Renaissance and Enlightenment



1100 - 1300

Term for poets and minstrels who flourished in southern France and in Northern Italy
The people elevated storytelling as an art
Entertained huge crowds
Found in every class

Dante Alighieri

1265 - 1331

He was major Italian poet, philosopher, and political thinker
He was famous for his work "The Divine Comedy" (considered the greatest work of literature written in Italian)
He wrote a majority of his famous works while in exile including the divine comedy


1300 - 1600

Was a cultural movement that effected European intellectual life in the early modern period
Began in Italy
Means "Rebirth"

Geoffrey Chaucer

1343 - 1400

Known as "The Father of Literature"
Considered the greatest English poet
"The Canterbury Tales is his most famous work
He was an esquire for the king but retired later to a less stressful job

Black Death

1347 - 1351

It's killed one third of Europe and spread to Nothern Africa
75-200 million people
It was believed that in came from rats but it was from the fleas on the rats


1386 - 1466

He was an famous artist
he made famous sculptures

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

He was a Portuguese sailor and navigator
He explored and payed for his trip on the west coast of Africa
He set up colonies in Africa


1400 - 1650

Is the philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value of human beings, individually, collectively and generally

Printing Press


It was invented by Johannes Gutenburg
A device that applied pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium
It stop the work of handwritten books
It started mass production of books

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

He was an Italian traveler
Known for discovering the the new world
He gave the Native Americans the name Indians



he was printer and a goldsmith
He became a gentlemen of the court
He went blind at the end in of his life
Born and died in Germany
He was banned to France for craftsmen revolt


1469 - 1527

Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, and philosopher
He wrote a book called "The Prince"

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Florentine statesman
Ruled Florence with his brother
Head of Medici family after families death
He was a magnate, diplomat, and politicians
He was considered one of the greasiest patrons towards the arts and literature
Protected and sponsored Leonardo di Vici, Michelangelo and Botticelli
He looked after artists and scholars during his reign in Florence
The city saw a "rebirth" known as Renaissance

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

he ordered a expedition
to travel Portugal to
He is the first person to travel all around the world


1483 - 1520

He began painting series like the Madonnas
He us d art to create a movement
He created a form of art called mannerism
It influenced the Burouque period

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Started the Luthrin church
German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and seminal figure in Protestant reformation

Age of Exploration

1500 - 1700

Started in the 15th century
With the first Portuguese discoveries in the Atlantic archipelagos
Discovery of America but Spain in 1492
Ocean route to the Easton 1498
This continued till the 18th century

Miguel de Cervantes

1547 - 1616

He was in the Spanish Navy Marines until he was badly injured in the battle of Lepanto
He wrote "Don Quixote" in 1605 in prison even though it didn't make much money it brought him fame
He is one of the most famous Spanish writers in Spanish literature


1564 - 1642

He was an Italian astonoer
He discovered the rings on Saturn
He studied the moons of Jupiter
He invented the telescope


1564 - 1616

He is one of the greatest minds of English literature
He was a poet, playwright and actor
He was a prominent member of Lord Chamberlain's acting troupe
He was a shareholder of the Globe theatre

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

born in west port, Wiltshire.
He was a English philosopher
Wrote a book called the "Leviathan"
In the book there are different ways for people to live with each other
He wrote a lot of books

John Locke

1632 - 1704

He was an English philosopher and physician
Regarded as the most influential enlightenment thinkers
He is known as "The Father of Liberalism "
He studied medicine at Oxford which was a major role in his life
He wrote about political philosophy, epistemology and education


1650 - 1800

an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century
Included range of ideas on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy
Advance pied ideas of Liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and

Baron de Montesquieu

1689 - 1755

He was a French author, man of letters and a political philosopher
He gained fame through the publishing of "The Persian Letters"
He found much respect from his fellow philosophers through his written work "The spirit of Laws"
The book had major influence on the American and English Government


1694 - 1778

He was a French writer, historian and philosopher
Considered one of France's greatest enlightenment writers
Especially for his satirical novella "Candide"
He often was in trouble with the French government due to political writings
He was imprisoned twice and exiled

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

He was a Swedish philosopher, writer and political theorist
His written work inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic Age