This timeline only contains the people and events that we have gone over in class from the start of the year to the end of the 3rd quarter.
Series of religious wars between Christianity and Islam in the 1000s, 1100s, and 1200s.
The Ottoman Empire was the longest lasting empire on Earth. Founded by Osman I, expanded by Mehmed II, and peaked under the rule of Suleiman the Lawgiver, the Ottoman Empire flourished until its defeat to the allies in World War I.
A cultural movement that started in Italy and later spread across to the rest of Europe. It focused on art and the rediscovery of ancient Greek styles of philosophy. Literature, science, and humanitarianism were adopted as new ways of life instead of bloodshed and war.
Founder and first emperor of China's Ming Dynasty. He successfully defeated the Mongols and drove them out of China.
A plague that struck Europe during the Renaissance. Although it only lasted three years, it killed about 1/3 of Europe's population.
Fourth son of emperor Hongwu and third emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Famous for employing Zheng He to launch voyages of exploration across the South Pacific and Indian oceans. Established Beiping (present day Beijing) as imperial capital.
Dynasty that ruled China for 276 years. Started after the fall of the Mongol Empire. Regarded as one of the most orderly and stable empires in history.
Mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral under the command of Yongle during the early Ming Dynasty. Commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. Sailed in ships five times the size of Columbus's Santa Maria, and commanded hundreds of sailors.
German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. Made major contributions to the Renaissance and the scientific revolution with the invention of the movable type. Started the Printing Revolution in Europe.
Ottoman sultan who conquered Constantinople (present day Istanbul). Brought an end to the Eastern Roman Empire
An Italian who invented the humanist ideas of the Renaissance. His areas of interest included inventing, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He is credited with the invention of the tank, helicopter, and parachute.
A period in Japanese history marked by constant military conflict and social upheaval. This period ended with the Tokogawa Shogunate.
Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He is often referred to as the founder of modern political science. His most famous work is The Prince and he created Machiavellianism to describe politicians in the book.
Michelangelo Buonarroti was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet during the High Renaissance, which was a period during the Renaissance that focused on visual arts. Buonarroti highly influenced the development of Western art, and was considered the greatest living artist during his lifetime. He is now considered one of the greatest artists of all time. His works include the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the sculptures Pieta and David, and The Last Judgement.
Martin Luther was the key figure in the Protestant Reformation, and he created the Protestant religion by going against the Catholic Church. He posted his 95 Theses to the door of the Church to point out all of the indulgences made by it.
Babur is important for founding and becoming the first emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He was a direct descendant of the Mongol conqueror Timur through his father, and Genghis Khan through his mother. He was succeeded by his son Humayun, and he is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
John Calvin was a follower of Martin Luther and continued the reformation against the Catholic Church.
The Reformation was a religious uprising against the Roman Catholic Church started by Martin Luther.
lol. This dude was pretty cool. He was the Grand Prince of Moscow and transformed Russia from a medieval state into an empire by taking over surrounding territories and forming a bureaucracy to look over them. He killed his own son in an outbreak of mental rage and poorly effected the people and long term economy of Russia. But other than that he was a devout and intelligent leader.
William Shakespeare was a British writer during the Renaissance. He is known for his famous plays and sonnets. He is widely considered the most famous play writer in history.
The Roanoke Colony was founded on Roanoke island in present day North Carolina. The colony mysteriously disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish war. It is still unknown what happened to the colonists.
The East India Company was the Costco of Great Britain. Its purpose was to pursue trading with the East Indies and China, but it grew big enough to eventually invade India. So the East India Company turned India into a British settlement.
The Tokugawa Shogunate was a feudal militaristic Japanese government in which the leader was called the Shogun, and all of the members of the government were part of the Tokugawa Clan.
This would be the first British settlement in North America. It would not succeed.
This was a revolution following the Industrial Revolution that in which the people demanded better living qualities, sanitation, and clean water.
The Industrial Revolution was a transition from agricultural methods to manufacturing and machines that began in Great Britain. It lead to steam power, machine tools, and the factory system. The revolution lead to economic growth in capitalist economies, but it worsened living conditions and sanitation in cities.
Otto von Bismarck was the 1st Chancellor of Germany who unified all of the German states into the German Empire by declaring three strategic wars against Austria, Denmark, and France. He invented the realpolitik form of diplomacy and is the main reason Europe stayed at peace in the 1870s and 80s
The Opium War was fought between China and Great Britain. It was fought primarily at sea, and China's outdated ships were destroyed by Britain's steam-powered gunboats. It ended in a humiliating loss for China.
The Taiping Rebellion was when the millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace rose against the Qing Dynasty. In 1853, Hong Xiuquan, founder of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace, captured Nanjing and made it his capital. By the time the rebellion ended, an estimated 20-40 million were dead.
This policy allowed the United States to keep their trading rights with China and it allowed China to avoid colonization.
World War I was started when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia because of the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. It quickly escalated into a world war when all of the world powers joined sides and fought, and became the largest war ever fought until World War II.
This is the event that started World War I.
This was the treaty that ended World War I.