Classical Era Empires (600BCE-600CE)

China

Folding Umbrella

Approx. 300 B.C.


Created from natural materials such as leaves of eucalyptus and palmtrees. Later made from paper and silk

Lodestone

Approx. 240 B.C. - Approx. 240 B.C


Loadstones were used by ancient Chinese as compasses

Invention of Paper

Approx. 100 B.C.

In about 100 B.C paper was made in China

Shadow figures

Approx. 100 B.C

An ancient Chinese minister came upon children playing with dolls and saw the shadows they cast, which gave him an idea to cheer up his emperor. He made a puppet of Emperor Wu's late wife and invited him to see it and used the shadows in made to cheer up the emperor. This was the beginning of shadow figures/ puppets.

Shuowen Jiezi made

120 AD

Early 2nd century dictionary from Han Dynasty.

Battle of Xingshi

244 CE

Failed invasion on Shu Han by enemy Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms Period war. It took place at Mount Xingshi.

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-greatest-upsets-in-military-history

Battle of Xingshi

244 CE

Tea

Approx. 264 A.D. - Approx. 273 A.D

Tea was hailed as a cure for many ailments as well as good tea being a sign of status among nobility.

Sendan chair

Approx. 400 A.D.

Was the favorite mode of transportation among rich. Classified as a wheelless vehicle

Kite

Approx. 549 A.D.

Were sometimes flown as a symbol to appeal for help.

Aksum

Ancient Aksum Trading

325 BC - 1200 AD

The Askumite Empire was one of the most grand empires of its time with a lot of gold and trading. They traded with the Roman Empire, the Egyptian Empire, the Greek Empire, and the Persian Empire. They exported gold, rhino horn, incense, ivory, and obsidian.

Website Used http://ethiopedia.blogspot.com/2007/01/ethiopias-downfall-end-of-aksum-empire.html

Aksum Alphabet

101 AD - 300 AD

War, Aksum vs Jewish Himyarite

Approx. 520 CE

King Kaleb of Aksum declared war on King Dhu Newas of the Jewish Himyarite, who was trying to persecute christianity. King Kaleb defeated and killed King Duh Newas, making Aksum a Christian Himyarite.

Kushites

Map

600 BC

this is the Kush empire

Kush Pyramids

Approx. 600 bc - Present

The Kush pyramids were smaller than the Egyptian pyramids but they were still pretty large. they were used to burry there kings queens and princes.
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/piramides/coppens_pyramids02.htm

Rome

latin spread

1000 bc

latin was spread to italy by indo-european immigrants

Rome Creates Republic

509 B.C. - 27 B.C

Website: https://www.britannica.com/place/Roman-Republic

Romans created the first republic, a form of government still used today. Cultural Diffusion is represented by the Roman Republic because we have a form of Republic in the United States.

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts between the Romans and the Carthaginians, fought in 3 separate wars. Prior to the first Punic War, Rome was a little city on the Italian Peninsula, and Carthage was the richest, most powerful city on the Mediterranean, due to their powerful navy and proximity to the sea. They had a treaty with Rome that prevented them from trading in the Western Mediterranean. They could easily uphold this, but Rome started getting angry with Carthage over control of Sicily, an island on which the two powers shared control. Due to a disagreement with Heiro ll and the Mamertines of Messina, they went to war over Sicily in 264 BC. Though the Romans quickly learned how to build ships, they didn't have the experience at sea or a general of the caliber of Hamilcar, a Carthaginian general. Carthage could have overpowered Rome if they had given more supplies to their troops. However, they were content in resting on their laurels, while the Romans tried their absolute best. The Romans won a significant number of victories over Carthage, and in 241 BC they set out to negotiate a treaty. The war was devastating to both countries, but Carthage even more. From 241 to 237 BC the mercenaries who hadn't been paid laid siege to Carthage, which also weakened them. A treaty was signed in 226 BC which divided Spanish territory between Rome and Carthage, and both agreed to it. In 219 BC, Hamilcar's son Hannibal attacked the city of Saguntum, a Roman ally, and the Second Punic War began. Hannibal took a bold risk and took his troops into Northern Italy, and he might have been successful if Carthage had given him the supplies he needed, but they didn't and he couldn't take Rome itself. Roman general Scipio attacked Carthage itself, and crushed Hannibal's forces using carefully planned tactics the Roman general learned from studying Hannibal's. Carthage surrendered. Carthage was allowed to keep its colonies in Africa, but was not allowed to start a war without Rome's approval, and was forced to pay a huge war debt to Rome. Against all odds, Carthage survived and began to prosper, war debt and all. However, the government taxed the people heavily to pay the war debt, and when Hannibal tried to rectify the situation, he was betrayed and killed. Carthage payed off the war debt, but started another war, lost, and had to pay another war debt. Since this broke the agreement, Rome suggested that Carthage be moved inland. They refused to comply, and the Third Punic War began. After attacking the city relentlessly for 3 years, Roman general Scipio Aemilianus sacked it and razed it. Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean, and Carthage was destroyed, until it was rebuilt after Julius Caesar's demise. The Punic Wars helped Rome gain the experience and wealth they needed to dominate the Mediterranean.
Source: http://www.ancient.eu/Punic_Wars/

latin created

100 BC - Present

Their language latin was created

writing

100 bc

Creation of The Julian Calendar

46 B.C. - 1582 A.D.

The Julian Calendar was aligned to the solar year making it 365 days instead of 355 but it was off by 11 minutes making it off by 7 days later in 1582 A.D. then they got a new calendar with a better leap year schedule so that they wouldn't go off as much

Nubian

Wars

350 AD - 500 AD

Around 350 AD, the Nubian area was invaded by the kingdom of Aksum and the kingdom of the Nubian collapsed. Eventually, three smaller kingdoms replaced it: Northernmost was Nobatia near the first and second cataract of the Nile River. In
the middle was Makuria and the southernmost was Alodia. King Silky crushed the Blemmyes, and recorded the victory in a Greek inscription on the wall of the temple of Talmis around 500 AD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubia

Olmec/Maya

Human Sacrifice

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

They used the weak as pools in sacrifice to make them do what ever they wanted. They started with sacrifice and ended with it. This was a major reason why they were destroyed and had fallen.

The start of the civilization

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

Olmec

600 BCE

Iconography

600 BCE

Iconographic decorations and texts on buildings are important contributors to the overall current knowledge of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican society, history and religion.

Olmec

600 BCE

Olmec Writing

Approx. 500 BC - Approx. 300 BC

The Olmec's did have some language, but there isn't much writing with it. But the writing found shows that they were literate, and they were one of the first civilizations to show symbolism. The Cascajal Block is the only example of Olmec writing found, making it unable to decipher, but proves they had writing at all.

Cascajan Block

500 BC

Olmec Writing

Approx. 500 BC - Approx. 300 BC

The Olmec's did have some language, but there isn't much writing with it. But the writing found shows that they were literate, and they were one of the first civilizations to show symbolism. The Cascajal Block is the only example of Olmec writing found, making it unable to decipher, but proves they had writing at all.
http://www.jyi.org/issue/olmec-writing-the-oldest-in-the-western-hemisphere/

India (Mauryan/Gupta)

Sanskrit

2600 B.C

In india their were over 10 different languages, but the most common was Sanskrit, but it was only taught to the brahmin children so most of the people did not understand it.

Seleucid–Mauryan war

305 B.C. - 303 B.C.

In 305 B.C. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya led his troops into battle to try to capture satrapies left behind by Alexander The Great as he retreated westward. Seleucus I Nicator fought to defend the territory but both sides ended up making peace in 303 B.C. The treaty gave Emperor Chandragupta Maurya the territories he was warring for and in exchange Seleucus I Nicator got 500 highly valued war elephants.

Silk Road

136 B.C

During this time the silk road went through India in the south and many other places ( Central Asia , Japan , Korea ) .The Silk Road is a considered cultural diffusion in India because it went through India . Since the Silk road went through India that means that different cultures from China , Japan, Turkey and Italy came through India.Different languages,food,varieties of cultures and more were brought to India through the Silk Road

http://classroom.synonym.com/cultural-diffusion-silk-route-ancient-china-6945.html

Ancient Indian Astronomy

Approx. 500 A.D.

Suryasidhanta is the best know book on Hindu astronomy. The text was modified two or three times between 500 A.D. and 1500 A.D. The system in the book is used to predict eclipse even now.
http://www.thisismyindia.com/ancient_india/ancient-india-technology.html

Greece

Greco-punic wars

600 BC - 307 BC

Fought between hellenistic kingdoms( who ruled the eastern Mediterranean) and the Carthaginian Republic( who dominated the western Mediterranean)

Titanomachy

Approx. 600 B.C.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanomachy_(epic_poem) It's a lost epic poem about Zeus and his siblings (olympian gods) overthrowing their father Cronus and his generation (the Titans)

Greeks invent early clock

Approx. 500 BCE

http://etc.ancient.eu/education/10-ancient-greek-inventions-discoveries-still-used-today/ The early clocks were not today's, using water and weights to measure time. This is a technological advancement by making it easier to see the passage of time.

Greeks invent the Perachora wheel

Approx. 200 BCE

http://etc.ancient.eu/education/10-ancient-greek-inventions-discoveries-still-used-today/

The Perachora Wheel is basically an early water mill, invented around the 3rd century BCE. This is technological advancement as it made grinding grain easier.

Greeks invent early Odometer

27 BCE

http://etc.ancient.eu/education/10-ancient-greek-inventions-discoveries-still-used-today/ The odometer is a device commonly in use today, measuring distance traveled. This is a technological advancement by making measuring distance easier.

Aztec Empire

Sculpture

Approx. 300 CE - Approx. 600 CE

The Aztecs became master craftsmen of sculpting to then enhance their weaponry, culture and Arts

Contact with Tikal

378

Trade begins between the two groups, spreading knowledge and resources.

Contact with Tikal

378

Incensario Lid

400 C.E. - 600 C.E.

An Incense Burner that is in the Brooklyn Museum.

Source: https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/1542

Cortes arrival

11/8/1519 - 11/9/1519

New allies.

1/1/1520 - 3/14/1524

charge of aztec

1/2/1520 - 2/23/1520

Nubian/Kushites

Written Language

200 BC

People now still do not understand the language enough to read more than a few words/phrases.

Events

cultural diffusion

206 B.C.E - 220 C.E

this is about the religion known a s buddihsm that started in india but soon spread to all of china during the Han dynasty

Ancient Aksum Technonlgy

100 A.D. - 904 A.D.

The Aksum Kingdom was one of the first empires to issue their own currency. They also created a special method of farming called "terrace farming", where you cut out step-like features in hills to create flat surfaces for farming.

India

Sanskrit

2600 B.C

In india their were over 10 different languages, but the most common was Sanskrit, But as years went on they slowly declined from Sanskrit because they would start to only teach it to the Brahim children.

India ( Mauryan/Gupta)

Silk Road

136 B.C

During this time the silk road went through India in the south and many other places ( Central Asia , Japan , Korea ) .The Silk Road is to be considered cultural diffusion in India because it went through India and other places . Since the Silk road went through India, that means that different cultures from China , Japan, Turkey and Italy came through India.Different languages,food,varieties of cultures and more were brought to India through the Silk Road . India was famous or well known for its fabrics ,dyes, ivory,semi-precious stones and much more .

http://www.advantour.com/silkroad/goods.htm
http://classroom.synonym.com/cultural-diffusion-silk-route-ancient-china-6945.html

Olmec

The start of the civilization

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

Human Sacrifice

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

They used the weak as pools in sacrifice to make them do what ever they wanted. They started with sacrifice and ended with it. This was a major reason why they were destroyed and had fallen. Website:
http://www.realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Olmec_the_Americas.htm

Iconography

600 BCE

Iconographic decorations and texts on buildings are important contributors to the overall current knowledge of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican society, history and religion.... URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iconography

Olmec

600 BCE

Olmec

600 BCE