Middle Ages to the French Revolution- Taylor

The Arts

Society

Guilds Gain Power

1100

Craftsmen and Artisans made thier own guilds to gain a voice in government, like the merchants had. These guilds eventually gained power.

Black Death

1346 - 1352

The Black death appeared in Constantinople in 1346. It spread rapidly throughout Europe, peakimg in 1348. It caused widespread death wiping out around one third of the population. It caused the people of the time period to have a very dark, pessimistic view on life, and an obsession with death.

Statute of Laborers

1351 - 1381

The Statute of Laborers was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1381 which limited the amount of money that the workers of a noble's land could be paid. It also made the ability of the peasants to leave their masters land more restictive.

English Peasant's Revolt

1381

The Peasant's revolt occured for many reasons. One reason for the revolt was the Statute of Laborers. A direct reason was the poll tax. The revolt gotking Richard to promise change, but that change was soon forgotten.

Government and Politics

Pope John XII Crowns Otto I

962

Pope John XII was being attacked by a German king. Otto who had always wanted the throne helped out the Pope who in turn gave him what he wanted, and gave him the crown.

Lay Investiture

1000 - 1075

Lay investiture was when political leaders, who weren’t leaders of the church, appointed bishops. Pope Gregory XII stopped governmental officials’ interference with the church’s independence by putting lay investiture to an end in, 1075. He threatened to excommunicate anyone who took part in lay investiture.

Battle of Hastings

1066

The Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066. The Battle was between Harold Godwinsson and William, the Duke of Normandy. The battle would decide who would be King of England, William was nominated to be king by the former king, Edward. Harold was nominated to kingship by the Anglo-Saxon assembly. William won the battle and was later crowned king.

Investiture Controversy

1075 - 1084

The Investiture controversy was the struggle over the government’s right to lay investiture. The two main people involved in the struggle were Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. Henry IV eventually won the struggle.

Henry Begs

1075 - 1077

Gregory’s actions left Henry in a world of hurt. He was forced to beg for Gregory’s forgiveness on January 25, 1077. Gregory eventually forgave Henry after Henry stood with bare feet in the snow for hours at a time over the course of three days.

Excommunication of Henry IV

1076 - 1077

Henry IV who had repeatedly participated in lay investiture was now forced to give up his right to appoint his hand-picked advisers. This frustrated Henry; it made him so angry that he had his advisers withdraw from Gregory in January, 1076. Gregory was quick to respond by excommunicating Henry and releasing Henry’s advisers from their devotion to him.

Henry Begs

1076 - 1077

Gregory’s actions left Henry in a world of hurt. He was forced to beg for Gregory’s forgiveness on January 25, 1077. Gregory eventually forgave Henry after Henry stood with bare feet in the snow for hours at a time over the course of three days.

Henry Regains Power and Gregory Dies

1080 - 1084

Henry slowly regained power in the Empire, Gregory saw this and excommunicated Henry again in March, 1080. But Henry’s second excommunication had no effect the second time around. In 1084, Henry became so powerful he appointed an antipope by the name of Clement III. Henry proceeded to exile Gregory who died the year after his exile.

Domesday Book

1080 - 1086

During his reign as king William put together something known as the Domesday book. The book was compiled from 1080- 1086, it was an accounting of all citizens’ property and finances.

The Crusades

1095 - 1272

The Crusades were “religious wars” that occurred almost entirely for political reasons; they were seen as a way to get unwanted rulers out of Europe and as a way to become wealthy through loot. They also allowed young nobles to become land owners. The crusades began in 1095.

Eastern Emperor Appeals for Western Aid

1095

Alexius I Commends was under threat of invasion by the Selijuk Turks asked for help from the West. Pope Urban II supported this idea at the Council of Clermont in 1095, this initiated the first crusade.

The First Crusade

1097 - 1099

The first crusade was started for political reasons the Pope realized that he could prosper in peace in tranquility by getting the young and violent nobles out of Europe. The young nobles saw the crusades as a way to become rich and claim land for themselves. The crusades were a “win-win”. The Crusade Armies joined together in Constantinople in 1097.

The Success of the First Crusade

1099 - 1144

The first crusade was started for political reasons the Pope realized that he could prosper in peace in tranquility by getting the young and violent nobles out of Europe. The young nobles saw the crusades as a way to become rich and claim land for themselves. The crusades were a “win-win”. The Crusade Armies joined together in Constantinople in 1097.

Henry V ends Lay Investtiture

1121 - 1122

When Henry V became emperor he gave up the power to nominate popes or support antipopes. He also abandoned his power to investiture in 1122.

Henry II's Marriage to Elenor of Aquitaine

1152 - 1170

Henry the II married Eleanor of Aquitaine, which was important because she gave him inheritance of Aquitaine in France. But the decision to marry her did not work out for him in the Long run, in 1170 she separated from him and encouraged Henry’s sons to revolt against him, which they did in 1173.

Constitutions of Clarendon

1164

The Constitutions of Clarendon basically gave the king supreme power over the Church. The Constitutions of Clarendon made it to where the Clergy had to go to civil courts, allowed the king to elect bishops, limited number of judicial appeals to Rome. The Constitutions of Clarendon were hotly contested by the church and nobility.

Thomas a Becket Assassinated

1170

Thomas a Becket was assassinated in 1170 after he rebelled from King Henry II and fled to Louis IV. He rebelled from Henry’s rule after the Constitutions of Clarendon were enforced.

Reign of Philip II Augustus

1179 - 1223

Philip II Augustus was a powerful French king who reasserted the power of kings in France and also assertted the power of the French during this time period. He did this through inheritance of a strong buerocracy and a substantial amount of wealth through the throne. He beat down England and the HRE at the battle of Bouvines on July 27, 1214.

Muslims take back Jerusalem

1187

Jerusalem fell in October of 1187. It was held by the Muslims until the twentieth century. The Crusaders’ efforts to capture and hold Jerusalem had been in vein.

The Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

The third crusade which was launched in 1189 lasted until 1192, was a complete failure. It began to fall apart when one of the three crusade leaders, Fredrick Barbarossa, drowned while fording a stream. The other two leaders King of England, Richard the Lion-Hearted, and King of France, Philip Augustus, had an intense rivalry. That rivalry led to the end of the Crusade when Philip Augustus attacked Richard the Lion-Hearted’s territories.

The Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

The fourth Crusade was launched in 1202. The Crusaders could not afford transport the venetians, who they had to pay for transport, had a proposition. They asked them to besiege Zara, another Christian Port. The Crusaders gladly did it. Two years later in 1204 they even captured Constantinople. This shows that the Crusades were now mainly for the personal gain of wealth, and had lost most of the religious aspect.

Constantinople Captured

1204

Constantinople was captured in 1204 and remained under western control until 1261. The years that it was under western control were prosperous because it was the main place for western trade in the east.

Engalnd becomes a fief of the Pope

1209

England became a fief of the Pope when the Pope excommunicated King John and put England under interdict after an argument. John made England a fief of the Pope to save himself from excommunication in 1209.

Battle of Bouvines

1214

The battle of Bouvines occurred on July 27, 1214. It was between the French, English, and the HRE. The English and the HRE were attacking the French, who beat both the English and the HRE.

John Signs the Magna Carta

1215

John lost all power in England and was revolted against, the revolution forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. Magna Carta more evenly distributed the power in England so that the kings could not become dictators.

Struggle between Boniface VII and Philip the Fair

1296 - 1303

The conflict between Boniface VII was a power struggle between the Pope, Boniface, and the French King, Phillip. Boniface tried to assert his power, by stopping the taxation of clergy unless the Pope approved. Philip fought this act vigorously and refused to send money to fund the Papacy, forcing Boniface to reason with him.

Clericis Laicos

1296

Clericis Laicos was an act passed by Boniface VII which prevented the political leaders from taxing the clergy. This was passed on February 5th, 1296. The bill was hotly contested by the leaders which it banned from taxing.

Philip Reacts To Clericis Laicos

1296

In response to Clericis Laicos Philip the fair wouldn’t allow the sending of Money to Rome to fund the Papacy, he put this act into motion in August of 1296. This left the papacy without valuable funds, which it needed to run. So Boniface had to negotiate and come to an agreement with Philip.

Boniface Issues Unam Sanctum

1302

Boniface continues to lose power, so in a final attempt to regain power he, on November 18, 1302 he issued Unam Sanctum. Unam Sanctum declared that temporal authority was “subject” to the power of the church. This of course was entirely made up and political leaders knew it.

Boniface is Beaten

1303

Philip became so angry with Boniface that he had his army attack Boniface. They arrived at the Pope’s retreat in mid-August of 1303. Philip’s army beat Boniface and nearly killed him. Boniface died October of 1303.

"Defender of the Peace" is written

1324

Defender of the Peace was a work written discussing the fact that the emperor held power governmental issues and the Pope. The Pope had power over religious issues.

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred years war was a war between France and England that was fought on and off over a long period of time. It began in May of 1337 and ended in October of 1453. There was no clear winner of the war.

Peace of Bretigny-Calais

1360

The Peace of Bretigny-Calais was declared on May 9, 1360. This gave Edward power over some French territories. But this was eventually reversed when the French paid ransom for their king.

The Great Western schism

1378 - 1417

The great western Schism was when the college of Cardinal’s elected another Pope while there was already a Pope in existence. This occurred on October 20, 1378. The French king supported this Pope because he was his Cousin, and was also French, not Italian like the other Pope.

Joan of the Arc

1412 - 1431

Joan of the Arc, a French woman went to Charles VII in The March of 1429. She claimed that God had sent her on a mission to take back Orleans from the English. Charles who had nothing more to lose, let her go to take back Orleans. She eventually recaptured it successfully.

Council of Constance

1414

The Council of Constance, held in 1414 returned everything back to normal. It abolished all of the reigning Pope’s or forced them to resign. It also appointed one Pope, Pope Martin V. The council also set up meetings to be held annually every five, then seven, and ten years.

Duke of Burgundy Assaisinated

1419

The duke of Burgundy was assaisinated in September of 1419. This made the Duke’s son and heir to the throne very angry. He was so determined to avenge his father that he switched sides in the conflict and fought for the English.

Charles gets the Crown Back

1429

Charles received the Crown shortly after Orleans was recaptured, and a large succession of French victories. This ended the “disinheritance” which was set up in the treaty of Troyes. The French eventually forced the English back after the Duke of Burgundy and Charles were at peace again.

Religion/ Philosophy

Rule of Pope Innocent III

1198 - 1216

Pope Innocent III believed that he held more power than he actually did. But by acting like he had a lot of power people believed him and he gained it. When leaders challenged him he would place their country under interdict. The Rule of Innocent III changed the way people viewed the Pope and it also gave the Pope more political power.

Crusade Against Albigensians

1209 - 1226

Crusade against the Albigensians was launched in 1209. They were executed by Nobles who hailed from northern France. These Nobles were led by Simon de Montfort. This Crusade ended when King Lois VIII of France led his own crusade which wiped out the Albigensians as a political force. This Crusade ended in 1226

Franciscan and Dominican Orders Founded

1216 - 1223

While Pope Innocent was in power he surprisingly did something that helped the religious aspect of the church. He introduced friars who taught of the Church’s mission and they also combatted heresy. The friars made their living by begging or working and were not financially supported by the church. The friars were sanctioned when the Pope realized how their work represented the religious piety going on in Europe at the time. What the Pope accomplished by sanctioning them was keeping their followers within the church confines. The Pope allowed religious movements within the church that resembled lay piety but maintained papal authority, such as the Dominican order, sanctioned in 1216, and the Franciscan order in 1223

Inquisition

1227

When Pope Gregory IX became Pope in 1227 he began using inquisition in the area surrounding the Albigensian crusades. This allowed for Papal Legates to try and kill those involved in Heresy. This was put into place to continue further on the Albigensian crusades.

Avignion Papacy

1309 - 1377

Avignon Papacy- During this Papacy the Church was struggling economically. They found a way of making money by lying to people and saying that they could buy forgiveness for sins. They also made up a place called purgatory, a place between heaven and hell where loved ones of the deceased could “buy their dead loved one into heaven”.

Science/Technology/Education