Western Civilization


Homo Sapiens

11000 BCE

transition from food gathering to food raising

Ice Age Ends

10000 BCE

Dendrology (tree rings) shows it was easier to grow crops.

Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)

10000 BCE

Homo Sapiens
Domestication of animals
Pottery, village life, origin of states


9,000 B.C.E.


7400 BCE

Early Cities:
-redistributive economy
-craft specialization

Early Writing: Sumer

4000 BCE

Pictographic, cuneiform


2600 BCE

administrative official for Pharoah Djoser
designed Step Pyramid

Great Pyramid of Giza (4th Dynasty)

2584 BCE

Sargon of Akkad conquers Sumer

2350 BCE

Transformed city-states or united Sumero-Akkadian
1st recorded empire
1st to speak Semitic language

Ziggurat of Ur

2100 BCE

Mentuhotep III moves capital from Memphis to Thebes

2055 BCE

Ancient Babylonians - Hammurabi

1792 BCE

Took over Sumero-Akkadian empire
Religious imperialism - Mardak
Used diplomacy
Produced first written collection of law


1479 BCE - 1458 BCE

Rules as Regent for Thutmos III
Declares herself pharoah
trade increased, arts flourished, succesful military


1353 BC

Pharoah who tried to make Aten only god
Egyptians revolted
Succeeded by Tut who re established Ra
Nerfertiti is wife


1200 BC


King David

1000 BC

Triumphed over "evil Philistines"
United Judah and Israel and expanded the Hebrew Kingdom
Built the capital at Jerusalem and moved the Ark of the Covenant there

King Solomon

970 BC

Built temple
Golden Age of Hebrews
Wise but authoritative (despotic)
Judah rebels and the kingdom splits, making the Hebrews vulnerable

Sargon II

722 BC - 705 BC

Ushered in the "Sargonid"
Puts an end to the kingdoms of Israel and Judah
Conquered Babylon
Established the Assyrians as unrivaled powerhouse of ancient Near East


669 BC - 627 BC

Enlightened Assyrian King (first literate)
15 years after death, Assyrian kingdom collapsed

Drakon codifies Athenian Laws

621 BC

too harsh and fails

Solon (Athenian archon)

594 BC

tries to reform Athens and failed

Peisistratos (popular Athenian tyrant)

546 BC

coinage system
encouraged self government
enforced Solon's reforms

Cyrus the Great conquers Chaldeans (1st Persian Empire)

539 BC

Darius I

522 BCE

Cleisthenes (responisble for ostraca)

508 BC

power to the demos
ostraca - once a year the citizens could vote on who was a bad official)

Ionia Revolts (Aristogoras incites)

501 BC

Persians defeat Ionians

494 BC

Battle of Marathon (Pheidippides runs to Sparta)

490 BC

Battle at Thermopolyae

480 BC

Persians defeated at Battle of Platea

479 BC

Pericles (refuses to join Delian League)

462 BC

paid people to participate in assembly

Acropolis is built

447 BC - 438 BC

Pericles makes peace with Persia

Approx. 440 BC

Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Plague keeps Sparta away

Thucydides writes the Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Athens attacks Syracuse (fails)

415 BC

Spartan Navel fleet led by Lysander

407 BC

Spartans destroy Athenian fleet at Notium

406 BC

Athenians lose but Athens is spared

405 BC

Phillip II (Rise of Macedon)

359 BC

Macedon wins Battle of Chaeronea

338 BC

Alexander the Great rules

336 BC - 323 BC

Phillip II Dies

336 BC

Alexander invades Persian Empire

334 BC

Alexander destroys the Persian army at Battle of Gaugamela

331 BC

Alexander destroys Persepolis

330 BC

Alexander the Great dies

323 BC


Neolithic Revolution

10,000 BC

Animal domestication
Earliest village life

Fertile Crescent (Earliest Permanent Settlements)

8500 BC - 7000 BC

Tigris and Euphrates, in modern day Turkey, Syria, Israel and west Iran


4000 BC - 2350 BC

Lunar Calender
Sexagismal System

Old Kingdom Egypt

2686 BC - 2160 BC

Middle Kingdom Egypt

2160 BC - 1479 BC

weak pharaonic rule

Minoan Civilization

1900 BC - 1500 BC


1792 BC - 1595 BC

Ityksos take over Egypt

1650 BC - 1550 BC

Mycenaean Civilization

1600 BC - 1200 BC

New Kingdom Egypt

1479 BC - 1070 BC

Greek Dark Ages

1200 bc - 800 bc

Mycenaeans are destroyed
widespread poverty
mass migration


911 BC - 612 BC

Greek Archaic Period

800 BC - 450 BC

population rises
rise of polis


626 BC - 539 BC


550 BCE - 320 BCE