Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
-Wrote "The Prince"
-Believed that it was more important to be politically effective that to be morally correct.
The Northern Renaissance
-100 Years War stops ideas from spreading
-France attacks Italy, so Italians move to Northern Europe and spread their ideas
*The Northern Renaissance wanted change, but still wanted to live Christian lives
Christine de Pizan
-Becomes first woman to make money writing
-Challenges gender norms of the Time
The Age of Discovery or the Age of Exploration from the end of the 15th century to the 18th century, was an informal and loosely defined European historical period marking the time period in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and the beginning of globalization.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
---Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies.
---Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country.
---In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
-Idea of Humanism
-Invention of Printing Press
-Monarchs are jealous of church power
-People hated Church taxes
-Monarchs didn't like church power/influence
-The pope is viewed as foreign leader
-Church became a corrupt organization/only wanted $$$
-Indulgences: Paying the priest to erase"your sins so you could go to heaven.
Martin Luther believed...
1. Salvation can be obtained only through God
2. Church should focus on the Bible
3. All people with faith are equal
PEACE OF AUGSBURG
-Every ruler gets to decide his or her countryś religion.
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
The Industrial Revolution was a period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and quickly spread throughout the world; the American Industrial Revolution, commonly referred to as the second Industrial Revolution, started sometime between 1820 and 1870. This time period saw the mechanization of agriculture and textile manufacturing and a revolution in power, including steam ships and railroads, that effected social, cultural and economic conditions.
A validation of STRONG EMOTION and imagination as authentic sources of aesthetic experience.
---A love and emphasis of nature as a place free from society's judgment and restrictions.
---Nature as a Teacher.
---Celebration of the Individual/Personal Freedom.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
---relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes.
---emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time).
---ordinary subject matter.
---Inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience.
---Unusual visual angles.
An empire founded in the 12th century by Genghis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dnieper River in eastern Europe making it the largest land empire in the world.
Ghazis- Warriors for Islam
-Formed militaristic societies
-Followed a strict Islamic
1.) Osman founds the Osman state
-Ottomans are his followers
2.) Ottomans are militarily successful
-Replaced horses and archers with musketmen
-First to use cannons(changed warfare in Europe)
3.) Ottomans conquer Byzantium
-Improve peasants' lives
-Muslim men must fight in the army, Non-Muslim men don't have to fight, but
have to pay a religious tax.
TIMUR THE LAME
-Burns Baghdad to the ground
-Focuses his attention on China (Because of Silk and Spices)
-Temporarily halts Ottoman expansion west
-Opens Constantinople to other religions (after conquering it)
-Constantinople becomes Istanbul\
Suleyman the LawGiver
-Ruled for 45 years
-Controls eastern Mediterranean and N. Africa
-Reaches its peak size
-Pushes into Central Europe at the time of Charles the V (Around Vienna)
-Created laws, limited taxes
-Had personal army of 30,000 men
-Leads army against the Mongols
-Reforms China by...
-Erasing Mongol Past
-Fish Farms & Rice
-Returns China to Confucius beliefs
-Becomes a tyrant
-Moves to Beijing
-An avid explorer
-In 1405, Zheng He starts one of 7 massive voyages and expanded the tributary system by 16 countries.
-After all 7 voyages, he returns to China in 1453 and China enters a period of Isolation.
-China doesn't Industrialize because of Confucius beliefs and taxes.
An empire in Iran which initially supported its calvary by way of land grants. The empire was very focused on land power. Chieftains, scholars, and notables served as intermediaries between the government and the people.
Babur - 1494-1530
11 years old when he inherits a kingdom
Builds an Army
Conquers India, lays foundation for Mughal Empire
Humayun - 1530-1556
Kingdom extended into present Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northern India
Incompetent, loses almost all of the territory that he inherited
Inherits power at 13 years old
Akbar means “Great”
Recognizes that military is his power
Believes that aggressive actions deter neighbors
Uses heavy artillery, used to bring down walls
Turns potential enemies into allies, by giving them positions in his government
Continues Islamic Tradition of religious freedom
Married Hindu women (princesses) and abolishes non-Muslim tax
Patron, but also he invested in Architecture and Blended Cultures
Creates an effective tax policy
Graduated income tax
Tax based on your earnings
Gave land to members of his government
Good thing = feudal system cannot emerge
Bad thing = owners don’t take care of the land
Jahangir - 1605-1627
Leaves the governing and ruling to his wife (1 of 17) Nur Jahan
Good effective ruler
Shah Jahan - 1627-1658
Khusrau tries to take power from Jahangir
Sikhs offer him shelter
Secures power by having all of his rivals assassinated
Obsessed with his wife
Builds Taj Mahal in honor of his wife, upon her death
While he rules, India suffers (famine, heavy taxes)
Aurangzeb - 1658-1707
Expands Mughal Empire to its greatest size
Oppresses his subjects
Brought back non-muslim tax
Enforced strict Islamic Law
Banned non-Muslims from government
Ruling family of Russia, including Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, this dynasty favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
-Manchuria conquers China
-Gave Intellectuals government jobs
-China reaches its greatest size
-Made strict trade laws for foreigners
-"Big on Respect"
-England sent letter to Qian-Long saying that he won't kiss their a**
Name given to the reigns of William I and William II from 1871 to 1917.
Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945. The First Reich (or empire) was from 963 to 1806 (the Holy Roman Empire). The second was from 1871 to 1917 (the reigns of William I and William II).
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Ming Sea Voyages, sponsored by Yonglo, carried out by Chinese Muslim emperor Zheng He, led 7 voyages around the Indian Ocean, sailed with large fleet, presented gifts, and some foreign leaders sent tribute to China, showed Ming China's growing sea power, ended because they were draining resources.
The Portuguese captain ventured far down the coast of Africa until he and his crew reached the tip. A storm blew he and his crew around the southern tip of Africa and explored the southeastern coast of Africa.
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
He began exploring the eastern coast of Africa and in 1498 he reached the Indian port of Calicut. Amazed by the spices, rare skills, and precious gems, Portuguese sailors filled their ships which such items. The cargo was worth 60 times the cost of the voyage.
His explorer first saw the mainland of Brazil and claimed it for Portugal while sailing to set up trading posts in India.
Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa and claimed the lands for Spain.
---Ivan took the throne at the age of three years old in 1533. While growing up boyars (Number 2) fought to control Ivan.
---When Ivan turned 16 he seized power and crowned himself czar of Russia, being the first Russian to ever be considered a czar.
---Ivan's 'good period' was knows as 1547-1560 where he won many victories and gained a lot of land for Russia.
---Starting 1560 after his wife, Anastasia died, was was his 'bad period'.
---He accused the boyars of poisoning his wife and organized his own police force, whose main duty was to hunt down and murder people Ivan considered traitors.
---The secret police killed many boyars, their families, and the peasants who worked their lands. Thousands were killed in his bad period.
---Ivan later committed a terrible act which resulted in the death of his oldest son and heir. Ivan later died 3 years later leaving the throne to his weak younger son.
Before this theory, the geocentric theory was widely popular among people and was the belief that God purposely placed Earth at the center of the universe. This New Theory states that Earth is not the center of the universe and that Earth actually revolves around the sun.
The Lost English Colony
King Henry of France established this declaration of religious tolerance to heal the religious divide in France. He declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship in some cities.
---A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia.
---Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region.
---It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British.
Often referred to as the birth of the modern European novel.
After half a century of control, the English oust the Dutch.
"A series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government."
---Ended the 30 Year's War
---Weakened the Hapsburg States of Spain and Austria
---Strengthened France by Awarding it German Territory
---Made German Princes Independent of the Holy Roman 'Empire'
---Ended Religious Wars In Europe
---Introduced a New Method of Peace Negotiations
Every object attracts every other object with a force proportional to the product of the two masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
The blood-less overthrow of King James II of England after he displayed Catholicism.
He realized the weakness/flaws of Russia and embarked on a Grand Embassy to westernize and modernize Russian society. In addition to this, his reforms included:
---Bringing the Russian Orthodox Church under State Control
---Reduced the Power of the great Landowners
---Recruited men from lower-ranking families
---Raised the Status of Women
---Imposed Western Clothing upon Nobles
Created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields.
When King Charles II died after promising his throne to King Louis XIV's grandson, Philip of Anjou. Now France and Spain were both ruled by French Bourbons and other countries felt threatened by this drastic increase in power. So, in 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states join together to prevent the union of France and Spain.
After 21 long years of war, Russia finally gains its warm weather port/window to Europe.
In 1740, Frederick II of Prussia invades Austria to occupy the region of Silesia. Hungary and Great Britain join the war against Prussia and France. But in 1748, Maria Teresa still looses the region of Silesia in the TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.
---A war between England, France, and their Native American allies for control of North America.
---The English won the war and gained large area of North American from the French.
---The war did not affect Georgia directly but the Georgia colony gained land after the conclusion of the conflict.
Austria, France, Russia, and others were allied against Britain and Prussia. Not only had Austria and Prussia switched allies, but for the first time, Russia was playing a role in European affairs. Though the war was fought all over the world, there were no territorial changes in Europe.
---Ruled with Absolute authority, but also sought reform
---Beloved by the philosophers
---Recommended allowing religious tolerance
---Abolished Torture and Capital Punishment
---Vastly Expanded Russia
---A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion.
---Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712.
---James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s.
---Steam power was then applied to machinery.
United States gains independence from the British Empire.
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
---Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution,
---they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny.
---The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
---Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.
---It removed seeds from cotton fibers.
---Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply.
---Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
For the first time in ten years, Europe was now at peace. This gave Napoleon the opportunity to focus on restoring France and other domestic issues.
After the failure of expedition to Saint Domingue, Napoleon decided to sell this massive chunk of and to the United States.
He saw two benefits to this:
---He would gain money to finance operations in Europe
---He would punish the British by strengthening their past colony
He decided to make himself emperor and his French voters supported it. As the Pope was about to crown him, he took the crown from the Pope and placed it on his own head.
With this gesture Napoleon signaled that he was more powerful than the church, which traditionally crowns the rulers of France.
---This naval defeat is arguably more important than all of Napoleon's victories on land.
---Horatio Nelson was as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was in warfare on land. In a bold maneuver, he split the larger French fleet and captured many ships.
---With the destruction of the French fleet, it ensured the supremacy of the British Navy for the next century and forced Napoleon to give up his plans for invading Britain.
---Bands of peasant fighters known as guerrillas struck at Spanish armies. This was effective because they were not an army that Napoleon could fight in the open.
---Rather, they worked in small groups that ambushed French troops and fled into hiding. As a result, the French lost 300,000 troops in the conflict.
Argentina- 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Bolivia- 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Brazil- 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Chile- 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Colombia- 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Costa Rica- 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
El Salvador- 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Guatemala- 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Honduras- 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Mexico- 16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Nicaragua- 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Paraguay- 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Peru- 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Venezuela- 5 July 1811 (from Spain)
---This is considered Napoleon's most disastrous mistake.
---When Czar Alexander I of Russia refused to stop selling grain to Britain, Napoleon and his Grand Army of more than 420,000 soldiers marched into Russia.
---Instead of fighting the French Army, the Russians implemented the scorched-earth policy. which involved burning grain fields and slaughtering live-stock to leave nothing for the enemy to eat.
---When the French army reached Moscow, none was there so they retreated during the Russian winter and only returned with 10,000 soldiers.
---Other powers (Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden) took advantage of his moment of weakness and joined forces against Napoleon.
---This was the beginning of the end of the French Empire.
---The Battle of Waterloo, fought on 18 June 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle.
---His defeat put a final end to his rule as Emperor of the French.
---Waterloo also marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days, which began in March 1815 after Napoleon's return from Elba, where he had been exiled after his defeats at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 and the campaigns of 1814 in France.
Ensured there would never be another Napoleon by surrounding France with powerful countries.
Group of major European powers meeting periodically to promote and discuss peace. It was pretty much an earlier version of the United Nations and believed in the principle of intervention.
---Powerful European governments opposed revolution, but Greece was different.
---Greek Independence was popular with Christians around the world. For example, Russia felt a connection to the Greek Orthodox Christians that were ruled by Muslim Ottomans.
---In 1827, combined British, French, and Russian forces destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the battle of Navarino.
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
---In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx (1818-1883) and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism.
---According to the Manifesto, the "history of all previously existing society is the history of all class struggles."
---In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat).
---Marx predicted, the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution.
---While a tiny minority owned the means of production and grew richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and in class-consciousnesses.
---It was the key work of socialism.
A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
After arriving with a fleet of warships, he gets Japan to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa opening some ports to America.
Helps to end Japanese isolation.
---Each generation of Russian czars launched a war on the Ottomans to gain a warm weather port
---In 1853, GB, FRA, and OTT defeat Russia.
---Revealed the true weakness of the Ottoman Empire
---Russia eventually gains a degree of control of Balkans
---Ottomans loses control of Balkan states
Trade treaty between Japan and the United States opening up two Japanese ports to U.S. trade; signed in response to a show of force by U.S. admiral Matthew Perry.
---This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments.
---This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism.
Fought from 1861 to 1865, first application of the Industrial Revolution to warfare, resulted in the abolition of slavery in the United States and the reunification of the North and South.
---1863, Lincoln's proclamation made after a crucial victory at Antietam,
---allowed lincoln to push for something radical; frees all slaves in areas under rebellion; this excludes the border states, keeping them on the side of the union,
---prevents foreign powers from entering the war for slavery,
---provides a rationale for the war,
---and allows blacks to enlist in the army;
---Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over newly obtained Schleswig and Holstein.
---Prussians used their superior training and equipment to win a devastating victory , thus humiliating Austria.
---Austrians lost the region of Venetia (and was given to Italy) and accepted the Prussian annexation of more German territory.
---The period of time from 1867 to 1912, where the Japanese were under a new form of government.
---The leader tried to end Japan's problems by modernizing, and sending statesmen to Europe and North America to study foreign ways.
---This helped strengthen economic and military power.
---Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps.
---It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia.
---Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
---The brand new German Empire defeated the "world renown" French army.
---With a common enemy, this war served as the last step in German unification because people in Southern Germany (Bavaria) finally accepted Prussian rule.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
led by Menelik II, successful resistance in Ethiopia. The result was the Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their nation's independence.
1898 War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Rebellion in China against foreigners that occurred soon after the "Open Door" notes.
Caused by foreign (American and European) "spheres of influence" within the Chinese empire.
Led to no formal division of China and the world powers accepted compensation from the Chinese for damages instead.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
It was not a treaty between equal partners. The 1905 Korea-Japan Convention had already made Korea a protectorate of Japan. Under the annexation treaty, the Korean emperor handed sovereign power over his country to the Japanese emperor “completely and forever.” Thus Korea became a colony of Japan.
As one would expect, Koreans resisted Japan’s strengthening its authority over Korea. The most conspicuous form of resistance was armed struggle. A Japanese military record, for example, indicates more than 2,800 incidents of armed struggle from August 1907 to the end of 1910. Nearly 17,700 Korean participants in the struggle were killed.
---(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa.
---It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred.
---The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
The first war that effectively involved all the world's superpowers and nations all across each continent.
---A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace.
---It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League.
---Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
---World War II was a major global conflict that lasted from 1939-1945.
---WWII was between Allied (USSR, US, UK, China, France, ...) and Axis (Germany, Japan, Italy, and affiliates) powers, and spanned across every continent (except Antarctica) at some point.
---WWII began on September 1, 1939 when Nazi Germany (a.k.a. the Third Reich) invaded Poland. Japan, as well, was invading other territories in Southwest Asia. -----At the zenith of the war, Germany had control over much of Central Europe, and was sending Jews, Poles, homosexuals, and other "inadequate" people to concentration and extermination camps (see "The Holocaust").
---WWII also introduced new styles of warfare, including widespread air strikes and tank warfare, both of which were undeniably dominated by Germany.
---However, Germany's resources began to run short as Allied forces began to capture and liberate the concentration camps.
---Eventually, the Third Reich, along with Japan and Italy, collapsed. As a result of WWI and WWII, the UN was made, along with the establishment of Israel.
---Hitler fails to create his world empire and the end of the war leads to the Cold War Era***.