Revolution overthrows Austria-Hungarian Emperor

March 1st, 1848

Revolutionaries rejected role of aristocracy and held a mass demonstration. The Emperor assented to 12 demands and a national government was set up to replace of the emperor.

Triple Alliance formed

May 1st, 1882

The Triple Alliance was the military alliance among Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy in which the three countries agreed to support each other if attacked by either France or Russia.

Triple Entente formed

August 31, 1907

Formed to counterbalance the threat posed by the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy, it included France, Russia and Britain.

Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia

October 6th, 1908

Also known as the Bosnian Crisis or the First Balkan Crisis upset the balance of power in Europe. One of the causes of WWI.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

June 28th, 1914

The Archduke was shot by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo. This assassination sparked World War I.

Austria declares war on Serbia

July 28th, 1914

In response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, this event began the First World War.

Schlieffen Plan put into action

August 2nd, 1914

Germany army’s plan for war against France and Russia that took advantage of the Allies slowness in preparing for war.

Ottoman-Germany alliance formed

August 2nd, 1914

The alliance was created as part of a joint-cooperative effort that would strengthen and modernize the Ottoman military, as well as provide Germany safe passage into British colonies.

Battle of Tannenberg

August 26th, 1914

Germany has a major victory over Russia which proved their tactical skills to the Allies, resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army

First Battle of the Marne

September 6th, 1914

First victorious battle of WWI by the Allies in which French and British forces pushed back the German offensive recapturing lost ground.

Russian army out of ammunition

April 15th, 1915

Russia didn’t have enough weapons for its infantry and still sent them to the front – this lead to large numbers of casualties.

Battle of Gallipoli

April 25th, 1915

An unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia.

Lusitania sinks

May 7th, 1915

The luxury British ocean liner RMS Lusitania, was torpedoed by a German U-boat and sank. This was one reason that U.S. got involved in the war effort a few years later. It was likely carrying hidden cargo consisting of munitions and contraband destined for the British war effort.

Battle of Verdun

February 21st, 1916

Fought on the Western Front between the German and French armies, longest battle of WWI, lead to French army mutiny.

Battle of Jutland

May 31st, 1916

The only major naval battle fought in WWI that decimated the German naval fleet.

Battle of the Somme

July 1st, 1916

Fought on the sides of the River Somme by the armies of the British and French empires against the German Empire. Was to relieve pressure on French defenders of Verdun and lead to changes in Allied assault and German defense tactics.

Bolsheviks emerge as a political group

March 1st, 1917

The party was constitutionally recognized as the leading and guiding force of Soviet society and the nucleus of its political system and public organizations.

Battle of Passchendaele

July 31st, 1917

Fought by the British against Germany for control of the ridges south and east of the Belgian city of Ypres in West Flanders in an attempt to eliminate U-boat bases.

October Revolution

November 17th, 1917

Led by Vladimir Lenin, the workers' Soviets overthrew the Provisional Government in Petrograd and established the Russian SFSR. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, to quash dissent. Civil war erupted among the "Reds" (Bolsheviks), the "Whites" (anti-socialist factions), and non-Bolshevik socialists.

Spanish Influenza Epidemic

January 1st, 1918

An estimated 50 million people, one fifth of the world's population, was attacked by this deadly virus 3-5% died. Hit the Central powers before the Allies inflicting casualties which crippled the war efforts in Germany.

Fourteen Points proposed

January 8th, 1918

An address to congress by the US President Woodrow Wilson proposing a 14-point program to achieve world peace, used as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of WWI.

Russia signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3rd, 1918

A peace treaty between the new Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers, which ended Russia's participation in World War I.

Second Battle of the Marne (Battle of Reims)

July 15th, 1918

Last major German offensive where French, U.S., British and Italian troops eliminated the German army along the French lines.

Armistice of Compiègne Signed

November 11th, 1918

The armistice between the Allies and Germany was the agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War. Precursor of the Treaty of Versailles.

Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates

November 28th, 1918

Was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia. His abdication lead to formation of a provisional Social Democratic government.

Treaty of Versailles signed

June 28th, 1919

The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers, reassigned German boundaries and assigned reparations.

New Economic Policy introduced

March 21st, 1921

A temporary measure by the Soviet government to allow the economy to recover while the Communists solidified their hold on power after WWI. Failure to provide enough food for urban workforce lead to collectivization of agriculture and downfall of NEP.

Stalin takes over Russia

January 21st, 1924

Upon the death of Lenin, Stalin was deemed his official successor as leader of the ruling Communist Party although had been leading Soviet Union through the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party since 1922.