Also known as the Fertile Crescent. Located between the Tigris and Euphrates river. Today, Sumeria is located in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Israel. Most people in Ancient Sumeria were polytheistic, meaning they worshiped multiple gods.
Menes, the current Pharaoh, created the dynasties. (line of rulers from same family) People in Egypt thought the pharaohs were gods, and once they died they buried them in pyramids. Three main time periods; Early, Middle, New kingdom, and Late period. The Egyptians made the lunar calendar.
Menes ruled Upper and Lower Egypt.
Hatsheput was the first female pharaoh.
Ramses II was known for building the great temples.
Akhenaton tried to convert Egyptians from polytheism to monotheism. (However he wasn't successful)
Located around the Indus and Ganges river. Two main religions were Hinduism and Buddhism. The cities were thought out, and very organized. A big disadvantage was that they had monsoons, which was very devastating to the area.
Most famous of the Greeks were the Mycenaeans and Minoans. These two groups traded and warred with each other.
China was lead by emperors, which came from dynasties.
Greeks created isolated city-states with a wide variety of culture. They also created the idea of the Greek gods and goddesses. The government and their many cultures were mostly based on the idea of these gods. They even created the Olympic Games in honor of the them. (Which is still participated today but for different purposes).
Rome was made out of a Republic. (Certain people were able to vote for their leaders) The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires, which was led by Alexander the Great. Rome's religion was almost exactly like the Greeks. They believed in multiple gods. (Sun, moon, water, etc) Rome also had an enormous army, but sadly later crumbled because of the love for money.
Persians tried to conquer Greece. The first large battle, the Greeks won. After 10 years, the Persians tried again, and they were able to burn down Athens. However, the Greeks won the battle and the war ended.
Took over the Roman Empire by Constantinople. Pope was head of the Church. in 1054 the Church split into West Roman Catholic and East eastern Orthodox. Justinian created the Justinian Code which was the foundation of Rome's Law. Conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1452.
Led my Alexander the Great. He combined Greek, Egyptian and Persian cultures. Economy consisted of gold, grain, horses, frankincense, and myrrh. They avoided luxuries, lived a humble life, and most of them avoided politics.
In 610, Muhammad received his first revelation from the angle Gabriel. Later on they split into the Sunni and the Shiite. They split because of the argument over who should be the rightful leader.
The Christians were trying to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims. The crusades expanded Europe, created a hate between Muslims and Christians, and gave the pope more power.
Where Feudalism came from. (king owns everything, peasants work for land.) Trade began flourishing in Europe because this is right after the Crusades. Trade expanded. (international) Population grew. Agriculture improved because of population.
Herdsman who lived in the Gobi desert. Genghis Khan became the leader, and he improved the military. They improved the silk route.
Rebirth in art, literature, and learning. England was breaking away from the Church which promoted a new way of doing things that spread throughout Europe. Inspired by the Greek civilizations, which promoted learning. Famous works: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Imaginary Invalid, St. George, Mona Lisa, Moses, The Last Supper, and improvements of foreign language,
Aztecs were very ware-like.
Religion was very important to them. (Offered human sacrifices.)
Cortes and the Spanish took over the Aztecs.
The Aztecs created the tax system, and created over a thousand medicines using plants.
The Age of Exploration was a great time of expanding for Europe, Spain and many other countries. With funding from these countries great voyages were made, discovering North America and new trade routes. With new trade routes they were able to put more money into the New World colonizing.
Almost entire empire lived in the Andes Mountain chain. They were able to grow excess food and store it. Most famous for their spectacular artwork.
Achieved many things using human labor. (Great Empire)
Had no written language.
World War 1 was a war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy on one side and France, England, and Russia on another. This war killed millions and was also known as the "Trench War" because many men built trenches where they lived, faught, and died. Propaganda's were used in many countries to gain support or men to fight in the war. A plan for peace by Woodrow Wilson was the "Fourteen Points" Since that failed they created the Treaty of Versailles which forced Germany to accept full war guilt.