Socialist had 50,000 members in 1914. in 1919 it grew to 200,000
this is iinked to high inflation and unemployment which is why they persuade people eto join them (soliarity)
by the end of 1919 they had 2.5 millions members
It was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy. Its intent was to gain the alliances of Italy against its former allies .
Caporetto was a huge fail and loss for Italy.( they had old strategies from older war. And they did not know why they were failing
The socialist in 1917 called for an overthrown of the government and a new socialist state (they made demand and union, drop war and rebel) Its a faliure
The ruling liberal party faced many political issues,
opposition from Nationalsits, establishments of a catholic
party in 1919, the socialist party
Local government groups
Strikes- trade unions
Socialist trade unions had 2.5 million members by the
end of 1919 as compared to 250.000 at the beginning of
In the north
ESTABLISHES THE GRAND COUNCIL IN december
Mussolini appoints concul members
He institue the grand council where he can choose his own concul
16/11 - Mussolini speak in parliament for emergency power
he talk about the situation in Italy ( economy and politics) and how he can solve them and save Rome. To do this he need emergency power .
March on Rome - oct, 22
Balbo said he will march on Rome with or without Mussolini.
- October 22, march on Rome
- Not allowed to bring armies south of the river Rubicon
but Mussolini did
-Local action squads to be organized into a militia. Take
control of civil fuctions central / northern Italy
Facta resigns as prime minister (he ask the king to use the militariy against the fascism but the king refuses.)
Fascists reach Rome 30/10(become a myth for all fascists )
Mussolini become prime minister through legal means
4 seats were only available for fascists
29/10 Salandra advice the king to appoint Mussolini as the prime Minister
Greee do not pay what Italy wants so Italy invades.
fascist press the opposition, voting rigged, votes fir dead people, stolen ballot boxes, stolen boxes.
Fascist + right wing liberals won 63% . Out of 535 seats, the fascist won 375.
- Closing anti fascist publications (punishable by jail)
-1925 all journalists registered with the fascist party
- August 1925, Local government replaced by fascist officials (RAS, local control)
-3/9 1925, Meeting of opposiotion parties banned
- December 1925, Mussolini head of government
Mussolini gives himself power to issue decrees without parlimentarys concent
- managed to make fascist a majority, changed political power structure
- Assasination attemtps against Mussolini results in a ban on all other political parties
- trade unions outlawed
- Special counts for political offences
- Emergency power
Secret police to repress political opponents was founded
Elections, men aged 21 or older / members of fascist groups could vote for any political party
Fear of fascist violence
King power over the country reduces dramatically
RI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Indusriale) allows the government to control all economic sectors.
Italy wants to invade
Mussolini is overthrown but then reinstalled in Northern Italy by Germany.
Mussolini is executed during the last days of WWII by a group of Italian Communists in Giulino di Mezzegra, Italy.