Italy

Events

Socialist membership increase

1914

50K at this point and from here onwards until 1919 increased by 4 times.

WW1

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

PSI (Socialist Italian Party, Partito Socialista Italiano) disagrees with Italy joining WW1. Increase in nationalist groups. Desire to maintain neutrality, but most want to win against Germany and Autria-Hungary because they wanted to end the reactionary regime influences to optimize the socialism success in Italy.

Fasci d'Azione Rivoluionaria

1915

There is also another one called "Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluionaria"; believed to be the one he initiated deriving from Angelo's which is this one. Then Mussolini renamed later anyway; after people start to use the term "fascism" and refer to themselves as "fascists". Additional info: he got kicked out from PSI's newpapers business (Avanti!)

1st meeting FRA

24 January 1915

Mussolini's failed attempt of public attention-seeking gathering.

Gov. overthrow demand to create a new socialist state

1917

The socialist party called for an overthrow of government to create a new one.

Socialist trade unions

1919

At the beginning of the year, there were 250K members, and by the end they had 2.5M members.

Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

23 March 1919

Emerged or renamed from the previous two groups (one of which he initiated and another that possibly has begun by Angelo Oliviero Olivetti)

Fascist Manifesto

6 June 1919

made by Alceste De Ambris and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published on popolo d'Italia newpaper. Allowed 18 years old (minimum) and women to vote. Advocates stance of the Fascist party (FCI)- different political policies not only on rights to vote.

March on Rome

22 October 1922 - 29 October 1922

Balbo stated that he will march on Rome in October. Local actions squads to be organised into a Militaria take control of civil functions central/northern Italy. Emergency declared, the King still had his power, the army does not necessarily belong to Mussolini entirely yet; resulted in limited success.

Mussolini as PM

29 October 1922

Salandra, Vice Prime Minister, advised Victor Emmanuel III to appoint Mussolini as Prime Minister because the black-shirts were taking over buildings and others around Rome. He considered it to be too risky opposing the fascists.

Mussolini Rome arrival

30 October 1922

He arrived later because he probably doesn't want to get involved with the street violence. He is also appointed to be PM by the King, so.

Mussolini in prliament

Approx. 16 November 1922

Emergency Power for 1 year. He did not have control over the parliament yet. He continues with whatever the liberals have been doing. He relies on Stefani the minister of finance to balance the budget. Repressive police force was limited at this point.

Local gov. replacement

August 1925

Local government was replaced by fascist officials. Mussolini possesses more local control (RAS).

Meetings of opposition parties banned

3 August 1925

Mussolini as Head of gov.

December 1925

Assassination attempts

1926

He has these throughout the years, but in this year he starts banning all opposing parties. The unions which are the only place left the communists and others meet are outlawed. Special courts are introduced for political offences.

Secret police force OVRA established

1926

OVRA to help repressing political opponents.

Il Duche

January 1926

Mussolini gives himself power to issue decrees without parliamentary consent. The King needs his approval to hire or fire ministers. He holds 6 ministers.

Mussolini's Death

April 28 1945