In the years coming to 1867, a civil war erupted in the US, based on differing visions of their country. There was an act proposed in 1866 over the possibility of Canada being incorporated into the US. Also, Francophones felt their voices were being drowned out by the mass of immigration. These issues led to change, and John A. Macdonald and George Cartier were in charge, Macdonald and Cartier envisioned Canada as a union of all the British North American countries. They wanted to preserve its French language and culture, and gain independence.