History of Culinary Arts

A timeline that describes the history and progression of the Culinary Arts.

Main Events

Henry IV

1553 - 1610

Henry IV ruled from 1553-1610. During this time, guilds were responsible for preparing foods.

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

“The dramatic growth and diversification of the food service industry is due in part to the Industrial Revolution and the social and economic changes it wrought, including the introduction of new technologies, foods, concerns, and consumers.” (Labensky, Hause, Martel 8)

Boulanger's Restaurant

1765

Monsieur Boulanger opened the first modern restaurant in Paris, France when he sold a special sheep feet dish at his tavern in opposition to the guilds who prepared food at the time.

Antonin Carême

1783 - 1833

Antonin Carême was a chef who specialized in Grande Cuisine, an elaborate style of cooking that focused on making food look and taste incredible. It was difficult and fancy. Carême was responsible for many advancements in the culinary field such as “systems for classifying sauces”, kitchen tools, and books .

Auguste Escoffier

1846 - 1935

Auguste Escoffier was responsible for the brigade system and the creation of the Classic Cuisine style.

Fernand Point

1897 - 1955

Fernand Point and his students Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros, Alain Chapel, François ise and Louis Outhier, along with chefs Michel Guérard and Roger Vergé founded Nouvelle cuisine, a stye of cooking that focused on “natural flavors, shortened cooking times, and innovative combinations.” (Labensky, Hause, Martel 6)

Le Guide Culinaire Classic

1903

This was Auguste Escoffier’s manuel that explained Classic Cuisine.

Gaston Lenôtre

1920 - 2008

Gaston was a chef who opened a culinary school to help bring more chefs into the culinary industry when it was lacking qualified bakers. Gaston himself served all of Paris with his catering business. Lenotre also was careful with how he preserved his products. He used freezing to store his products.

Ferran Adrià

1962

Ferran Adrià is a cook who worked at elBulli ( slang for the bulldog) in Spain. He experiments with food in a field of study known as molecular gastronomy.

Immigration Act of 1965

1965

The Immigration Act of 1965 is what brought asian immigrants into the United States of America. It eventually led to hunger for new flavors like “spicy foods from Thailand and Vietnam.” (Labensky, Hause, Martel 7)

Chez Panisse opens

1971

Alice Waters opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley in 1971 as a restaurant that would sell simple, local food. It was an early example of New American Cuisine

Culinary Periods

This is a guesstimate that shows which culinary style was most prominent during each time period leading up to the modern age.

Grande Cuisine

1553 - 1898

A cooking style that was defined by attention to detail, fancy dishes, and rich food.

Classic Cuisine

1889 - 1970

Classic Cuisine is a simplification of Grande Cuisine that was founded by Auguste Escoffier. It “relies on the thorough exploration of culinary principles and techniques and emphasizes the refined preparation and presentation of superb ingredients.” (Labensky, Hause, Martel 6)

New American Cuisine

1971 - 2000

“A late 20th century movement that began in California but has spread across the United States; it stresses the use of fresh, locally grown, seasonal produce and high-quality ingredients simply prepared in a fashion that preserves and emphasizes natural flavors.” (Labensky, Hause, Martel 6)

Nouvelle Cuisine

1972 - 2000

“French for “new cooking”, a mid-20th-century movement away from many classic cuisine principles and toward a lighter cuisine based on natural flavors, shortened cooking times and innovative combinations." ( Labensky, Hause, Martel 6)