Emperor Julius Caesar founded Florentia into a Roman town

59 BC

Santa Reparata

400 AD

  • Cathedral believed to exist back as early as the 4th or 5th century
  • The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore was constructed over it

San Miniato al Monte

1018 AD

- The church is dedicated to Saint Minias, a third century saint who is considered the first Christian martyr of Florence

The Florence Baptistry

1059 AD

  • Construction began on the Battistero di San Giovanni (also known as the Florence Baptistery) in 1059
  • Dante Alighieri and many prominent Florentines were baptized in the Baptistery
  • Octagonal shaped

City Wall Construction

1078 AD

  • A series of several walls are built surrounding to protect the city from invaders
  • The city walls were demolished in order to build a new ring road, only parts of the walls survive

The Florin is the first minted silver. Florin is a standard coin in Europe.


Church of Santa Maria Novella

1246 AD

  • A Dominican church in Florence

The Bargello

1255 AD

  • The oldest public building in Florence
  • Was once the home of the police capital of the city, Bargello
  • Eventually became the city’s prison and site for multiple executions
  • It is now a national museum

The Duomo

1293 AD

  • Official Italian name for Florence's Cathedral is the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore
  • Main church of Florence today & one of the largest churches in Italy
  • Not completed till 1436

Basilica of Santa Croce

1294 AD

-The largest Franciscan church in the world

Dante is exiled by Charles of Valois


Giotto’s Bell Tower

1334 AD

- A free-standing Italian bell tower that is located in the Piazza del Duomo, complex buildings that make up Florence Cathedral


1337 AD

  • Originally constructed in 1337 as a granary & grain market, Orsanmichele was converted to a church beginning in 1380
  • Italian Gothic style

Economic crisis due to bankruprcy of the Peruzzi & Bardi family

1340 AD - 1350 AD

Black Plague reduces population by half in Florence

1340 - 1350

Ponte Vecchio

1345 AD

  • Although a bridge at this spot has existed since at least the 10th century, the current bridge known as the Ponte Vecchio was completed in 1345, twelve years - The original bridge was swept away during the 1333 flood
  • It was the only Florentine bridge that was not bombed by the Germans during World War II

Florence captures Pisa, gaining direct access to the sea


Rule of Lorenzo the Magnificent

1469 - 1492

Leonardo da Vinci joins the painters' guild in Florence


Birth of Michelangelo

1475 AD

Surrender of Florence to Charles VIII of France at Sarzana


Michelangelo begins the infamous sculpture, "David"


Republic of Florence retakes Pisa


Teatro della Pergola

1656 AD

  • The oldest opera house in Italy, but it still continues to operate as a theater today

Florence made capital of Italy

1865 - 1871

Germans blow up every bridge in Florence except Ponte Vecchio


The Arno River bursts its banks & flood Florence


Bombing of the Uffizi Gallery