World History

European Renaissance and Reformation

Elizabethan Era

1558 - 1603

The Muslim World Expands

Humayun

1530 - 1556

Mughal Empire

Jahangir

1605 - 1627

Mughal Empire

An Age of Explorations and Isolation

Marco Polo reaches China

1275

Japan at war with itself

1300

Japan and Isolation

Hongwu

1368 - 1398

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

China and Europe

Yonglo

1398

Yonglo moved the capital to Beijing and Beijing is still the capital of China today. He is very curious about the outside world and begins exploration. However, under his rule, China withdraws from the world and they build the great wall of China.

Monarchs don't want to pay high prices for spice

1403

Europeans move East

Launches 1st of 7 voyages

1405

China's period of voyages

1405 - 1433

China withdraws from World

1433

Civil war ends

1467

Sengoku

1467 - 1568

warring states period (101 yrs)

Oda Nobunaga

1568 - 1582

commits suicide (seppuku)

Toyotomi Hideyoshi controls most of country

1590

Toyotomi Hideyoshi dies

1592

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

Dynasty weakens

1600

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1600

Tokugawa dies

1616

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1750

Manchurians
After the fall of Ming Dynasty the Manchurians invaded China and created the Qing Dynasty

Ming dynasty falls

1644

Kangxi

1661 - 1722

Qian Long

1736

The Atlantic World

St.Croix natives resist Columbus by throwing poisonous arrows

1493

Vespucci

1501

sails east cost of SA realizes it is a new world

America named after Vespucci

1509

Balboa

1513

treks across Panama sees Pacific Ocean (not true)

Ponce de Leon

1513

claims Florida for Spain
Fountain of Youth

Ponce de Leon claims Florida for Spain

1513

Cortes lands on shores of Mexico

1519

Aztecs rebel and Spanish are forced out

1520

Spanish conquer Aztecs

1521

Pizarro marches 200 men into Peru

1533

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado goes through present day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas

1540 - 1541

encomienda system abolished

1542

encomienda- a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

Roanoke

1587 - 1590

115 English settlers
John White governor sails back to england
A disease came and the survivor fled to Croatoan

John White returns to Roanoke

1590

no one there
luxury good left
"Croatoan" carved into fence post
"cro" scratched into a tree trunk

Pedro de Peralta led settlers to a tributary up the Rio Grande

1609 - 1610

the starving time

1609 - 1610

two ships arrive

1610

John Rolfe
Tabacco

John Rolfe befriends native americans (cheif Powhatan)

1614

Pueblo ruler, Pope, leads a well organized rebellion against the Spanish

1680

Absolute Monarch in Europe

Charles V retires to a monastery

1556

-divides empire between brother and son
-Ferdinand(brother), Austria and the Holy Roman Empire
-Phillip II (son), Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and Spanish American Colonies

Netherlands declares independence from Spain

1579

30 yrs war

1618 - 1648

Hapsburg Triumph

1618 - 1630

-125000 troops

Habsburg Defeats

1630 - 1648

-France (catholic) joins with protestants
- France fears Hab,--> protestants

Third Quarter Timeline Check

Crusades

1096 - 1270

The Crusades were fought between the Muslims and the Christians in Southwest Asia and it gives Christians the chance to catch up technologically through cultural diffusion.

Osman I

1299 - 1323

Osman was the most famous and successful emir. He makes the Ottomans militarily successful. Osman replaces archers with musketmen, among the first to use cannons, and they conquer second largest Byzantine City. When they conquered the second largest Byzantine City and they improved the lives of peasants but caused Muslim men to fight in the army.

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1923

Renaissance

1300 - 1600

The Renaissance in northern Italy caused a very sudden changes in education, the arts, literature, science, and medicine. Instead of believing that everything happened because of God, citizens began to rely on science. They thought that if you suffered while you lived you would be happy once you died.

Hundred Years' War

1353 - 1453

The 100 years war allowed the Renaissance to come to England. It was fought between France and England. Citizens were more concerned with staying alive instead of art; therefore, the Renaissance ideas couldn't move north. Instead it spread to southern Italy. The end of this war brings the Renaissance to Northern Europe. People have money to spend, so they commission artists.
War ends --> French Attack Italy --> Italians leave --> make money

Timur the Lame

1370 - 1405

Timur the Lame burns Baghdad down, halts Ottoman expansion, and moves east to China.

Mehmed II

1451 - 1481

Mehmed II conquers Constantinople (becomes Istanbul) and opened it to other religions. Under his rule, Egypt falls to Ottoman Empire.

Ivan III

1462 - 1505

Ivan III conquers the Moscow area and liberates Russia from the Mongols. The Mongols were very rule people so being liberated from them was major. He is also able to centralize the Russian government.

Columbus

1492

Christopher Columbus is known as the person who discovered America even though Native Americans were here first. Columbus wasn't actually searching for America he was looking for India and that's where he thought he had arrived. He gave the Native Americans the name "Indians" that is still used today but very inaccurate. His disregard to the native peoples that were already living in America has lead to the continuous mistreat of Native Americans and other native people.

Babur

1494 - 1530

Babur was a brilliant general who builds and army. He lays the foundation for Mughal Empire and conquers India.

Mughal Empire

1494 - 1707

Cabral

1500

All of the other land in South America has either been claimed by Spain or has not been explored yet. By claiming Brazil for Portugal and had a cultural impact on that country. Now, Brazil is the only country in South America that is not a Spanish - speaking country (Spanish is not their first language). In Brazil, the citizens speak Portuguese.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Renaissance led to the Reformation. The Reformation was caused by social, political, economic, and religious reasons.
Social Reasons
-humanism and secularism made people question the church
-printing press spread ideas
Political Reasons
-powerful monarchs challenged church power
-leaders viewed Pope as foreign ruler
Economic Reasons
-European rulers were jealous of the church of wealth
-People resented having to pay taxes to Church
Religious Reason
-church leaders became corrupt
-objection to practice indulgences

It led to the Peace of Augsburg that allowed each ruler to decide the religion of their state.

Magellan

1519 - 1525

Magellan is famous for sailing around the world with his team of sailors; however, he died along the way in the Philippines. Although he did not make it all the way around the world, one ship with 18 men in it were able to successfully travel around the world. This opened up new trade routes around the world.

Pope Leo X threatened Luther with Excommunication

1520

Martin Luther wanted to be a good Christian and does not agree with indulgences. He creates a document called the "95 theses" saying why indulgences are wrong.
1. salvation is only achieved by forgiveness
2. teachings based on the book
3. all people with faith are equal ("all people" = white men)

Martin Luther and his followers branch off to form Lutherans. Leads to the Peasant Revolt.

Suleyman the Lawgiver

1520 - 1566

Suleyman pushes into central Europe and created law codes and limited taxes.

Ivan the Terrible

1533 - 1584

Catholic Counter-Reformation

1545 - 1563

Catholic Counter-Reformation led to the Council of Trent. During the Council of Trent, leaders of the catholic church gathered to plan for regaining a Catholic foothold on Europe. This had a long term effect on the principles of the church.
1. Church interpretation of the Bible was absolute.
2. The church and bible were equal
3. Salvation was attainable but only through faith and work
4. Indulgences were permitted, selling of indulgences was forbidden

The Good Period

1547 - 1560

During Ivan IV's good perios he adds hand, creates a code of laws, and overall rules very justly.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The Peace of Augsburg created and lessened tension in areas. It allowed for the ruler of that area to choose the religion of that region. Some areas had multiple rulers and the religions began to clash. Whereas in other regions, rulers and citizens were finally able to worship and practice the religion of their choice.

Akbar

1556 - 1605

Recognizes that military is his power
-Believes that aggressive actions deter neighbors
-Uses heavy artillery, used to bring down walls
Turns potential enemies into allies, by giving them positions in his government
Continues Islamic Tradition of religious freedom
Arts
-Patron, but also he invested in Architecture and Blended Cultures
Tax Code
-Creates an effective tax policy
-Graduated income tax
-Tax based on your earnings
Land Policy
-Gave land to members of his government
-Good thing = feudal system cannot emerge
-Bad thing = owners don’t take care of the land

The tax code created by Akbar is very efficient and still used today. The policy requires everyone to pay a tax based on how much money they make instead of holding everyone to the same standard for how much they should pay.

The Bad Period

1560 - 1584

His wife anatasia dies and he claims that the Boyars (Russian landowning nobles) poisoned his wife. He goes on to create a police that will punish everyone against him (in his eyes).
He kills his son

Phillip II takes control of Portugal

1580

Phillip II takes control of Portugal after the king dies. He declares bankruptcy of the country 3 times.
By 1600 Spain has,
-33600 lbs of gold
-32000 lbs of silver

This eventually sets Spain up for economic collapse (inflation).

Jamestown

1607

Jamestown was the 1st permanent english settlement it created a very efficient system where if the people did not work they could not eat.

Shah Jahan

1627 - 1658
  1. When Shah Jahan was seeking protection, the Sikhs offered to protect them. This action has caused the Sikhs to be a very hated group of people to this day.
  2. Shah Jahan was so obsessed with his wife, that when she died he built the Taj Mahal in her honor. During the construction of the Taj Mahal, Indians suffer from both heavy taxes and famine.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

The Peace of Westphalia ends the War
-France gets stronger
-small German states independent from Holy Roman Empire
-religious wars over
-new way to negotiate the end of a war

Aurangzeb

1658 - 1707

Aurangezeb was able to expand the Mughal Empire to its largest state. He was very strict about Islam and being Muslim so he...
1. Brought back non-Muslim tax
2. Enforced strict Islamic Law
3. Banned non-Muslims from government

Selective Breeding

1700 - 1786

Robert Blackwell experimented with sheep and began the process known as selective breeding. During this time the weight of the lamb increases from 18 lbs to 50 lbs. The concept of selective breeding was even used during slavery in order to build stronger slaves.

Flying Shuttle

1733

John Kay creates the flying shuttle which double the work a weaver could do in a day. This greatly changed the textile industry by allowing production to greatly increase.

Small farms become Large Holdings

1750 - 1760

At first England was covered with small farms, but as wealthy landowners consolidate the small farms into larger holdings, the Agricultural Revolution begins and people begin to lose their jobs.

British East India Company

1757

Robert Clive leads the East India Company against Indian forces in the Battle of Plassey. Their win allows the British East India Company to rule for the next 100 years. During that time, the government, military, and other customs and India were very different. Since they ruled for so long it had an influence on current Indian policies and culture.

Water Frame

1769

Richard Arkwright invents the water frame so that the spinning wheels could be powered by water instead of manually. Although people still had to be at the factories to make sure that the machines functioned properly, these new inventions were not only modernizing but putting people out of their jobs.

Royalist march on National Convention

1795

Napoleon is called to defend the national convention. After his victory, he becomes a national hero and saves the new government.

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

Horatio Nelson leads the British naval forces to a victory of (2-0). Two major results
1.British navy stays most powerful for next 100 years.
2. Napoleon abandons his invasion plans.

War of 1812

1812

Great Britain blockaded the United States which prevented it from trading with other countries for goods. This forced the Untied States to become self-sufficient and the US develops its own industry.

Powers Emerge from Congress of Vienna

1815

Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia emerge from the Congress of Vienna and they are all equal in strength. However, there is a shift in power because of all of the wars during the 1800s. Britain and Germany become the strongest, France in the middle, and Austria and Russia are very far behind.

Liverpool to Manchester Railroad Completed

1830

As more product was produced, people began to want a way to transport themselves and product. Creation of railways lead to an increase in trade, the development of foreign policies, and urbanization.
Effects of Railroad
1.spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials
2.created hundreds of new jobs
3.boosted England's agricultural and fishing industries
4. made travel easier and encourages country people to take city jobs

12 million Chinese people are addicted to opium

1835

China was a self-sufficient country that has very little interest with trading with he west. There is only one port open for foreign trade. This worked in China's favor because they were able to earn more money for their exports than it spent on imports.
European merchants wanted to find a product that would open up China. The product was opium (a habit narcotic made from the poppy plant and used in Chinese medicine). The merchants began to smuggle opium for non medicinal purposes. Eventually 12 million Chinese people were addicted to the drug.

Opium War

1839

China's leader writes a letter to Queen Victoria asking why opium was being sold in China if it was illegal in Britain. She completely ignores the letter and continues to sell opium.
The war begins and it is mainly sea battles. The Chinese outdated ships are fighting against the British steam-powered gun boats. Chinese realizes that they need to modernize, but by that time it is too late because they are already in the war. They suffer a humiliating defeat and the British gain Hong King.

China signs another treaty granting foreign citizens extraterritorial rights

1844

This states that foreign citizens are not subject to Chinese law. This allows China to not be taken over.
Example: If I go to China as an American and decide to drink there because here the drinking law is 15, the Chinese government cannot punish me because I am not Chinese.

China's population at 430 million people

1850

China's population is increasing rapidly, but food production has not increased at all. Eventually this will lead to shortages and China will have to open more ports. In addition, the amount of opium addicts is rising and the Chinese rebel against the Qing Dynasty.

Crimean War

1853

Each generation of Russian czar launched war against the Ottoman Empire to gain a warm water port. Britain and France help the Ottoman Empire fight Russia. Although the Ottoman Empire wins the war, they make a mistake by letting in Britain and France. The Ottoman Empire was very weak and now Britain and France see how weak they are.

Turks grant equal rights to everyone

1856

Under the pressure of Great Britain and France the Turks gives equal rights to everyone. Conservative Turks are outraged and tensions rise throughout the empire. As a result the Ottoman Empire massacred and deported Armenians from 1894-1896 and again i 1915. This leads to the ongoing abuse of Armenians.

Sepoy Mutiny

1857

In 1850, India was controlled by Samyra and the British were trying to force christian ity on them and the Indians experienced constant racism. Gossip begins to spread that the new cartridges for weapons are greased with pork and beef fat. The cow is scared to Hindus and Muslims do not eat pork. In order to open the cartridge people had to use their mouth. The cow is sacred to Hindus and Muslims do not eat pork. They felt as though it was very unfair that the cartridges were greased with pork and beef fat so they rebelled and captured Delhi.

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

Otto von Bismark, Prussia's chancellor unifies Germany through war. In 1871, Bismark is satisfied with how much Germany has unified.
This unification helps in war because they are all on one accord instead of trying to fight against each other and the war.

Breakup of Austrian Empire

1866

After defeating Austria-Hungary in the Austria-Prussia War, Prussia gains control of the North German Confederation. Francis Joseph, the emperor of Austria splits the country into Austria and Hungary.

Bismark (Germany) tries to isolate France

1879 - 1881

Bismark did not trust France at all and believed that they wanted revenge. His first and last goal was to isolate France. He believed that as long as France didn't have allies, they wouldn't be a threat.

Dual Alliance

1879

Bismark forms alliance with Austria Hungary

Triple Alliance

1881

Bismark adds Italy to the Dual Alliance.

Russia "added into alliance"

1881

Germany becomes allies with Russia, but Russia is not connected with Austria Hungary and Italy. The other two countries of the Triple Alliance are aware of Germany's connection with Russia, but are not concerned. However, it is better that Germany is the middle man between Austria- Hungary and Russia because they both want the same territory.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

During the Berlin Conference it was decided that if you claimed an area, you had to be able to control that area. They drew lines for the countries in Africa, but did not take into account the tribes that had already set up their own territories. No one from Africa was at the Berlin conference.
Positive effects
-nationalism (from the Africans)
-industrialization
-sanitation improvements
-advanced weaponry
-improved trade
-brought order
-globalization
-humanitarian acts
-railroads = transportation

Negative effects
-cultural fracturing
-loss of culture (assimilation)
-competition with ethnic groups (still continues today)
-limited power of African in their own country
-death from disease and war
-loss of money
-loss of independence
-completely sabotages Africa's future

Russia no longer in alliance

1890

Wilhelm II ruins everything and takes over as kaiser in 1888. Two years later he forces Bismark to resign because he didn't want to share power.
In 1890, Wilhelm II allows the treaty with Russia to lapse. Now that Russia is on its own it searches for another alliance and turns against Germany (Triple Alliance).

Russia forms alliance with France

1892

Russia no longer has a treaty with Germany because of Wilhelm II and must find another alliance to be apart of. They form an alliance with France.
Germany enters war with France which uses them to fight a two front war.

Armenians deported and Massacred

1894 - 1896

Triple Entente

1907

Wilhelm II begins to build a navy rival with Great Britain and Great Britain starts to get nervous.
Eventually Great Britain joins the alliance with France and Russia to form the Triple Entente.

Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina

1908

Bosnia and Herzegovina had a very large Slavic population and the Serbs wanted to rule.*** The Serbs did not like he Austrians and vowed to take Bosnia Herzegovina away from the Austrians. However, the Austrians vowed to crush the Serbians attempts to undermine authority.
***At this point, the Slavs and the Serbs are like one group.

Two sides have emerged

1914

The two sides of World War I have emerged. The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente are both alliance with many countries involved in them. The sides being split into these two alliances caused a lot of people to be dragged into the war.

Austria vs Serbia

1914

While visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife are assassinated by a Serb.
Austria wanted to punish Serbia and decide to give Serbia demands. Although the Serbian leaders agreed to most of the demands, Austria did not want to negotiate.
The same day, Austria declares war on Serbia. Because of the multiple alliances, Austria declaring war begins the start of many wars and countries entering into the war. Russia, an ally on Serbia, moves their troops to the border of Austria.

The fact that the Austrians knew that the Slavs/Serbs were already upset with them ruling made the assassination even worse.

Armenian Deported and Massacred Part 2

1915