The Jacobins take control
Settled GB/US disputes, granted commercial concessions to the British, Britain recognized US neutrality. Came into effect in 1795
drafting plans to retake Corsica (eventually scrapped)
Prussia withdraws from 1st Coalition
troubleshooting situation in Italy- when he gets orders from Carnot in a year, it turns out they were his original plans from this time
He wouldn't go fight in the Vendee
Napoleon was kind of hanging out watching and they were like "yo come help us" and he got to prove his loyalty to the upcoming Directory!
AKA the Lombard Republic, having been formed out of Lombardy (north of the Po River)
Formed from duchys of Modena, Reggio, + Papal states Bologna and Ferrara
by this date, 316 merchant ships had been seized by France due to US neutrality and refusal to pay back loans.
Pope Pius reconfirmed the armistice of 1796, along with another 30 million franc indemnity and 7 million in treasure
Paranoia everywhereeeee- 216/500 were up for reelection, but only 11 were reelected. of the 205 new guys, 182 were conservative Clichyites. Royalist Pichegru got enough votes to be the President of the Council of 500.
Austrian resistance ended on the 4th, and the armistice was signed on the 7th. Napoleon was only 75 miles from Vienna, had crossed 400 miles in 30 days
Before Venice was handed over to Austria, Napoleon looted the place
In May of 1797 the Transpodane Republic petitioned to join the Cispadane, and in July they were officially joined. Also added was the Duchy of Mantua and the rest of Romagna.
Pinkney, John Marshall, and Eldridge Gerry arrive in Paris to meet with Foreign Minister Talleyrand. They are refused, questioned on qualifications. A week later, they are met and are demanded to explain Adam's speech, which was a test. They give no response, so the impasse begins the XYZ affair.
War with Austria in Italy is ended!
French were absolutely crushed
Plague, Djezzar Pasha's jihad supported by Royal Navy, etc. Less than half of the 10,000 who invaded Syria returned alive.
He totally abandoned his army in Egypt in order to get past the British blockade. Paris was in such a state of crisis by now that he deemed it necessary- The Directory was falling apart.
Napoleon presents his constitutional draft to the two houses a parliament designated to approve it. He wrote it behind the back of Sieyes and Roger-Ducos, completely outmaneuvering them. It is approved.
All vendeeans and Chouans were to lay down their arms in 10 days or be treated as rebels
Napoleon is surprised by the Austrians while in Italy. Napoleon's main army was defeated, but he had split up his army earlier in the day to help comb for secret Austrian troops. the army under Desaix, instructed to "follow the gunfire", was first to arrive. With the help of 6,000 extra men the battle resumes and the French claim victory. Cemented Napoleon's credibility back in Paris.
Napoleon, as First consul, inherited the Quasi-war from the directory and reopened negotiations. 3 more commissioners were sent to speak with Joseph Bonaparte, and they signed the Treaty of Mortefontaine- all ships returned, with "most favored" trading status for each.
Berthier conducted an agreement that the Louisiana territory would be returned to France in exchange for a kingdom in Italy for the deposed Duke of Parma, who was the brother of the Queen of Spain. Both sides wanted this to be secret, because nobody wanted GB or the US involved. In addition, Berthier also made a verbal agreement to never sell it to a third party.
General Moreau defeats 80,000 men under Archduke John
Rehash of Campo Formio. French expansion and creation of sister-republics led to the dispossession of many German princes, secular and ecclesiastical. Article VII confirmed their compensation, but instead there was MEDIATIZATION and SECULARIZATION. (subjugation of small states into large, and the annexation of ecclesiastical states into secular ones). For France, this created a buffer zone of german states large enough to hold off an attack, but small enough to not cause too much trouble of their own.
Since British power was rooted mostly in their economic superiority, France had been playing the "lets cripple their economy from underneath them!" game. To make economic concessions to them wouldn't have directly hurt France, but it would add more strength to the already dangerously powerful Great Britain. The Treaty of Amiens balanced continental power in France's favor, and they were at peace for the first time since 1792. Napoleon emerges a hero yet again.
Napoleon is granted another 10 year term by the Senate, but that wasn't what he asked for. He manipulated the Tribunate into offering a life term as a "pledge of thanks", to which he responded with putting it up to a plebiscite, which overwhelmingly supported him. Once again back by the voice of the people, he revised the Constitution in the Constitution of Year 10, giving himself all sorts of new powers and making a new monarchy out of a dictatorship.
Departed from France in December 1801. 20,000 men under General Leclerc win many battles but suffer heavy casualties in the guerilla war against Toussaint l'Ouverture. Napoleon's dream of colonizing North America required this island, his "jewel" in the caribbean, to be producing food and supplies to sustain a colony. He could not stock the territory with troops either until he had quelled this rebellion.
President Jefferson, though initially concerned about the repercussions of a mass slave revolt, began supporting the slaves once he was made aware of Napoleon's intended occupation of Louisiana.
Joseph Bonaparte, though willing to cooperate with Lord Cornwallis, was forbidden to even discuss economic concessions. Napoleon was very aware and okay with the fact that this would likely start another war in the near future.
G.B. evacuated Malta, they keep Trinidad + Tobago, and they agreed to respect the integrity of the Batavian Republic (Netherlands) and Portugal, whose ports would remain open to British goods.
By this time, the army had been racked with Yellow Fever and suffered many casualties. Even with reinforcements, 24,000 men died by the end of 1802.
Napoleon learns of Leclerc's death and the heavy losses in the Caribbean. He pulls a complete 180 and scraps plans to occupy Louisiana- his window of opportunity was closing fast. Great Britain was getting suspicious, and he had to occupy it before they could cut their line of supply across the Atlantic.
Napoleon provided the blueprints for the comprehensive reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire, which was sanctioned into law by HREmperor Francis II.
This plan weakened the Hapsburgs territorially and politically. It created the buffer zone of France-dependent German countries. Russia was granted the right to have a say in the 1779 Treaty of Teschen, so Alexander I wanted to strengthen Wurttemburg, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt (dynastically linked to the Romanovs).
Austria reacted by trying to cozy up to France, but Napoleon outmaneuvered them. He offered Prussia and Bavaria more compensation than Austria did, and once it got out that Russia was involved, all the smaller countries warmed up to France pretty fast, leaving Austria in the dust. Napoleon, wanting to contain Austria, had no desire to be allies.
Napoleon schemed to harness the powers of Germany, so he married off family members to German royalty. He also dealt a blow to the Church, from whom much land was taken.
(see notes for exact figures of the Recess)
Sure enough, aggravated by France's aggressive/uncompromising foreign policy and refusal of a trade agreement provoked Britain into resuming their war. Napoleon planned an invasion of the island, but they never could muster the resources to make it happen. The Army of England was created, however, and it became one of the best armies Europe had ever seen.
There are two main theories as to why Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana:
1- He became more interested in battling GB directly, and lost interest in the west. He found his new destiny in Europe and the Middle East.
2- Wanting to placate the US, he was concerned that they were going to take the territory by force. He's out of men, ships, and money, thanks to Santo Domingo. He had little chance of winning a war over it, so he might as well make some money with it. However, if he had only needed money, he would have sold it back to Spain for much more- that would have been unstrategic, since Britain probably would have just taken it from them. In addition, they had backed out of giving him Spanish Florida and he was still mad about it.
Bonus- this embroiled relations between the US and GB, since neither wanted the other to have it, and the US was dominant there economically anyway.
12 million dollars were paid to France, paid in bonds redeemable in 15 years at 6%. US also assumed claims against France for damages/losses during Quasi War- another 3 million dollars. Total: 15 million dollars.
Established the French Empire, making Napoleon Emperor of all the French. Established hereditary succession and fulfilling the propaganda that in order to protect the gains of the revolution, Napoleon's life and line had to be secure.
Joseph was made Grand Elector, and he reinstated the rank of Marshal- creating a new tier of nobility. He also created 1,000 civil nobles- Barons, counts, dukes, princes, etc.
Austria tries to preempt France by crowning Francis II Emperor of Austria, making him Francis I of that line.
emphasis on the importance of the revival of the Grand Sanhedrin and the greatness of the Imperial Protector of it all
12 Answers were made into official policy, which were made into Imperial Decree December 9. March 17, 1807- Decree for Social Reform for Jews, any debts to them annulled, non-french Jews were allowed in France. July 20, 1807- all Jews take surname (most doubled first name or used a nickname)