Japan and Isolation
China and Europe
Yonglo moved the capital to Beijing and Beijing is still the capital of China today. He is very curious about the outside world and begins exploration. However, under his rule, China withdraws from the world and they build the great wall of China.
Europeans move East
warring states period (101 yrs)
commits suicide (seppuku)
After the fall of Ming Dynasty the Manchurians invaded China and created the Qing Dynasty
sails east cost of SA realizes it is a new world
treks across Panama sees Pacific Ocean (not true)
claims Florida for Spain
Fountain of Youth
encomienda- a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
115 English settlers
John White governor sails back to england
A disease came and the survivor fled to Croatoan
no one there
luxury good left
"Croatoan" carved into fence post
"cro" scratched into a tree trunk
-divides empire between brother and son
-Ferdinand(brother), Austria and the Holy Roman Empire
-Phillip II (son), Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and Spanish American Colonies
-France (catholic) joins with protestants
- France fears Hab,--> protestants
The Crusades were fought between the Muslims and the Christians in Southwest Asia and it gives Christians the chance to catch up technologically through cultural diffusion.
Osman was the most famous and successful emir. He makes the Ottomans militarily successful. Osman replaces archers with musketmen, among the first to use cannons, and they conquer second largest Byzantine City. When they conquered the second largest Byzantine City and they improved the lives of peasants but caused Muslim men to fight in the army.
The Renaissance in northern Italy caused a very sudden changes in education, the arts, literature, science, and medicine. Instead of believing that everything happened because of God, citizens began to rely on science. They thought that if you suffered while you lived you would be happy once you died.
The 100 years war allowed the Renaissance to come to England. It was fought between France and England. Citizens were more concerned with staying alive instead of art; therefore, the Renaissance ideas couldn't move north. Instead it spread to southern Italy. The end of this war brings the Renaissance to Northern Europe. People have money to spend, so they commission artists.
War ends --> French Attack Italy --> Italians leave --> make money
Timur the Lame burns Baghdad down, halts Ottoman expansion, and moves east to China.
Mehmed II conquers Constantinople (becomes Istanbul) and opened it to other religions. Under his rule, Egypt falls to Ottoman Empire.
Ivan III conquers the Moscow area and liberates Russia from the Mongols. The Mongols were very rule people so being liberated from them was major. He is also able to centralize the Russian government.
Christopher Columbus is known as the person who discovered America even though Native Americans were here first. Columbus wasn't actually searching for America he was looking for India and that's where he thought he had arrived. He gave the Native Americans the name "Indians" that is still used today but very inaccurate. His disregard to the native peoples that were already living in America has lead to the continuous mistreat of Native Americans and other native people.
Babur was a brilliant general who builds and army. He lays the foundation for Mughal Empire and conquers India.
All of the other land in South America has either been claimed by Spain or has not been explored yet. By claiming Brazil for Portugal and had a cultural impact on that country. Now, Brazil is the only country in South America that is not a Spanish - speaking country (Spanish is not their first language). In Brazil, the citizens speak Portuguese.
The Renaissance led to the Reformation. The Reformation was caused by social, political, economic, and religious reasons.
-humanism and secularism made people question the church
-printing press spread ideas
-powerful monarchs challenged church power
-leaders viewed Pope as foreign ruler
-European rulers were jealous of the church of wealth
-People resented having to pay taxes to Church
-church leaders became corrupt
-objection to practice indulgences
It led to the Peace of Augsburg that allowed each ruler to decide the religion of their state.
Magellan is famous for sailing around the world with his team of sailors; however, he died along the way in the Philippines. Although he did not make it all the way around the world, one ship with 18 men in it were able to successfully travel around the world. This opened up new trade routes around the world.
Martin Luther wanted to be a good Christian and does not agree with indulgences. He creates a document called the "95 theses" saying why indulgences are wrong.
1. salvation is only achieved by forgiveness
2. teachings based on the book
3. all people with faith are equal ("all people" = white men)
Martin Luther and his followers branch off to form Lutherans. Leads to the Peasant Revolt.
Suleyman pushes into central Europe and created law codes and limited taxes.
Catholic Counter-Reformation led to the Council of Trent. During the Council of Trent, leaders of the catholic church gathered to plan for regaining a Catholic foothold on Europe. This had a long term effect on the principles of the church.
1. Church interpretation of the Bible was absolute.
2. The church and bible were equal
3. Salvation was attainable but only through faith and work
4. Indulgences were permitted, selling of indulgences was forbidden
During Ivan IV's good perios he adds hand, creates a code of laws, and overall rules very justly.
The Peace of Augsburg created and lessened tension in areas. It allowed for the ruler of that area to choose the religion of that region. Some areas had multiple rulers and the religions began to clash. Whereas in other regions, rulers and citizens were finally able to worship and practice the religion of their choice.
Recognizes that military is his power
-Believes that aggressive actions deter neighbors
-Uses heavy artillery, used to bring down walls
Turns potential enemies into allies, by giving them positions in his government
Continues Islamic Tradition of religious freedom
-Patron, but also he invested in Architecture and Blended Cultures
-Creates an effective tax policy
-Graduated income tax
-Tax based on your earnings
-Gave land to members of his government
-Good thing = feudal system cannot emerge
-Bad thing = owners don’t take care of the land
The tax code created by Akbar is very efficient and still used today. The policy requires everyone to pay a tax based on how much money they make instead of holding everyone to the same standard for how much they should pay.
His wife anatasia dies and he claims that the Boyars (Russian landowning nobles) poisoned his wife. He goes on to create a police that will punish everyone against him (in his eyes).
He kills his son
Phillip II takes control of Portugal after the king dies. He declares bankruptcy of the country 3 times.
By 1600 Spain has,
-33600 lbs of gold
-32000 lbs of silver
This eventually sets Spain up for economic collapse (inflation).
Jamestown was the 1st permanent english settlement it created a very efficient system where if the people did not work they could not eat.
The Peace of Westphalia ends the War
-France gets stronger
-small German states independent from Holy Roman Empire
-religious wars over
-new way to negotiate the end of a war
Aurangezeb was able to expand the Mughal Empire to its largest state. He was very strict about Islam and being Muslim so he...
1. Brought back non-Muslim tax
2. Enforced strict Islamic Law
3. Banned non-Muslims from government
Robert Blackwell experimented with sheep and began the process known as selective breeding. During this time the weight of the lamb increases from 18 lbs to 50 lbs. The concept of selective breeding was even used during slavery in order to build stronger slaves.
John Kay creates the flying shuttle which double the work a weaver could do in a day. This greatly changed the textile industry by allowing production to greatly increase.
At first England was covered with small farms, but as wealthy landowners consolidate the small farms into larger holdings, the Agricultural Revolution begins and people begin to lose their jobs.
Robert Clive leads the East India Company against Indian forces in the Battle of Plassey. Their win allows the British East India Company to rule for the next 100 years. During that time, the government, military, and other customs and India were very different. Since they ruled for so long it had an influence on current Indian policies and culture.
Richard Arkwright invents the water frame so that the spinning wheels could be powered by water instead of manually. Although people still had to be at the factories to make sure that the machines functioned properly, these new inventions were not only modernizing but putting people out of their jobs.
Napoleon is called to defend the national convention. After his victory, he becomes a national hero and saves the new government.
Horatio Nelson leads the British naval forces to a victory of (2-0). Two major results
1.British navy stays most powerful for next 100 years.
2. Napoleon abandons his invasion plans.
Great Britain blockaded the United States which prevented it from trading with other countries for goods. This forced the Untied States to become self-sufficient and the US develops its own industry.
Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia emerge from the Congress of Vienna and they are all equal in strength. However, there is a shift in power because of all of the wars during the 1800s. Britain and Germany become the strongest, France in the middle, and Austria and Russia are very far behind.
As more product was produced, people began to want a way to transport themselves and product. Creation of railways lead to an increase in trade, the development of foreign policies, and urbanization.
Effects of Railroad
1.spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials
2.created hundreds of new jobs
3.boosted England's agricultural and fishing industries
4. made travel easier and encourages country people to take city jobs
China was a self-sufficient country that has very little interest with trading with he west. There is only one port open for foreign trade. This worked in China's favor because they were able to earn more money for their exports than it spent on imports.
European merchants wanted to find a product that would open up China. The product was opium (a habit narcotic made from the poppy plant and used in Chinese medicine). The merchants began to smuggle opium for non medicinal purposes. Eventually 12 million Chinese people were addicted to the drug.
China's leader writes a letter to Queen Victoria asking why opium was being sold in China if it was illegal in Britain. She completely ignores the letter and continues to sell opium.
The war begins and it is mainly sea battles. The Chinese outdated ships are fighting against the British steam-powered gun boats. Chinese realizes that they need to modernize, but by that time it is too late because they are already in the war. They suffer a humiliating defeat and the British gain Hong King.
This states that foreign citizens are not subject to Chinese law. This allows China to not be taken over.
Example: If I go to China as an American and decide to drink there because here the drinking law is 15, the Chinese government cannot punish me because I am not Chinese.
China's population is increasing rapidly, but food production has not increased at all. Eventually this will lead to shortages and China will have to open more ports. In addition, the amount of opium addicts is rising and the Chinese rebel against the Qing Dynasty.
Each generation of Russian czar launched war against the Ottoman Empire to gain a warm water port. Britain and France help the Ottoman Empire fight Russia. Although the Ottoman Empire wins the war, they make a mistake by letting in Britain and France. The Ottoman Empire was very weak and now Britain and France see how weak they are.
Under the pressure of Great Britain and France the Turks gives equal rights to everyone. Conservative Turks are outraged and tensions rise throughout the empire. As a result the Ottoman Empire massacred and deported Armenians from 1894-1896 and again i 1915. This leads to the ongoing abuse of Armenians.
In 1850, India was controlled by Samyra and the British were trying to force christian ity on them and the Indians experienced constant racism. Gossip begins to spread that the new cartridges for weapons are greased with pork and beef fat. The cow is scared to Hindus and Muslims do not eat pork. In order to open the cartridge people had to use their mouth. The cow is sacred to Hindus and Muslims do not eat pork. They felt as though it was very unfair that the cartridges were greased with pork and beef fat so they rebelled and captured Delhi.
Otto von Bismark, Prussia's chancellor unifies Germany through war. In 1871, Bismark is satisfied with how much Germany has unified.
This unification helps in war because they are all on one accord instead of trying to fight against each other and the war.
After defeating Austria-Hungary in the Austria-Prussia War, Prussia gains control of the North German Confederation. Francis Joseph, the emperor of Austria splits the country into Austria and Hungary.
Bismark did not trust France at all and believed that they wanted revenge. His first and last goal was to isolate France. He believed that as long as France didn't have allies, they wouldn't be a threat.
Bismark forms alliance with Austria Hungary
Bismark adds Italy to the Dual Alliance.
Germany becomes allies with Russia, but Russia is not connected with Austria Hungary and Italy. The other two countries of the Triple Alliance are aware of Germany's connection with Russia, but are not concerned. However, it is better that Germany is the middle man between Austria- Hungary and Russia because they both want the same territory.
During the Berlin Conference it was decided that if you claimed an area, you had to be able to control that area. They drew lines for the countries in Africa, but did not take into account the tribes that had already set up their own territories. No one from Africa was at the Berlin conference.
-nationalism (from the Africans)
-railroads = transportation
-loss of culture (assimilation)
-competition with ethnic groups (still continues today)
-limited power of African in their own country
-death from disease and war
-loss of money
-loss of independence
-completely sabotages Africa's future
Wilhelm II ruins everything and takes over as kaiser in 1888. Two years later he forces Bismark to resign because he didn't want to share power.
In 1890, Wilhelm II allows the treaty with Russia to lapse. Now that Russia is on its own it searches for another alliance and turns against Germany (Triple Alliance).
Russia no longer has a treaty with Germany because of Wilhelm II and must find another alliance to be apart of. They form an alliance with France.
Germany enters war with France which uses them to fight a two front war.
Wilhelm II begins to build a navy rival with Great Britain and Great Britain starts to get nervous.
Eventually Great Britain joins the alliance with France and Russia to form the Triple Entente.
Bosnia and Herzegovina had a very large Slavic population and the Serbs wanted to rule.*** The Serbs did not like he Austrians and vowed to take Bosnia Herzegovina away from the Austrians. However, the Austrians vowed to crush the Serbians attempts to undermine authority.
***At this point, the Slavs and the Serbs are like one group.
The two sides of World War I have emerged. The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente are both alliance with many countries involved in them. The sides being split into these two alliances caused a lot of people to be dragged into the war.
While visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife are assassinated by a Serb.
Austria wanted to punish Serbia and decide to give Serbia demands. Although the Serbian leaders agreed to most of the demands, Austria did not want to negotiate.
The same day, Austria declares war on Serbia. Because of the multiple alliances, Austria declaring war begins the start of many wars and countries entering into the war. Russia, an ally on Serbia, moves their troops to the border of Austria.
The fact that the Austrians knew that the Slavs/Serbs were already upset with them ruling made the assassination even worse.