Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian Physicist, is the first to study echolocation in bats, forming the basis of ultrasound physics.
French physicist brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie discover piezoelectricity. Ultrasound probes emit and recieve soundwaves bythe way of the piezoelectric effect.
Hydrophone - "first transducer"
French physicist Paul Langevin, inspired by the sinking of the Titanic, invents a device to detct objects at the bottom of the sea. He invented a hydrophone, sometimes reffered to as the "first transducer".
1920 - 1940
Sonography was being used to appease athritic pain and eczema and to sterilize vaccines by European Soccer teams as a form of physical therapy.
Sonography for Medicine
Austrian Neurologist Karl Dussik is said to be the first to use sonography for medicine. He attempts to use it to diagnose brain tumors by tansmitting an ultrasound beam through the human skull.
American internist (someone who specialises in internal diseases) George D. Ludwig MD. develops A-mode ultrasound equipment to detect gallstones.
1949 - 1951
Joseph Holmes and Douglas Howry from the University of Colorado were pioneers in creating B-mode ultrasound equipment.
B-mode technology for Breast Tumors
1949 - 1951
John Reid and John Wild invent a handheld device to detect breast tumors.
Swedish cardiologist Inge Edler and German Engineer Carl Hellmuth Hertz perform the first successful echocardiogram by using an echotest control device from a Siemens shipyard.
Dr. Ian Macdonald incorporates ultrasound into obstetrics and gynecology field of medicine.
Pulsed Doppler Ultrasound Technology
Don Baker, John Reid and Dennis Watkins deigned pulsed Doppler ultrasound technology, and their developments eventually lead to imaging blood flow in various layers of the heart.
1970 - 1979
The 1970s saw many developments such as the continuous wave Doppler, spectral wave Doppler and the colour Doppler ultrasound instruments.
1980 - 1985
Japanese M. D. Kazunori Baba from the University of Tokyo developed 3D ultrasound technology
3D Images Captured
Three dimensional images are captured of a fetus.
Sonography in ICU
French Intensivist, Professor Daniel Lichtenstein began incorporating lung and general sonography in intensive care units.
1990 - 1999
Ultrasound technology becomes more sophisticated with improved image quality and 3D imaging capabilities. These improvements continue into the 1990s with the adoption of real time images. Endoscopic ultrasounds also began in the 1990s.
2000 - Present
Ultrasound technology continues to become more convenient with a variety of compact handheld technologies coming onto the market. There is even a telesonography iPhone app and NASA has developed a virtual guidance program for non-sonographers to perform ultrasounds in space.