Classical Mediterranean Timeline Project - Persian, Greek, and Rome Empires


Cyrus the Great

550 BCE

“Cyrus the Great” was the first king who formed the Persian Empire. Expanded the Persian Empire and was respected by those he conquered.

Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia.

539 BCE

Persian forces defeated the Babylonian army at the site of Opis, east of the Tigris. Cyrus entered Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch, restoring temples and releasing political prisoners.

Beginnings of Rome Republic

509 BCE

The Roman aristocrats succeeded in driving out the monarchy. Once free, they established a republic (government) which every citizen is expected to play an active role in governing the state.

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Conflicts between the Greek city-states of Sparta and Athens. The war was divided into 3 phases and was known the Great War. Athens surrendered, bringing an end to the golden age of Ancient Greece.

Philip II of Macedon

338 BCE

The father of Alexander the Great, he was a king and astounding military commander. The battle of Chaeronea. Philip II of Macedon defeats the Greek alliance directed against him, led by Athens and Thebes. "Without Philip's determination and insight, history would never heard of Alexander."

Julius Caesar

46 BCE - 44 BCE

A Roman general played a critical role in the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of the Roman Empire. After assuming control of government -- the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved. Caesar was assassinated by a group of senator, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored.