May 1946, the United States halted reparation payments from West Germany to the Soviet Union. In December, the United States and Great Britain combined their occupation zones into what came to be known as Bizonia. France agreed to become part of this arrangement, and in May 1949, the three zones became one.
Adenauer becomes first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers' Soviets, overthrew the Provisional Government in Petrograd. The revolution was involved the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered a line of protests. A council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in all this chaos, and the beginning of a communist political protest had begun.
Hitler offered a Nazi-Soviet alliance – Russia and Germany would not go to war but would divide Poland between them. Germany would allow Russia to annex Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
Stalin knew Hitler was lying, but he did not trust the British either – the Munich Agreement had convinced him that Britain and France would never dare to go to war with Hitler.
Stalin had two choices:
-if he made an alliance with Britain, he would end up fighting a war with Hitler over Poland.
-if he made an alliance with Germany, he would get half of Poland, and time to prepare for the coming war with Germany.
He decided to sign the Pact with Hitler because he needed time to prepare for war, gain from a long war in which Britain, France, and Germany exhausted themselves and he was insulted by Britain’s slowness to negotiate and did not trust Britain. When the Anglo-Soviet alliance failed, he turned to Germany.
It was such a shocking event since two polar political ideas were united and suggest that Stalin were an opportunist - he would do anything that would advantage his aims at the time - expanding Russia's territory and improve its economy.
It was the codename for Nazi Germany's World War II invasion of the Soviet Union. The Nazis failed to invade Russia and it broke the Nazi-Soviet Pact where the USSR quickly turn its back from the Nazis and decided to unite with the Allies in order to defeat one common enemy.
However, despite having another strong nation to defeat the Nazis, it again shows Stalin to appear untrustworthy and doesn't keep his promise which alerted the Allies to be wary regarding Stalin - creating tension between the Allies and USSR who already have an ideological difference.
Germany signed an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Reims, France, ending the European conflict of World War II, not the Pacific War though.
Germany had fully surrendered but P. Roosevelt was replaced by hard-line Truman and Winston Churchill who lost in the Jan 1945 general election to Labour Party Leader, Clement Attlee.
Main outcomes from the conference were that Germany would be dealt in their own ways in their own zones and its economy will run 'as a whole' (domestic industry and agriculture). USSR would receive 25% of their reparation bill from the Western Zones.
In terms of Poland, Truman was not happy about it and demanded that the Polish government (Lublin government) be 're-organised' - more London poles within the government and free elections.
For Eastern Europe, Truman was unhappy with the 'percentages agreement' between Churchill and Stalin. He didn't want Eastern Europe to spread Soviet sphere of influence, but Stalin was unwilling to budge the territory that provides security and power.
UN officially created at the Treaty of San Francisco in 1945 and US, USSR, France, Britain and Nationalist Chine would be the 5 permanent members.
Council of Foreign Ministers was an organisation agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 and announced in the Potsdam Agreement.
USSR invades Manchuria and in accordance with the Yalta Conference agreements, the Soviet Union also invades Japanese Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
Gouzenko was a clerk working in the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada who defects and provides proof to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police of a Soviet spy ring operating in Canada and other western countries. The Gouzenko affair helps change perceptions of the Soviet Union from an ally to a foe. And consequently, encouraged the Red Scare in the US.
January 11: Enver Hoxha declares the People's Republic of Albania, with himself as Prime Minister.
Stalin's first major public speech after the end of World War IIin which he states that capitalism and imperialism make future wars inevitable due to "capitalist development of the world economy". He claimed that the USSR would need to concentrate on national defense in advance of a war with the Western nations.
Even though Britain left, Soviet soldiers still remained in their northern sector.
It was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989. The leading Socialist Unity Party was the result of the unification of the Social Democratic and Communist Party in the Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany in 1946 - Stalin. The GDR functioned nominally as a multi-party state with the Socialist Unity Party of Germany playing a central role. Other parties in alliance with the Socialist Unity Party of Germany were the Christian Democratic Union, the Liberal Democratic Party, the Democratic Farmers' Party, and the National Democratic Party. In the 1980s, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany rejected the liberalisation policies of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, such as perestroika and glasnost, which would lead to the GDR's isolation from the restructuring USSR and the party's downfall in the autumn of 1989.
In a referendum, Bulgaria votes for the establishment of a People's Republic, deposing King Simeon II. Western countries dismiss the vote as fundamentally flawed. This shows and emphasises the growth of communism in Eastern Europe and that its method was unfair and violent.
This was a response to Kennan's Long Telegram, known as the 'Novikov Telegram', in which he states that the United States are "striving for world supremacy"
Soviet Union forms the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM) with which it dictates the actions of leaders and communist parties across its spheres of influence.
In Romania, King Michael I of Romania is forced to abdicate by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the monarchy is abolished and the Popular Republic of Romania is instituted instead. The Communist Party will rule the country until December 1989.
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of Communist dictatorship in the country.
Communist Party takes control in Czechoslovakia after President Edvard Beneš accepts the resignation of all non-communist ministers.
Created to catch Cold War spies
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin orders the blockade of all land routes from West Germany to Berlin, in an attempt to starve out the French, British, and American forces from the city. In response, the three Western powers launch the Berlin Airlift to supply the citizens of Berlin by air.
Soviet Union expels Yugoslavia from the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM) for the latter's position on the Greek civil war. Yugoslavia's leader was also Tito who didn't had a good relation with Stalin.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance created to organise Eastern bloc economies.
The test, known to Americans as Joe 1, succeeds, as the Soviet Union becomes the world's second nuclear power - breaking US nuclear monopoly.
Mao Zedong declares the foundation of the People's Republic of China - adding a quarter of the world's population to the communist camp.
The Soviets declare their zone of Germany to be the German Democratic Republic, with its capital at East Berlin.
October 16: Nikos Zachariadis, leader of the Communist Party of Greece, declares an end to the armed uprising. The declaration brings to a close the Greek Civil War, and the first successful containment of communism.
The first conference between U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in Tehran, Iran. The Germans in retreat on the Eastern Front, the UK, and the USA had invaded North Africa and Italy and the Pacific War had entered its ‘island hopping’ phase. However, Stalin still demanded the creation of a Second Front in Western Europe.
Debates over what to do with Germany. Differences stemmed from wartime experiences, ‘lessons’ from the failure of the ToV and differing ideologies. They only agreed that ‘unconditional surrender’ was the objective. Stalin’s concern for ‘security’ led him to demand territory from Poland and a pro-Soviet government. Agreed that the USSR could keep territory seized in 1939, Poland would be compensated with land from Germany. Soviets demanded the right to keep territory they had seized between 1939-40 – The Baltic States, Finland & Romania. The USA and the UK reluctantly agreed, despite this being against the Atlantic Charter. British and Soviets agreed in principle to the US idea of a new international organisation to be established after the war. It would settle international disputes through collective security. The USA and the UK tried to convince Stalin to open up a Soviet ‘second front’ in Asia – Stalin refused until the war with Germany was won.
Labour Party came to power in the United Kingdom after its unexpected victory in the July 1945 general elections. Party leader Clement Attlee became Prime Minister replacing Winston Churchill.
After discussing peace treaties for Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania and Finland, the meeting broke up without agreement. In a statement to the House of Commons, the British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin, blamed procedural difficulties.
The principal topic of discussion was the Italian peace treaty but no firm agreement was reached before the first session was adjourned. However, an agreement was reached on Italy later on, but there was no progress on Germany and the meeting adjourned after Britain, France the US and the Soviet Union had presented very different proposals:
-French Foreign Minister, Georges Bidault, advocated the separation of the Rhineland from the rest of Germany and the internationalisation of the Ruhr.
-Soviet Foreign Minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, announced he was in favour of a united Germany and the setting up of central German administrations, [which had been vetoed by the French in the Allied Control Council, on the grounds they were not prepared to agree to a central administration for the whole of Germany, before the future of the Rhineland and Ruhr had been settled.]
-US Secretary of State, James Byrnes, proposed a draft treaty which was intended to guarantee the de-militarisation of Germany for 25 years. Molotov rejected this on the basis that they had not yet ensured that Germany was disarmed in the present, let alone in the future. He claimed that some units of the German army, which had surrendered in the British Zone, had not been fully disarmed and demobilised. [This was partly true. Although they had been disarmed, the units, known as ‘Dienstgruppen’, carried out support tasks for the British army, such as transport.]
-British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin was concerned about the costs of the occupation. He announced that unless the others were prepared to cooperate economically to ensure that German exports covered the costs of imports [mainly food], the British government would be compelled to ‘organise the British Zone of occupation in Germany in such a way that no further liability shall fall on the British taxpayer.’
Next day, Byrnes offered to cooperate economically with any of the other zones willing to do so. After the conference, the British accepted the invitation. This was to lead to the formation of the so-called Bizone and the economic fusion of the US and British zones in January 1947.
It was preceded by the Paris Peace Conference which lasted from 29 July to 15 October 1946. Agreement was eventually reached on peace treaties for Italy, Rumania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland, which were signed on 10 February the following year in Paris.
Discussions on Germany in New York did little more than agree 10 March as the date for the next meeting in Moscow.
Having settled peace treaties for the other Axis powers, Germany was now the main item on the agenda.
It was agreed to abolish the State of Prussia, which had survived as a separate state within Germany throughout the Weimar Republic and Nazi Third Reich.
Bidault reasserted the French opposition to creating central administrations [and thereby treating Germany as a single entity, rather than as four separate zones] until the western frontiers of Germany had been agreed and the future of the Rhineland, Ruhr and Saar finalised. Molotov disagreed with both the separation of the Ruhr and Rhineland from Germany and also a decision to allow the French to annex the Saar, which at that time, the British and US would have agreed to.
Bevin presented the British plan for the economic future of Germany, including elements which he probably knew would be unacceptable to the Russians and French: including a decision to proceed with the US in setting up the ‘Bizone’, no reparations from current production [which was one thing the Russians wanted], no four-power control for the Ruhr and no separation of the Ruhr or Rhineland from the rest of Germany.
The new US Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, George Marshall asked for a decision on the US proposal for the 25 year disarmament of Germany. Molotov argued this did not go far enough and the discussions lapsed.
After the conference was over, Marshal delivered his Harvard speech on 5 June 1947, setting forth his ideas for an economic ‘European Recovery Programme’ now known as the Marshall Plan.
The breaking off of negotiations over Germany in London did not extend to Austria, and Foreign Ministers’ deputies continued to discuss this in January 1948. However, discussions were postponed indefinitely in May 1948 after a disagreement on Yugoslav territorial claims in Carinthia.
Despite its failure to agree on a peace settlement for Germany, the Council met again in May and June 1949 in Paris, when they agreed to end the Berlin Blockade. A further meeting in Berlin in 1954 ended in deadlock, but in 1955 a peace treaty was agreed for Austria. In 1971 the four wartime allies met again to discuss and agree on the Four Power Agreement on Berlin and in September 1990 they, and the two German governments signed the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany.
USSR accused the Wet of unjustly denying the USSR of reparations they were due . Meanwhile, the West feared that a joint administration would lead to a Soviet-controlled Germany and realised that 4-power Germany would not work, thus explains the urgency to strengthen the German economy.
The conference was held in two sessions, the first from 23 February to 6 March, the second from 20 April to 2 June 1948. The reason for summoning the conference was that the Foreign Secretary Conference 15 December 1947 between the four victorious nations United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union had ended without result in the German question. The recent Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia made it urgent for the western allies to help create a democratic (West) Germany. The Soviet Union was not invited to the London Conference. The aim of the conference was to pave the way for Germany's participation in the international community through the creation of a democratic and federal government in the area of the U.S., British and French sectors of the country. The conference conclusions were later called London recommendations. The three western military governors in Germany were assigned to make recommendations to the Minister Presidents in western Germany about how the new state should be established. The Minister Presidents should convene a constitutional Assembly (Parliamentary Council) to found a free and democratic state. The Military Governors recommendations were called the Frankfurt Documents after the place where the German Minister Presidents met. It was made as conditions that Germany should not have weapons of mass destruction and other similar weapons and that the country should not be able to militarily invade the Soviet occupation zone. France voted for the merger of the three western occupation zones on condition that the Saarland was financially merged with France and that the Ruhr area became subject to international control. USSR ended its efforts in the Allied Control Council as a consequence of the London Conference.
Brussels Pact Signed between UK, France, Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg to organise mutual defence.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty. NATO's primary purpose was to unify and strengthen the Western Allies' military response to a possible invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies.
It is the constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany. It sought to ensure that a potential dictator would never again have the chance to come into power in the country. Although some of the Basic Law is based on the Weimar republic constitution, the authors also ensured that human rights and human dignity was made the central and core part of the Basic Law. The principles of democracy, republicanism, social responsibility, and federalism are key components of the Basic Law.
Adenauer becomes first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.
London Foreign Ministers’ Conference breaks up without agreement.