Rise Of Fascism

Events

Socialist Growth

1914 - 1919

Socialist had 50,000 members in 1914. in 1919 it grew to 200,000
this is iinked to high inflation and unemployment which is why they persuade people eto join them (soliarity)
by the end of 1919 they had 2.5 millions members

Treaty Of London

1915

It was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy. Its intent was to gain the alliances of Italy against its former allies .

Caporetto

1917

Caporetto was a huge fail and loss for Italy.( they had old strategies from older war. And they did not know why they were failing

The Socialist

1917

The socialist in 1917 called for an overthrown of the government and a new socialist state (they made demand and union, drop war and rebel) Its a faliure

consequences of WWI

1918
  • Originally a member of the Tripple Alliance (Germany + Austria + Hungary). Italy did not join the war. -Was put in place to prevent and help if one was being attacked -Italy wanted the cities back from Austria. They did not want to release Triste and Trentina, the Tripple Entente (England, France, Russia) agreed to this -Italy looked for new ways to get their way -Fasci di Azione Revoluzionara. National socialists were joined by members from Italian Nationalist Association

Rise of Fascism in Italy

1919 - 1926

Fascist Combat Group

1919

The ruling liberal party

1919

The ruling liberal party faced many political issues,
opposition from Nationalsits, establishments of a catholic
party in 1919, the socialist party

Rise of Fascism in Italy

1919 - 1926

New nationalist Movement Formed

1919

The Red year

1919 - 1920

Local government groups
Land occupation
Strikes- trade unions

Massive Growth

1919

Socialist trade unions had 2.5 million members by the
end of 1919 as compared to 250.000 at the beginning of
the year
In the north

Rise of Fasicsm

1919 - 1922
  • The ruling liberal party forced many political issues, opposition from Nationalists, establishment of catholic party in 1919, the socialist party
  • 1917 the socialist party called for and overthrow of the government and a new socialist state
  • Socialist had 50k members in 1914 but 200k in 1919
  • Socialist trade unions had 2.5M members by the end of the year
  • In the north, socialists took control of local government a threat to the rich but the liberal government did nothing

mussolini

1922

ESTABLISHES THE GRAND COUNCIL IN december
Mussolini appoints concul members
He institue the grand council where he can choose his own concul

The state of Italy

1922

16/11 - Mussolini speak in parliament for emergency power

he talk about the situation in Italy ( economy and politics) and how he can solve them and save Rome. To do this he need emergency power .

Consolidation

1922 - 1923

March on Rome - oct, 22
Balbo said he will march on Rome with or without Mussolini.
- October 22, march on Rome
- Not allowed to bring armies south of the river Rubicon
but Mussolini did
-Local action squads to be organized into a militia. Take
control of civil fuctions central / northern Italy

Emergency declared

28 of october 1922

initial success
Facta resigns as prime minister (he ask the king to use the militariy against the fascism but the king refuses.)
Fascists reach Rome 30/10(become a myth for all fascists )
Mussolini become prime minister through legal means
4 seats were only available for fascists

29/10 Salandra advice the king to appoint Mussolini as the prime Minister

Mussolini Named Prime Minister of Italy

October 31, 1922

Mattcoti - Crisis

15 June 1923
  • Socialist/Commuist boycott Parliment trying to force the king to dismiss Mussolini Dec. Leading RAS pressure Mussolini for more drastic action -Mussolini must become a Bona Fide Dictator or will be overthrown

Corfu

27 September 1923

Greee do not pay what Italy wants so Italy invades.
Propaganda Success!

election

April 1924

April election
fascist press the opposition, voting rigged, votes fir dead people, stolen ballot boxes, stolen boxes.
Fascist + right wing liberals won 63% . Out of 535 seats, the fascist won 375.

25-28

1925 - 1928
  • Increased violence (political violence)
  • Farinacci parged the fascist party

Press

1925 - 1928

Press Laws
- Closing anti fascist publications (punishable by jail)
-1925 all journalists registered with the fascist party
- August 1925, Local government replaced by fascist officials (RAS, local control)
-3/9 1925, Meeting of opposiotion parties banned
- December 1925, Mussolini head of government

1925

1925
  • August. meeting of opposition parties banned
  • December, Mussolini head of government
  • The king at this point needs Mussolinis approval to hire and fire ministers
  • 11 duche, Mussolini hold & minister posts himself

1926

1926

Mussolini gives himself power to issue decrees without parlimentarys concent
- managed to make fascist a majority, changed political power structure
1926
1926

- Assasination attemtps against Mussolini results in a ban on all other political parties

Socialists:
- trade unions outlawed
- Special counts for political offences
- Emergency power

1927

1927

Secret police to repress political opponents was founded

1928

1928

Elections, men aged 21 or older / members of fascist groups could vote for any political party
Fear of fascist violence
King power over the country reduces dramatically

Mussolini signs deal with Vaticans

1929

Passification of Lythia

1929 - 1932

IRI

1933

RI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Indusriale) allows the government to control all economic sectors.

1937 Mussolini first meets Hitler

1937

Checkoslovakia

1938

Italy wants to invade
Checkoslovakia

Italy declares war on Britain and France

June 10, 1940

Mussolini deposed

1943

Mussolini is overthrown but then reinstalled in Northern Italy by Germany.

Italian Civil War

8 September 1943 - 2 May 1945

Mussolini executed

April 28 1945

Mussolini is executed during the last days of WWII by a group of Italian Communists in Giulino di Mezzegra, Italy.