The Long 19th Century

France

French Revolution

11 july 1789

During this period French citizens razed and redesigned their country’s political landscape, they also abolished absolute monarchy and the feudal system. It was influenced by Enlightenment ideals (popular sovereignty and inalienable rights). Even though it failed to achieve all of its goals and turned France into a chaotic bloodbath.

Fall of the Bastille

14 July 1789

On July 14, 1789, an angry crowd marched on the Bastille. To many people in France it was considered as a symbol of the must hated Louis regime, clearly it was the perfect spot to start a Revolution.

March on Versailles

01 october 1789

People in France were ungry, unemployed and restless. As a result, a large crowd of citizens (mostly women) marched all along from Paris to the Palace of Versailles looking for justice, demanding bread and wanting to bring the Royal Family to live among the people.

Dissolution of the National Assembly

30 september 1791

The National Assembly was replaced by the Legislative Assembly. The result was the loss of everyone with valuable political experience. It was composed of political fractions from moderate royalist to radical republicans.

French First Republic

22 september 1792

It was founded during the French Revolution until Napoleon Empire. The main events were, the foundation of the National Assembly and the Reign of Terror and finally the creation of the Consulate.
In short, this period was characterized by uncontrol and madness; the French monarchy had ended but no one knew how to rule the country.
Mainly, the National convention ruled above all and approved a lot of unconscious laws.

Louis XVI guillotined

21 january 1793

He was sentenced to death by the French National Convention and he later guillotined in "the Place de la Revolution" in Paris. Nine months later, Marie Antoinette was convicted of treason by a tribunal, and on October 16 she followed her husband to the guillotine.

Reign of Terror

01 september 1793

Maximilien Robespierre dominated the Committee and established himself as the leader of France, he get rid of all the Revolution enemies to "protect" the nation.
In this period, an estimated 16,000 people were guillotined, most leaders of the French Revolution were now either dead or had fled the republic. Opposition to his government grew both in the Committee of Public Safety and within the National Convention leading to the death of Robespierre on July 27, 1794.

Rise of Napoleon

1795

After the fall of Robespierre, the National Convention created a new constitution for France in 1795. Almost from the start, the Directory became mired in corruption, political conflict, financial problems and depended on the army to remain in power. In 1799, a successful military commander named Napoleon Bonaparte established what he called the Consulate and himself as the First Consul.

War of Second Coalition

22 june 1799

The first official military campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, it involved France battling an alliance made up of Austria, Great Britain, Portugal, Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and Naples. After a while, France was able to defeat the Second Coalition and became the dominant power in Europe.

Napoleonic War

09 november 1799

They were a clash of European powers fighting each other for dominance over the European continent. From french part, the army was commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte. This war became the example of what wars would be in the next century. It was divided into 7 coallitions.

French First Empire

1804

The French First Empire was leaded by Naoleon Bonaparte. This period is important in the French history for its overall economic expansion that particularly benefited the bourgeois, as well as its agricultural advancements for potato farmers, both of which were catalyzed by the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleon Crowded Empereor

02 december 1804

Napoleon became the ruler of the France Empire. This event symbolized the beginning of a new expansionist era as well as the end of the French Revolution.

Battle of Trafalgar

21 october 1805

It is one of the most desicive naval battles in history in which British fleets defeated the French/Spanish one.
Thanks to this war, Napoleon never invade Britain and in its moment this battle stoped the expansion of Napoleon.

War of the Sixth Coalition

1812

In this war, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. They drove Napoleon out of Germany in 1813 and invaded France in 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate and restoring the Bourbons.

Congress of Vienna

09 september 1814

This congress held in Viena reorganized France after the Napoleonic Wars, the objective was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by solving critical issues from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Bourbon Restoration

1815

Following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, France’s Bourbon monarchy was restored. During the Restoration, the new Bourbon regime was a constitutional monarchy and so it had some limits on its power.

Battle of Waterloo

18 june 1815

It took place in Belgium and marked the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte by the British and Prussians, in consequence, the end of his reign and the end of France’s domination in Europe. After Waterloo, Napoleon abdicated and later died in exile.

July Monarchy

1830

The July Monarchy was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe, established after the July Revolution. The new regime’s ideal was explicated by Louis-Philippe’s famous statement in January 1831: “We will attempt to remain in a juste milieu (the just middle), in an equal distance from the excesses of popular power and the abuses of royal power.”

Second Republic

1848

Under Napoleon III, who changed the consttution: Elected for ten years, the President should propose the laws, appoint the Ministers and could canvass the people's opinion by holding a plebiscite. A Legislative Corps, elected by universal suffrage, should vote the laws. A Senate, constituted of admirals, marshals, cardinals and other members appointed by the President, should check if the laws were in agreement with the Constitution and could amend them by senatus-consultum. A State Council of 40-50 members appointed by the President should elaborate the laws.

Napoleon III President

10 december 1848

When the constitution of the Second Republic was finally promulgated and direct elections for the presidency were held, Louis-Napoléon, nephew of Napoleon, won.

Second Empire

Approx. 1852

France was ruled by Emperor Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870. The regime was authoritarian in nature during its early years, curbing most freedom of the press and assembly. The era saw great industrialization, urbanization and economic growth, but Napoleon III's foreign policies would be catastrophic.

Les Misérables

1862

Victor Hugo published one of the gratest novels on th 19th century, that relates the lifestyle of french population during the French Revolution as well as the politics and morals.

Cinco de Mayo

05 may 1862

During the French-Mexican War, General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army attempting to capture Puebla. Victory at the Battle of Puebla represented a great moral victory for the Mexican government, symbolizing the country’s ability to defend its sovereignty against threat by a powerful foreign nation.

Third Republic

1870

The French legislature established the Third Republic which was to last until the military defeat of 1940. The birth of the republic saw France occupied by foreign troops, the capital in a popular socialist insurrection (the Paris Commune) and two provinces annexed to Germany. Feelings of national guilt and a desire for vengeance would be major preoccupations of the French throughout the next two decades. Yet by 1900, France had resumed many economic and cultural ties with Germany, and few French still dreamed of a "revanche".

Franco Prussian War

19 july 1870

A Conflict between the Second French Empire and the German States led by the Kingdom of Prussia. This war led to the World War 1 as a result of the Prussian ambitions to extend German unification. Lastly, the German forces won and as a result the Second French Empire Fall and the German Empire raised.

La Belle Époque

1871

It began after the Franco-Prussian War until the outbreak World War I. It was a period in between the French Third Republic characterized by optimism, peace, prosperity in science and arts. Mainly in Paris where this period is named as "golden age" for arts and culture.

Long Depression

1873

France's experience was somewhat unique. Having been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War, the country was required to pay £200 million in reparations to the Germans and was already reeling when the 1873 crash occurred. The French adopted a policy of deliberate deflation while paying off the reparations.

Mexico

Mexican Independence

1810

Mexico fights for independence from Spain and wins it in 1821.

The Cry of Dolores

September 16, 1810

The Siege of Guanajuato

28 september 1810

The Battle of Calderon Bridge

18 january 1811

Plan of Iguala

1821

Written by Agustin de Iturbide with a constituional monarchy and became president of an independent Mexico.

Santa Anna

1833

Santa Anna became president.

Texan Independence

1836

Texas declares its independence from Mexico. Mexicans and Texans battle at the Alamo and San Jacinto.

Mexican American War

1846

The U.S. wins the Mexican-American War in 1848 and gains Mexican territory. The land includes what are now Nevada and Utah, plus parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming and Colorado

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

Mexico was forced to surrender half her territory by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Civil War

1858

The Battle of Puebla

5 may 1862

The Cinco de Mayo holiday honors this national army defeat of French invaders.

Archduke Maximilian of Austria

1864

Maximilian became emperor.

Porfirio Diaz

1876

Porfirio Diaz became a mexican dictator.