Amerindian Wars

1622 - 1890

Constant periods of peace and war, treaties broken and renegotiated, etc.

First Industrial Revolution

1760 - Approx. 1830

The first industrial revolution saw a move from small workplaces where products were made by hand to factories where products were made by machines. The machines were powered, at first, by water power and then, later, by coal. The first industrial revolution impacted the clothes industry significantly. With inventions like the spinning jenny and power loom, clothes could be produced much quicker and easier.


1830 - 1860

First step in industrialization, Made industrialization possible, Greatest fortunes made in railroads (private ownership)

Sig: Expansion and creation of big industries and corporations

Mudsill Speech


Said slaves were the Mudsill that southern society rests upon. This is important because it exemplified the beliefs of southern states at the time and foreshadowed the conflict of the civil war.

Laissez Faire & Social Darwinism

1860 - 1910

government nonintervention allowed corporations to flourish and neglect the rights of their workers. It is also one of the reasons slums and tenements were originally so bad, the government's policy was to not interfere and just let it be

Civil War

1861 - 1865

Fought because of Slavery, agrarian vs. urban manufacturing, tariffs/taxes, state's rights. Fundamental difference in culture.

Homestead Act

1862 - 1934

160 acres of land to any man or woman at least 21 years old, as long as they live on it for five years and improve the land.

Western expansion, cattle, mining and farming

Sand Creek


a massacre in the Amerindian wars

Sig: There was a disagreement over a renegotiation of Indian land. Colorado left the Indians with 1/13th of their previous territory so they rebelled. Chivington ordered the mass murder of the Cheyenne Indians even though they flew the american flag as a sign of peace and surrendered.

Reconstruction Era

1865 - 1877

•Black Codes: Initial attempt by white South to maintain white supremacy.
•Reconstruction Acts: Congress voids southern efforts, takes control.
•Radical Reconstruction: Republicans committed to a degree of racial equality in South using Reconstruction.
•Redemption: White supremacy triumphs, (conservative white Democrats re-gain power).

A time of efforts to restructure the political, legal, and economic systems in the states that seceded from the union.

Second Industrial Revolution

1870 - 1914

The second industrial revolution began in the late 1800s and continued into the early 1900s. The second industrial revolution was aided by the growth of railroads and the use of electricity. The use of steel was a big part of the second industrial revolution. With the second industrial revolution, it was much easier to move products from region to region. The second industrial revolution spread to more countries beyond Great Britain and the United States. Japan, for example, was involved in the second industrial revolution. It also created more white collar jobs and opened up work to women.

Compromise of 1877


Jim Crow

1877 - 1950

Taylorism/Scientific Management

1880 - 1920

scientific management (Taylorism). An efficient production method that breaks down each task into segments that can be easily taught and accomplished

its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management.

Dawes Act

1887 - 1934

Gave every indian over 21, 80 acres of land and citizenship, gave families 160 acres

Indians had to abide by US laws now and were separated from their tribes. Tribal society was dissolved, as Indians were now single citizens under the American government. Notably, this was done from person to person, instead of the American government to tribal nation states. It was meant to lift Indians out of poverty and assimilate them into society. Seen as a failure as the total amount of Indian owned land decreased from 138 million acres, to 52 million acres.

Populist Movement

1892 - 1896

Fought for farmers and their rights… Omaha Platform
Most successful 3rd party in US History



affected farmers and workers and slashed their already low wages. inadvertently caused the populist movement

Rugged Individualism Thesis


At a historian meeting in Chicago, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that having a frontier directly helped form American Democracy and bring out traits like individualism (promoted self-government) and enterprise (promoted work ethic). Believed that the closing of the frontier signified a new chapter in American history where such american characteristics would be lost.

His views aligned with the populist party

Great Migration

1914 - 1970

black people from the south fled jim crow and filled the need WWII left in industrial north