World History

Events

The Muslim World

Osman I

1299 - 1326

Timur the Lame

1375 - 1430

Mehmed II

1451 - 1481

Babur

1494 - 1530

1526- The Mughal Empire begins

Suleyman the Lawgiver

1520 - 1566

Humayan

1530 - 1556

Akbar

1556 - 1605

Jahangir and Nur Jahan

1605 - 1627

Shah Jahan

1627 - 1658

Aurangzeb

1658 - 1707

Isolation and Exploration

Japan at war with itself

1300

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Hongwu

1368 - 1398

Commander that drives Mongols out of China

Yonglo

1398

Launches 1st of 7 voyages

1405

Led by Zheng He

China Withdraws from World

1433

Civil War Ends

1467

Sengoku

1467 - 1568

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

1536 - 1598

Betrays Oda Nobunaga.

Oda Nobunaga

1568 - 1582

Commits seppuko- ritualistic suicide.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi controls most of country

1590

Toyotomi Hideyoshi dies, troops leave Korea

1592

Tokugawa Leyasu

1600 - 1616

Unifies all of Japan and Creates the Tokugawa Shogunate

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1867

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1750

Manchurians conquer China

Kangxi

1661 - 1722

Reduces government spending, lowers taxes, and gave government jobs to smart people.

Qian Long rules

1736 - 1795

Expands China to its largest size.

The European World

Johann Gutenberg

1395 - 1468

Medici Family in Control

1434

Gutenberg Bible Printed in Mainz

1455

King Henry VIII

1491 - 1547

Became King in 1509

King Henry VIII Starts Church of England

1534

Elizabethan Age

1558 - 1603

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

-most famous playwright in the world

The Atlantic World

Cabral Claims Brazil for Portugal

1500

Finds no gold, but plentiful in sugar.

America named after Amerigo Vespucci

1507

Balboa Treks Across Panama

1513

He sees the Pacific Ocean

Ponce De Leon Claims Florida for Spain

1517

Cortes Lands On Shores of Mexico

1519

Aztecs Rebel, force Spanish out

1520

The History of the Land of Israel

Israel is A Part of the Kingdom of Egypt

1640 BCE

Israel was a part of the Middle Kingdom of Israel. It began when Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II connected the northern and southern halves of Egypt. This period covers the 11th and 12th dynasty in Egypt. Egyptian culture flourished during this time.
This is an important time to include in this timeline, for it is one of the early accounts of Israel that steps away from the Biblical side of things.

Assyrian Empire Takes Over Israel

722 B.C. - 620 B.C.

Centered in Tigris, this Eastern Mesopotamian kingdom was a major empire. This was a huge time for and around the land of Israel. Assyria was at the time the most advanced already in technology, science, and culture and art. This time set Israel up for prosperous and advanced success in the future.

Persian Empire Controls the Land of Israel

550 BCE - 422 BCE

Established by Cyrus the Great, the Persian Empire was filled with imperial dynasties. The kingdom sought many changes in religion and rulers. What is now Iran, the Persian Empire set the groundwork for the Islamic country.
This is important, for now there is great conflicts between areas of the Persian Empire and the state of Israel; most likely due to the early development and teachings of the other countries.

Israel is Conquered by the Babylonians

422 BCE - 370 BCE

Set in what is present day Iraq, the beginning of the Babylonian State was a small, but mighty one. When Israel was under the Babylonian people, the state had expanded in part to the reign of Hammurabi.
Although the land was taken by force, this was another very powerful group that Israel lived under.

Macedonian Empire Controls the Land of Israel

359 BC - 338 BC

The Macedonian kingdom began in Greece. Alexander the Great however, took the Empire to new heights and conquered land as far at the Indus River. With this new land, Greek culture flourished. This led way to the rise of the Roman Empire.

Byzantine Empire Controls the Land of Israel

313 BCE

At the beginning of the Byzantine Empire, the land was dominantly Christian. The Romans in the Empire ruled the Holy Land. Jews were allowed to practice their religion at first. Later in 351, the Jews were persecuted by the Roman Emperor. The Jews rebelled, however, they didn't have the size or strength to go up against the Romans.

Jews Exiled From the Land of Israel by the Romans

135 CE

After a three year war, the Romans defeated the Jews forcing them out of the land.

Justinian Emperor

400 CE

Already an outcast and banned from Jerusalem, the Justinian Emperor tightened his grip on the Jews. The Samaritans were also persecuted, so they tried to rebel. They were completely destroyed though.

Sassanid Empire Controls the Land of Israel

614 CE - 800 CE

The Sassanian Empire controlled Israel for a brief time during the Byzantine-Sassanian War. This event is very important because for the first times the Jews were needed. To stop the Byzantine Christians, Jews joined the army along with Arabs. All the Jews who rebelled after being persecuted marched back into Jerusalem with the Sassanian Army and took the Holy Land back.

Israel is a Part of the Crusader Kingdoms

1095 CE - 1290 CE

The Crusades were a series of religious wars, each side fighting for the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Each claiming the city for themselves, armies including those of Catharism, Christendom, Hussites, the Mongol Empire, Waldensians, Russian Orthodox Church, Old Prussians, Greek Orthodox Church, and the Jewish people, all fought for control of the land. While the crusades lasted for years, today the Jewish people are the victors.

Seljuk Empire Controls the Land of Israel

1100 - 1150

The Seljuk Empire united the broken Islamic states. This Empire played a huge role in the first and second crusades. This is important for the crusades were a step to Israel becoming an actual state and homeland for the Jewish people.

Ottoman Empire Controls the Land of Israel

1500 - 1922

The Ottoman Empire rose to power when a Seljuk tribe went to Anatolia where the Byzantine Empire was. A primarily Muslim empire, the religious minorities were Judaism and Christianity. At the start of the Empire, Jews were allowed to practice there religion freely and the Holy Land was a place they could go to escape persecution. The decline of the empire led to the decline of the Jewish people. Towards the end of the empire though, interest in moving east increased and a wave of Jews from Russia came.

European Colonization of the Middle East

1912 CE - Approx. 1946 CE

Britain held a mandate over the state of Israel, once Palestine. They didn't want it to be a Jewish or an Arab state.

The State of Israel is Founded

1948

The creation of a Jewish state was under a lot of controversy. President Truman approved the creation, which led to many debates. The Partition Resolution stated that Palestine would be separated into Jewish and Arab States. Following World War II, Israel was created. Israel is the only state that is a complete Jewish state. While there is still a lot of controversy over Israel, it took all of the different land rulers to make it what it is today.

Israel is Expanded Under Armistice Agreement

1949

-Formally set agreements on borders to end the hostilities of the Arab-Israeli War in 1948
-Signed between Israel and its neighboring states: Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria
-Set boundaries between Israeli and Jordan-Iraqi forces

Absolute Monarchs in Europe

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Huguenots vs. Catholics Fought 8 Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Philip has...

1600

-336,000 pounds of gold
-32,000,000 pounds of sliver
-keeps a large military
-sets Spain up for economic collapse
-inflation

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Peace of Westphalia

1648

France Expanded into Spanish Netherlands

1667

-Treaty of Nijmegen ended war in 1678 Dutch vs. Europe

European Alliance to Stop France

1680

-France allied with Spain
-France and Spain united

Philip of Anjou

1680

-Louis's grandson
-took over Spain

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-ended in 1714
-Treaty of Utrecht

Louis XIV Dies

1715

-people rejoiced

Enlightenment and Revolution

1300-1600
-Renaissance (soul)
-Reformation (religion)
-Enlightenment (thought)

Copernicus Publishes His Findings

1543

-Heliocentric vs. geocentric
-dies in 1544

Galileo Builds Telescope

1609

Galileo Brought To Trial By Church

1633

-dies in 1642

3rd Quarter Check

Crusades

1096 - 1270

The Crusades were a series of religious wars, each side fighting for the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Each claiming the city for themselves, armies including those of Catharism, Christendom, Hussites, the Mongol Empire, Waldensians, Russian Orthodox Church, Old Prussians, Greek Orthodox Church, and the Jewish people, all fought for control of the land. While the crusades lasted for years, today the Jewish people are the victors.

The Renaissance

1300 - 1600

A Time of Rebirth
Started in Italy
-thriving cities (Urban- people living close together, people exchanging ideas)
-wealthy merchant class
-classical heritage of Greece and Rome

100 Year World

1353 - 1453

France vs. England
The end of the 100 Year War allowed for the Northern Renaissance to take form.

Ivan III

1462 - 1505

-conquers Moscow area
-liberates Russia from Mongols
-centralizes Russian Government
His son Vasily does the same thing as his father (centralizes power)

The Voyage of Columbus

1492

Columbus thought he landed in India, but actually landed in the West indies- The New World.

Amerigo Vespucci

1501

Sails east coast of South America and realizes it's not India, but a New World.

The Reformation

1517 - 1648

Started by Martin Luther
-95 thesis
-went against the Roman Catholic Church
-allowed for new denominations of religions to emerge

Magellan Tries to Sail Around the World

1519

-starts with five ships and 250 men
-gets killed in Philippines
-1 ship with 18 men returned

Spanish Conquer Aztecs

1521

-Spanish weaponry
-help of Native groups
-disease

Pizarro Marches 200 Men into Peru

1532

-defeats 30,000 Inca
-kidnaps the leader
-by 1533, Inca are defeated

Queen Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

-spends a ton of money
-fights with Parliment
-dies and leaves England in debt

Ivan IV

1533 - 1584

"Ivan the Terrible"
-from ages 3-16, Russia is fighting within itself
-at 16, he declares himself Czar
-marries Anastasia Ramanov

Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1563

aka counter reformation
-Officials of Trent: meeting of high ranking Catholic officials (to stop Reformation)
-church interpretation of Bible is final
-salvation is possible through faith and work
-the Bible and the church are equally powerful
-banned selling of indulgences

"The Good Period"

1547 - 1560

-adds land to Russia, code of laws, rules justly

Charles V Retires to a Monastery

1556

He devided the empire between his brother and son.
-Ferdinand (brother): Austria and the Holy Roman Empire
-Philip II (son): Spain, Spanish Netherlands, Spanish American Colonies
-deeply religious, duty to protect Catholics
-1580, King of Portugal dies, Philip takes control of the country
-declares bankruptcy 3 times

King Henry II Dies

1559

-his wife, Catherine de Medicis took over
-French protestants, Huguenots, conflicted with Catholics

"The Bad Period"

1560 - 1584

-starts when Anastasia dies
-claims the Boyers poisoned his wife
-creates police force to punish those against him (in his eyes)
-1581, he gets into an argument with his son and kills him
-1584, Ivan VI dies
-his son, Feodor I takes power then dies, does nothing, has no offspring
-struggle for power
-Ronanov family gains power (1613-1917)

Ottoman Empire Loses Power

1566

-Suleyman I, the last great Ottoman Sultan died in 1566, succeeded by weak rulers, coinage devalued+inflation occurred
-Selim III comes to power in 1789
-attempts to modernize the army, unsuccessful and is overthrown
-1830, Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire
-1833, Serbia gains self rule
-Europeans see the Ottoman Empire is weak

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

-Huguenots slaughtered
-Catherine's daughter, Marguerite of Valios, marries Huguenot Prince, Henry of Navarre (Henry IV, descended from King Louis IX)

Netherlands

1579

-a republic
-tolerant of religious beliefs
-focuses on economy
-buys others' surplus
-sells them when prices are high
-17th century is their Renaissance
-Rembrandt
-Don Quixote

Roanoke

1587 - 1590

-115 English settlers arrive
-John White is the governor, sails back to England
-1590, returns to Roanoke, settlers gone
- "croatoan" carved into a fence post
My theory- I believe that a disease took over the settler's colony forcing them to drop everything and leave. They wrote Croatoan to key that's where they were going, but those who left either assimilated or died quickly from the disease. The dead were burned leaving no traces of their bodies.

Catherine de Medici dies

1589

-Henry inherited the throne (1st King of the Bourbon Dynasty in France)
-converts to Catholicism, allows Huguenots to live in peace
-religious toleration, Edict of Nantes
-aided France, but was stabbed for his religious compromises (1610)

James Stuart Reigns

1603 - 1625

-after Queen Elizabeth leaves Britain in debt
-James Stuart inherits the crown
-already King of Scotland (James VI in Scotland, James I in England)
-struggles with money

Louis XIII Reigned

1624

-Henry IV's son
-bad king
-appointed Cardinal Richelieu to lead

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

-took two steps to increase power of Bourbon Monarchy
1.moved against Huguenots
2.weakened noble's power
-biggest obstacle is Hapsburg who ruled Spain, Austria, Netherlands,
parts of the Holy Roman Empire
-involved France in 30 Years War

Charles I Takes Over the Crown

1625

-son of James
-1628, asks parliament for money
-parliament asks Charles to sign the Petition of Rights
1. no imprisonments without due cause
2. parliament approves taxes
3. soldiers don't live in civilians houses
4. no martial law in peace time

English Civil War

1637

Charles I tries to create one religion
-forces Scotland to be Protestant, Scotland creates an army to oppose him
-Charles needs money to create an army against the Scots
-goes to Parliament for money, denied, he tries to arrest Parliament members

Louis XIV

1638 - 1715

-most powerful ruler in French history, he was only 4 years old when he began
-came to power in 1643 when father died, Richelieu's successor, Cardinal Mazarin, was ruling
-Mazarin ended 30 Years War
-nobles didn't like Mazarin, rebelled against him

Cardinal Mazarin

1642 - 1661

-dies in 1661, 22 year old Louis took control
-increased power of government agents called intendants (tax
collectors/administer justice)

Oliver Cronwell in The English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Parliment general
-tactis lead Parliament to victory
-Charles I captured, put on trial, executed (first time in history)

Peter the Great Reign

1682 - 1725

-1 port, iced over most of the year
-goes to war with Sweden, gains St. Petersburg
-Russia needs to westernize
-forces people to westernize
-increases his power
1. army of 200,000-high taxes
2. potato
3. creates newspaper
4. gives women some rights

Louis Canceled Edict of Nantes

1685

-economic growth, Jean Baptiste Colbert, mercantilism and tarrifs

The Atlantic Slave Trade

1690 - 1807

Slavery came to the Americas
By the end of the slaved trade, England had sent 1.7 Africans to the West indies.

The Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

-begins in Britain
-Agricultural Revolution paved the way
-crop innovations allowed for higher and faster crop yields which led to more
money
-Industrialization: process of developing machine production of goods;
requires extensive resources and goods--water power and coal, iron ore for machines/tools/buildings, rivers for inland transportation, harbors from where merchant ships can sail

Proclamation of 1763

1763

-after fight over the Ohio River Valley for Beaver Pelts
-French-Indian War (F+I vs. English)
-English and colonists win the war
-Proclamation states colonists can't go west of Appaclachians
-Enlgand owes money from the war
-they tax colonists, colonists angry, leads to the American Revolution

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

-The Great Fear: panic and violence swepted through France
-August 1789, old regime died, Tennis Court Oath, food shortage, France in debt
-June 1791, Louis XVI tries to escape...fails
-September 1791, NEW CONSTITUTION CREATED, limited constitutional monarchy, creates a legislative branch, legislative assembly, makes lawa and declare wars, but King still makes laws
-April 1792, Europe fears revolution is spreading, Austria and Prussia demand absolute monarchy return to France, France declares war on Austria and Prussia
-Summer 1792, Prussia near Paris, 20,000 French civilians storm Palace, take royal family prisoner
-September 1792, legislative assembly, declare the end of the monarchy

Revoultions in Haiti

1791

-In the late 1700s, Enlightenment Ideas + the French Revolution and American Revolution acted as inspiration to colonies seeking freedom
-1791, 100,000 slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture rise up against French oppression
-1801, L’Ouverture agrees, with France, to end rebellion
-France betrays him, and throws him in jail
L’Ouverture dies in jail in 1803
-1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines wins independence
-Names land “Haiti”
Translates to “mountainous land”

National Convention

1792 - 1795

-France is a republic
-monarchy is gone
-January 1793
-Louis XVI executed
-Battle of Valmy
-France wins
-Spain, Holland, England join war against France

Brazil's Royal Liberator

1807

-1807, Napoleon’s army closes in on Portugal
Portuguese royal family leaves Portugal and heads to Brazil
Rules the empire from Brazil
-1815, Napoleon is defeated
-1821, Portuguese royal family leaves Brazil, but leaves Prince Dom Pedro behind to rule Brazil
-1822, Creoles demand Brazilian Independence AND that Dom Pedro be the first leader of the new country
-1822, Dom Pedro agrees and Brazil becomes an independent country

Mexico's Independence from Spain

1810

-1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo leads peasants on a march to Mexico City, defeated
-1811, Padre Jose Maria Morelos continues the revolt started by Hidalgo
--He is defeated in 1815 by Agustin de Iturbide
-Iturbide is a Creole
-1821, Iturbide declares Mexico’s independence from Spain, crowns himself Emperor
-1823, Iturbide overthrown for not recognizing other Latin American countries from Mexico

Freeing Spain's Colonies

1817

-Venezuela declares independence from Spain in 1811
--1819, Simon Bolivar leads 2,000 men across the Andes into present day
Colombia and defeats the Spanish Army
-1821, Venezuela is now Independent
-Jose de San Martin
--1817, San Martin leads an army from Argentina, across the Andes, and into Chile
--Frees Chile from Spanish rule
-Bolivar and San Martin meet in person to get rid of Spain in Latin America
-Two men reach an agreement and San Martin gives his army to Bolivar
-Bolivar is successful with the army and defeats the Spanish to liberate Peru

The Opium War

1839 - 1842

-by 1835, 12 million Chinese addicted to opium
-Britain's steam engines defeat China's navy
-Britain gains Hong Kong
-1844, China signs another treaty granting foreign citizens extraterritorial rights
-foreigners not subject to Chinese law

The US Mexican War

1846 - 1848

-dispute over Texas border
-war for almost 2 years
-Treaty of Guadalupe
-US gains 500,000 square miles of land
-made Rio Grande the south border of Texas
-US paid Mexico $15 million and paid Mexican debts to US citizens

The Sepoy Mutiny

1850 - 1857

-1850 India, Samyra controlled most of India
-British were trying to force Christianity on them
-constant racism
-1857, gossip spread throughout India that new cartridges for their weapons were greased with pork and beef fat
-Hindus consider the cow sacred
-Muslims don't eat pork
-85 of 90 sepoys refused to accept the cartridges, they were jailed
-rebels sepoys captured Delhi, 1857
-East India Company regains control of the rebellion, but they needed help from the British gov't, sent troops to help

The Crimean War

1853 - Approx. 1856

-Each generation of Russian czars launched a war vs. Ottoman, wants a warm water port
-Britain, France, Ottoman Empire vs. Russia, Russia loses
-war revealed the weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire, for they had to ask for help
-Russia gains Balkans, Ottoman loses Romania, Montenego, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and land in Africa

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1, 1863

Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all the slaves in the rebel states. Two years later, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.

Bismarck Forges Early Pacts

1864 - 1871

-Prussia's chancellor, Otto Van Bismarck used war to unify Germany
-tangled alliances

Tangled Alliances

1871

-Bismarck is happy with the empire, peace maintains the empire
-Bismarck doesn't trust France (believes France wants revenge)
-plans to isolate France:
-step 1: isolate France
-step 2: France no allies= France isn't a danger

Bismarck Forms an Alliance

1879

-allies with Austria-Hungary
-creates a strong dual alliance

Bismarck Builds on the Alliance

1881

-Bismarck adds Italy to the alliance
-creates a triple alliance
-Russia then becomes a side ally to Germany, not included in the triple alliance

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

-European powers set claims to African land, colonies, and territories
-"the scramble for Africa" Europeans negotiated for land to have access to the resources and ports the continent had to offer
-destroyed a lot of African traditions and the people who celebrated them
-in 1914, only two African countries were not controlled by European powers: Ethiopia and Liberia

Royal Niger Company

1887

-helped Britain conquest Northern Nigeria, gained control of palm-oil trade along the Niger River
-1914, Britain claimed the entire area of Nigeria as a colony
-the colony was culturally diverse and very hard to manage (250 different ethnic groups)
-Hausa-Fulani, Muslim in the north
-Yoruba, traditional in the southwest
-Igbo, traditional in the southeast
-turned to indirect rule

Shifting Alliances Threatens Peace

1890 - 1907

-Wilhelm II Ruins Everything!!!
-1888, Wilhelm takes over as Kaiser, forces Bismarck to resign in 1890
-Wilhelm didn't want to share power, army is his greatest pride
-1890, treaty with Russia is over
-1892, Russia forms an alliance with France
-if Germany entered war with France or Russia they'd have to fight a two front war
-Wilhelm builds a huge navy to rival Great Britain
-1907, Great Britain joins the alliance with France and Russia
(TRIPLE ENTENTE)

A Restless Region

1908

-Ottoman Empire is declining
-Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
-Serbs vowed to take Bos and Herz away from Austrians
-Austria-Hungary vowed to crush any Serbian attempt to undermine authority

A Shot rings Throughout Europe

June 28, 1914

-Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by some nationalist Serbians
-Austria punishes Serbia for the assassination and they have some demands
-Serbian leaders agree to most, no negotiation
-one month later, Austria declares war on Serbia
-Russia, an ally of Serbia moves troops to the border of Austria

Europe Plunges into War

July 28, 1914

-two sides emerge
-triple alliance vs. triple entente
-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy vs. France, Russia, Great Britain