ITALY - Fascism

Events

Socialist growth

1914 - 1919

socialist had 50,000 members in 1914 but 200,000 in 1919

Treaty of London

1915

Italy signs the treaty of London

Caporetto

1917

caporetto was a huge loss (had old strategies from older wars) they did not know why they were failing

The Socialist

1917

The socialist, 1917, called for an overthrow of the govenrment and a new socialist state. ( made demands and unions, drop war and rebell)

Consequences of WWI

1918
  • Originally a member of the Tripple Alliance (Germany + Austria + Hungary). Italy did not join the war. -Was put in place to prevent and help if one was being attacked -Italy wanted the cities back from Austria. They did not want to release Triste and Trentina, the Tripple Entente (England, France, Russia) agreed to this -Italy looked for new ways to get their way -Fasci di Azione Revoluzionara. National socialists were joined by members from Italian Nationalist Association

1919 - Massive Growth

1919

Socialist trade unions had 2.5 million members by the end of 1919 as compared to 250.000 at the beginning of the year

The ruling liberal party

1919

The ruling liberal party faced many political issues, opposition from Nationalsits, establishments of a catholic party in 1919, the socialist party

Rise of fascism

1919 - 1922

In the north socialists take control of local government - a threat to the rich, but the liberal government did nothing

New nationalist movement formed

1919

Fascist combat groups

1919

Rise of Facism

1919 - 1922
  • The ruling liberal party forced many political issues, opposition from Nationalists, establishment of catholic party in 1919, the socialist party
  • 1917 the socialist party called for and overthrow of the government and a new socialist state
  • Socialist had 50k members in 1914 but 200k in 1919
  • Socialist trade unions had 2.5M members by the end of the year
  • In the north, socialists took control of local government a threat to the rich but the liberal government did nothing

The Red Years

1919 - 1920
  • Local Government groups
  • Strikes trade unions (concern from people backing Mussolini) -Land Occupation

Consolidation

1922 - 1923
  • October 22, march on Rome
  • Not allowed to bring armies south of the river Rubicon but Mussolini did
  • Balbo stated that he will march on Rome in October -Local action squads to be organized into a militia. Take control of civil fuctions central / northern Italy

Emergency declared

28 October 1922
  • Initial successes
  • Facta resigns as Prime Minister
  • 29/10 Salandra advices the king to appoint Mussolini as Prime Minister -Fascists reach Rome 30/10
  • Mussolini Prime Minister through legal means
  • 4 seats only for fascists

Mussolini's Start

16 November 1922
  • 16/11 Mussolini speaks in parliment
  • Stefani Minister of finance
  • Mussolini appoints council members himself

Mattcoti - Crisis

15 June 1923
  • Socialist/Commuist boycott Parliment trying to force the king to dismiss Mussolini -Dec.- Leading RAS pressure Mussolini for more drastic action -Mussolini must become a Bona Fide Dictator or be overthrown

Corfu

27 September 1923

Greee do not pay what Italy wants so Italy invades. Propaganda Success!

25-28

1925 - 1928
  • Increased violence (political violence)
  • Farinacci parged the fascist party

Press

1925 - 1928
  • Press Laws
  • Closing anti fascist publications (punishable by jail) -1925 all journalists registered with the fascist party
  • August 1925, Local government replaced by fascist officials (RAS, local control) -3/9 1925, Meeting of opposiotion parties banned
  • December 1925, Mussolini head of government

1925

1925
  • August. meeting of opposition parties banned
  • December, Mussolini head of government

1925

1925
  • The kiing at this point needs Mussolinis approval to hire and fire ministers
  • 11 duche, Mussolini hold & minister posts himself

1926

1926
  • Assasination attemtps against Mussolini results in a ban on all other political parties

Socialists:
- trade unions outlawed
- Special counts for political offences
- Emergency power

Januray

1926
  • Mussolini gives himself power to issue decrees without parlimentarys concent
  • managed to make fascist a majority, changed political power structure

1927

1927
  • Secret police to repress political opponents

1928

1928
  • Elections, men aged 21 or older / members of fascist groups could vote

  • Fear of fascist violence

  • Drastic reduction at kings power

Mussolini signs deal with Vaticans

1929

Passification of Lythia

1929 - 1932

IRI

1933

IRI took over inprofitable companies on behalf of the state

1937 Mussolini first meets Hitler

1937

Checkoslovakia

1938

Italy wants to destroy checkoslovakia and war Germany

Italy declares war

10 June 1940

Italian Civil War

8 September 1943 - 2 May 1945