zRaw - Consolidated History

Church History

Septuagint "LXX" - Hebrew OT Translated to Greek Including Deuterocanonical Books

250 BC - 100 BC

Life of Jesus

0 AD - 32 AD

Clement, Bishop of Rome,

Approx. 30 AD - 99 AD

1Clement to Corinthians 44:2 - Apostolic succession; 57:2 - Conditional Security;

Corinth is on the eastern side of Greece, near Constantinople.

Apostolic Period

32 AD - 100 AD

Christ's Resurrection

32 AD

St Stephen Martyred (Jerusalem) - Stoned

34 AD

New Testmanet Written

35 AD - 95 AD

Matthew Written

35 AD

Ignatious, Bishop of Antioch, hearer of John, Martyred

35 AD - 107 AD

3rd Bishop of Antioch; hearer of John the Apostle; To the Magnesians IX-Sunday Worship; To the Smyrneans VII - The Eucharist IS the body of Jesus; Only the Bishop can give permission to serve communion or baptize; To the Philadelphians III - If any man follows a schismatic, he doesn't inherit the kingdom of God (conditional security)

Paul of Tarsus converted

37 AD

Acts 6:5 Deacon Nicolas (NICOLAITANES) Heresy

40 AD - 60 AD

James Written

40 AD

John Written

42 AD

Mark Written

42 AD

Martyrdom of James,son of Thunder - Beheaded

44 AD

Didache References "The Way" - (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

50 AD - 100 AD

Fragments have been found in Greek, Coptic, Ethiopian, and a complete Gregorian; Referenced in Barnabas 18-20; 4th century Apostolic Church Order; Helped serve as a distinction between Christians and Jews in worship practices

Acts Refers to Christians as "The Way"

50 AD - 63 AD

Acts 9:2, 19:9, 19:23, 24:14, 24:22

Closed Communion

50 AD - 100


Confess to God in Presence of a Priest

50 ad - 100

Didache Actually taught confessing to God in the Presence of the whole church

Eucharist is a sacrifice

50 AD - 100


Fast on Wed and Fri

50 AD - 100


Council of Jerusalem

50 AD

Gentiles can join the church without Circumcision. Paul, Peter and James in Jerusalem. Peter advised James on how to resolve the gentile question. James made the decision Peter and Paul in Jerusalem for Council of Jersusalem (most likely concerning the gentile converts in Antioch.)

1 Thessalonians Written

50 AD

Baptism by pouring or immersion

50 AD - 100


Jewish persecution of Roman Christians

51 AD

Persecution by Rome

51 AD - 257

2 Thessalonians Written

51 AD

Galatians Written

53 AD

Martyrdom of Phillip - Crucified

54 AD

1 Corinthians Written

56 AD

2 Corinthians Written

57 AD

Romans Written

57 AD

Luke Written

59 AD

Martyrdom of Matthew - slain with halberd

60 AD

Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, (hearer of John, companion of Polycarp)

60 AD - 130 AD

Philemon Written

61 AD


Philippians Written

61 AD


Colossians Written

61 AD


Ephesians Written

61 AD


Hebrews Written

61 AD


Martyrdom of James the Just - brains beat out with a club

62 AD

1 John Written

63 AD


1 Timothy Written

63 AD

2 John Written

63 AD


3 John Written

63 AD


Acts Written

63 AD

Titus Written

63 AD

Martyrdom of Matthias (Jerusalem) - beheaded

63 AD

1 Peter Written

64 AD


Persecution by Nero

64 AD - 68 AD

2 Peter Written

65 AD


Martydom of Luke - beheaded - not sure of date, Nero

65 AD

Jude Written

66 AD


2 Timothy Written

67 AD

Martyrdom of St. Paul - beheaded in Rome

67 AD

Martyred after fire during reign of Nero;

Martyrdom of St. Peter - crucified in (Rome/Babylon?)

67 AD

Martyred after fire during reign of Nero in Rome; His letters say they were written from Babylon.

Martyrdom of Mark - dragged to death

68 AD

Infant Baptism

Approx. 69 Ad - 230


Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, (Made Bishop by Apostle John) Martyred

69 AD - 155 AD

Ordained by John the Apostle; Phillipians XI - If a man refrain not from covetousness, he shall be defiled by idolatry, and shall be judged as one of the Gentiles who know not the judgement of the lord.; At Polycarp's Martyrdom he says he served Jesus his whole life, infers infant baptism but not conclusively

Epistle of Barnabas (attached to cannon in 400 but not offically canon)

70 AD - 100 AD

Martyrdom of Jude - crucified

72 AD

Martyrdom of Thomas - slain with a spear

72 AD

Martyrdom of Barnabus (Cyprus) - Stoned

73 AD

Martyrdom of Simon (Britain) - Sawed into pieces

74 AD

Martyrdom of Andrew (Greece) - crucified

75 AD

Martyrdom of Bartholomew (Azerbajan) - flayed

75 AD

Real Presence, Body and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist

80 AD - 100

Ignatius 106
Irenaeus 180 supports.

Clement of Alexandria 195 - Refutes?
Tertullian 200 - Refutes?

Persecution of Emperor Domitian

81 AD - 96 AD

Revelation Written

95 AD

Clement I, Bishop of Rome, Writes to Correct Corinthian Church Schismatics

96 AD

Schism in the church of corinth;
Ch 56 - For in this way they shall secure a fruitful and perfect remembrance from us, with sympathy for them, both in our prayers to God, and our mention of them to the saints.
Ch 57 - For it is better for you that you should occupy a humble but honourable place in the flock of Christ, than that, being highly exalted, you should be cast out from the hope of His people. (Conditional Security)

Ch 59 - If, however, any shall disobey the words spoken by Him through us, let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and serious danger; but we shall be innocent of this sin, and, instant in prayer and supplication, shall desire that the Creator of all preserve unbroken the computed number of His elect in the whole world through His beloved Son Jesus Christ

Persecution of Trajan

98 AD

St John dies in (Ephesus)

100 AD

Theologians of 2nd Century

100 - 220

Papias of Hierapolis (died. c. 160s)
Valentinus (c. 100 c. 160)
Quadratus of Athens (fl. 124/125)
Basilides (died c. 132)
Aristides the Athenian (died c. 133 or fl. c. 140)
Aristo of Pella (fl. c. 140)
Marcion (c. 110 c. 160)
Justin Martyr (c. 110 c. 165)
Hegesippus (c. 110 180)
Melito of Sardis (died c. 180)
Athenagoras of Athens (c. 133 c. 190)
Dionysius of Corinth (fl. c. 171)
Heracleon (fl. c. 175)
Apollinaris Claudius (fl. c. 177)
Ptolemy (fl. c. 180)
Pantaenus (died c. 200)
Irenaeus of Lyons (died c. 202)
Apollonius of Ephesus (fl. c. 180 c. 210)
Serapion of Antioch (died 211)
Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 211 or 216)
Bardaisan (154 222/3)
Tertullian (c. 160 c. 220)

Epistle of Barnabas


Political Power in West ie. Emperor in West

100 AD - 321 AD

Letters from Ignatius


Shepherd of Hermas Written (attached to cannon in 400 but not offically canon)

110 AD - 150 AD

Polycarp Writing

110 - 140

Persecution by Non-Christians in Lyon

117 AD

Aristides the Athenian

Approx. 117 - Approx. 138

Tatian (apologist)

120 AD - 185 AD

Letters of Justin Martyr (earliest christian Aplogist)

130 AD - 165 AD

Athenagoras of Athens (apologist)

133 AD - 190 AD

Gnosticism (Jesus was a spirit not a man) Heresy

137 AD

Addressed at first council of nicea in nicean creed

Second Clement

140 AD - 160 AD

Biblical Canon Development

Approx. 140 - 419

Marcion of Sinope (heretic) proposes Canon

140 AD

10 Pauline letters, plus his own version of Luke

Clement of Alexandria born

150 AD

Clement of Alexandria (seems kind of heretical)

150 AD - 211 AD

Justin Martyr Describes Liturgy

150 AD

Justin Martyr mentions conditional security

150 AD

Justin Martyr mentions infant baptism

150 AD

Persecution by by Non-Christian Decius

150 AD

Justin Martyr Wrote "First Apology" to Emperor Antonius Pius

155 AD

Justin Martyr talks about conditional salvation

155 AD

Justin Martyr talks about only baptised believer's receiving communion

155 AD

Justin Martyr talks about transubstantiation

155 AD

Justin Martyr talks about worship on Sunday

155 AD

Synod of Rome


Justin Martyr Mentions 4 Gospels

155 AD

Split Between East and West over Date of Easter

156 AD - 193 AD

Victor, Bishop of Rome, was going to excommunicate churches in Asia-Minor over when Easter was celebrated. The bishops in Asia-Minor had rejected Victor's authority to compel them to change when Easter was celebrated. Other bishops intervened and convinced him not to.

Tensions between East/West over Papal Authority

156 - 1059

Montanist (very similar to pentacostalism) Heresy

156 AD

Phrygria/Turkey - Bishop of Rome declared Heresy and Excommunicated Them

Word Trinity first appears in Christian literature

160 AD - 254 AD

Origin and Tertullian explicitly referenced; Ignatious(105AD), Polycarp(135AD), and Justin Martyr(155AD) alluded to "divine three"

Tertullian (aplogist)

160 AD - 225 AD

Tertullian born

160 AD

Justyn Martyr Wrote "Second Apology"

161 AD - 165 AD

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

161 AD - 180 AD

Justin Martyr is martyred

165 AD

Theologians of 3rd Century

170 - 320

Minucius Felix (2nd or 3rd century)
Caius, Presbyter of Rome (early 3rd century)
Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 c. 236)
Origen of Alexandria (c. 184 254)
Sabellius (fl. c. 215)
Cyprian (died 258)
Novatian (c. 200 258)
Paul of Samosata (c. 200 c. 275)
Dionysius of Alexandria (died 265)
Gregory Thaumaturgus (c. 213 c. 270)
Methodius of Olympus (died c. 311)
Lucian of Antioch (c. 240 312)
Lactantius (c. 240 c. 320)

Prayers for the Reposed/Physically Dead

Approx. 170 - 220

Tertullian in 220; Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia (latter part of the 2nd century) bears the inscription: Let every friend who observes this pray for me, i.e. Abercius, who throughout speaks in the first person.; 2nd Maccabees 12:43-45 states that it is holy to pray for the dead (2nd Maccabees is in the greek bible but not the protestant one)

Athenagoras mentions conditional security

177 AD

Iranaeus mentions infant baptism

180 AD

Irenaeus mentions baptismal regenerataion

180 AD

Irenaeus mentions conditional security

180 AD

Ireneaus, Bishop of Lyons, (heard Polycarp)

180 AD - 202 AD

Theophilus of Antioch mentions Conditional Security

180 AD

Theophilus of Antioch mentions baptismal regeneration

180 AD

Ireneaus Defines Gospels 4 pillars of Church with all Truth

180 AD

Sites 21 NT Muratorian Canon NT Books

Prayer with Mary and the Saints

Approx. 180 AD - Approx. 350 AD
  • not seeking answers but asking for intercession EO Doctrine

1 Clement 56 - For in this way they shall secure a fruitful and perfect remembrance from us, with sympathy for them, both in our prayers to God, and our mention of them to the saints.

Then I looked, and I heard the voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, who praised the Lord. (Rev 5:11)

Our communion in prayer with the saints is the realization of the bond between Christians on earth and the Heavenly Church. (Heb 12:22-23)

We fly to your patronage,
O holy Mother of God,
despise not our petitions
in our necessities,
but deliver us from all dangers.
O ever glorious and blessed Virgin. - Sub Tuum Praesidium (250 A.D.)

For St. Irenaeus, Mary is an "Advocate," or interceding helper, for Eve and for her salvation. (7) St. Gregory Thaumaturgis (d.350) depicts Mary interceding for those on earth from her position in Heaven. (8)

Origen of Alexandria lists what he believes is canon

Approx. 184 - Approx. 253

Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament canon except for four books: James, 2nd Peter, and the 2nd and 3rd epistles of John. Included Sheperd of Hermes

Iraneus cites 22 NT Books (Include Shepherd of Hermas, excludes Hebrews)

185 AD

Origin (Christian Universalism)

185 AD

Origin (wrote stuff, but pretty heretical )

185 AD - 254 AD

Origin Born

185 AD

Polycrates mentions infant baptism

190 AD

Mary Died a normal death and Went to Heaven (Dormition)

Approx. 193 - 299

Shortly after Synod of Ephesus in 193

Synod of Ephesus


Synod of Rome


Clement of Alexandria mentions Conditional Security

195 AD

Current NT pretty much fixed

200 AD

Tertullian argues against infant baptism

200 AD

Tertullian mentions baptismal regeneration

200 AD

Immersion of Dying Infants Considered Sinless

200 AD

Muratorian NT canon

200 AD

omits Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1/2Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocolyps of Peter

St. Cyprian (bishop of Carthage)

200 AD - 258 AD

Persecution of Septimus Severus

202 AD

Clement of Alexandria mentions baptismal regeneration

202 AD

Clement of Alexandria flees to Syria until his death

202 AD - 215 AD

Irenaeus is martyred

202 AD

Hippolytus encourages infant baptism

215 AD

Tertullian dies

225 AD

Origin mentions children's baptism

230 AD

Origin mentions infant baptism

244 AD

Conversion of Cyprian

245 AD

Cyprian becomes bishop of Carthage

247 AD - 258 AD

Cyprian in hiding

249 AD - 251 AD

Cyprian mentions infant baptism

251 AD

Virgin Mary - Mother of God "Theotokos"

Approx. 254 - 431

Origen 254

Novatian Schism (West) - Apostates not welcome back in Carthage

254 AD

(Apostates not welcome back into the church); Addressed by Synod of Carthage in the West

Synod of Carthage - Regional (Africa)

254 AD

Southwest of Rome - only bishops and priests from the area

Baptism by splinter groups/heretics are invalid; Bishop of Rome (Stephen I) claimed to be bishop of bishops which strained relations between bishop of carthage and bishop of rome; The issue of valid baptisms was to be addressed later at the First Council of Nicea

First Assertion of Papal Primacy in West (Pope Stephen I) to Carthage re:Novatian

254 AD

First claim in writing; Stephen claimed to be bishop of bishops to the North African bishops and that he had authority concerning the validity of baptism of those baptised by heretics.

Origin dies

254 AD

Persecution by Emperor Valerian

257 AD

Baptism By Sprinkling


Cyprian is martyred

258 AD

Eusebius author and bishop of Ceasarea born

260 AD - 265 AD

Athanasius born

297 AD

Prayers for the Dead


Veneration of Icons Controversy

Approx. 312 - 787

St. Epiphanius of Salamis objects in 315

Edict of Milan - Christianity Becomes Legal


Special Dress Code for Clergy in Worship


Power In Constantinople - Byzantine Era

321 - 700

Emp. Constantine Becomes Christian (West Lost Political Power)


Doctrine Prior to 321/Constantine Pretty Well Established (pre-Augustine)

321 AD

Infant Baptism
Baptismal Regeneration
Closed Communion
Eucharist as a Sacrifice
Confession in front of the church

Nicea Concepts

Worship on Sunday
Canonical Books of Bible (including OT "apocrypha")
Common Liturgy

Mary died normal death
Mary as Theotokos (mother of God)

Conditional Security
Veneration of Icons
Prayers for the Reposed/Dead
Fasting Wed and Fri
Intercession of Reposed Saints

Eusebius Includes Didache in Canonical Books "Teaching of the Apostles"


"Let there be placed among the spurious works the Acts of Paul, the so-called Shepherd and the Apocalypse of Peter, and besides these the Epistle of Barnabas, and what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, and also the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought proper; for as I wrote before, some reject it, and others place it in the canon."

Persecution of Pagans by East

324 - 583

Arian Controversy in East (addressed in Nicea)

324 - 364

Seven Ecumenical Councils

325 - 787


Approx. 325


Council of Nicea - Ecumenical

  • 318 attendees (5 from the West) Nature of God the Father and God the Son; Uniform Date of Easter; Constructed first part of Niceane Creed; Acknowledged exceptional authority for the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Rome, for their respective regions as well as honorary rights for the patriarch of Jerusalem

Greek Old Testament Canon is the Septuagint (LXX)


"Canonization" of Greek Bible

331 - 367

27 Books of NT; Septuagint for OT; Septuagint included what protestants consider apocryphal

Constantine (East) Commissioned 50 Bibles from Eusebius in Greek


Codex Sinaiticus (appears to be LXX) and Codex Vaticanus (used LXX) are possible surviving examples of these Bibles; NT included Epistle of Barnabas and Shepherd of Hermes

Codex Vaticanus (LXX) - Greek Bible with Deuterocanonical Books

350 AD

Missing 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation; lacks 1 4 Maccabees but includes 1 Esdras from LXX

Codex Sinaiticus (LXX) - Greek Bible with Deuterocanonical Books and extra NT books

350 AD

Includes Shepherd of Hermes and Epistle of Barnabas in NT; uses LXX in old Testament; omits Baruch, but includes 4 Maccabees from LXX

Synod of Laodecia (East) - 27 NT minus Revelation

363 AD

30 clerics
Considered Judaizing to rest on Saturday instead of Sunday; Forbade reading non-canonical books in church. There is a canon60 that came out of the meeting that lists the current protestant bible but it is questionable as to whether canon 60 originally existed. Decrees Death to those who don't observe Sunday as the Lord's Day; Biblical Canon (didn't include Revelation)

First Assertion of Papal Primacy based on Peter - Pope Damasus I


Constantine commissioned bibles from Eusebius; Damasus commissioned bibles shortly thereafter from Jerome;

Council of Constantinople called by Constantine (not attended by West)
Council of Rome called by Damasus I (not attended by East)

Greek New Testament "Canon"ized in Paschal Letter of Athanasius


Doesn't include Revelation

Athanasius Lists Didache as Apocraphyl


Athanasius List 27 NT Canon Books (East)


Used word "canonized" in regards to them; Athanasius also included the Book of Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah, in his Old Testament canon. However, from this canon, he omitted the book of Esther.

Pray to Mary and Saints


Rufinus lists Didache as Apocryphl


Council of Constantinople - East Only but recognized by West as Ecumenical

381 AD
  • 150 attendees none from the West; This looks like the beginnings of Schism. Finalized Concept of the Trinity; No attendees from the West. It looks like Bishop Damasus I of Rome asserted primacy of and didn't attend this council, instead he schedule a council in Rome and invited the East (they didn't attend that one either)

Synod of Rome - Latin Canon based on Septuagint


Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)
Ezra, ij. books.
Macchabees, ij. books.

Council of Rome - West Only

382 AD

Affirms 27 books of NT....maybe not sure what this one was about

Roman Latin Vulgate using Hebrew OT


Compiled and Translated by Jerome for Pope in West
Use of Hebrew OT (OT in Protestant Bible Today) vs LXX caused a big stir between Jerome and Augustine. The Hebrew OT doesn't include the deuterocanonical books in LXX.

Latin Vulgate Translation by Jerome (West) Commissioned by Damasus I

383 - 408

Virtually fixes 27 NT Book Canon in the West, Jerome went against Augustine's view and used Hebrew OT (no deuterocanonical books) not LXX (includes deuterocanonical books). Superceded the previous version "Venus Latina" which used LXX; 405-408 the Greek OT books not in the Hebrew OT were added to the Latin Vulgate by Jerome in his next revision

Prohibit Marriage of Clergy - West


Augustine and North African Synods (West) Establish 27 NT Book Canon

393 - 419

Augustine already considered the books "Canonized";

Synod of Hippo - West Canon Agreement (North Africa)


Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)
Ezra, ij. books.
Macchabees, ij. books.

St Augustine, bishop of Hippo

396 - 430

Original Sin; Baptismal Regeneration; Perseverance of the Saints/OSAS; Predestination;

Synod of Carthage - West Canon Agreement (North Africa)


Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)
Ezra, ij. books.
Macchabees, ij. books.

Synod of Carthage - Regional (Africa) - West of Rome

397 AD

Agrees with Council of Hippo

East and West Agree on NT Canon 27 books

400 AD

Holy Water


Water that has been prayed over for baptism and whatnot - EO Doctrine

Jerome Adds Deuterocanonical Books to Latin Vulgate


Jerome's letter to Eustochium, in which Jerome quotes Sirach 13:2.[30] Elsewhere Jerome apparently also refers to Baruch, the Story of Susannah and Wisdom as scripture.; In his prologue to Judith, without using the word canon, he mentioned that Judith was held to be scriptural by the First Council of Nicaea.; What sin have I committed in following the judgment of the churches? But when I repeat what the Jews say against the Story of Susanna and the Hymn of the Three Children, and the fables of Bel and the Dragon, which are not contained in the Hebrew Bible, the man who makes this a charge against me proves himself to be a fool and a slanderer; for I explained not what I thought but what they commonly say against us. (Against Rufinus, II:33 [AD 402]).

Council of Ephesus - Ecumenical

431 AD
  • 250 attendees, West representatives arrived late Nestorian heresy; Affirmed Niceane Creed; Canon 8 condemned interference by the Bishop of Antioch in affairs of the Church in Cyprus and decreed generally, that no bishop was to "assume control of any province which has not heretofore, from the very beginning, been under his own hand or that of his predecessors ... lest the Canons of the Fathers be transgressed" Let to a split between West (Rome and EO) and East (Church of the East/Persia and Miaphysite/Oriental)

Council of Chalcedon - Ecumenical


minus Oriental Orthodox - 520 attendees
Oriental Orthodox don't recognize; Nestorian heresy;
Canon 28: The bishop of New Rome shall enjoy the same honour as the bishop of Old Rome, on account of the removal of the Empire. For this reason the [metropolitans] of Pontus, of Asia, and of Thrace, as well as the Barbarian bishops shall be ordained by the bishop of Constantinople.

Acacian Schism - (addressed in Chalcedon)

484 - 519

Eastern Church in Constantinople in Miaphysite heresy. (Oriental Orthodox believe this definition of Jesus) Divine and Human nature of Jesus united in one nature.

Special Dress Code for Clergy At All Times Not Just Worship




Extreme Unction


Synod of Orange - Regional - (France) - 14 Western bishops


affirmed Augustinian theology; against semi-Pelagianism

Council of Constantinople II - Ecumenical


minus Oriental Orthodox - 152 attendees
Nestorian heresy; Origenism heresy

Purgatory - West


Latin In Worship - West


Bishop of Rome Adopts "Pope" title


Byzantine/Muslim Wars Back and Forth

632 - 1204

Council of Constantinople III - Ecumenical


minus Oriental Orthodox - 300 attendees
Monotheletism Heresy; Human and divine wills of Jesus

Kiss Pope's Feet


Council of Nicea II - Ecumenical


minus Oriental Orthodox - 350 attendees 2 from West

Veneration of Icons


Coronation of Charlamagne in West


Gave the West back power that it hadn't had in a long time

Photian Schism - East/West

836 - 867

Emperor deposed Patriarch of Constantinople and replaced him with Photius. Bishop Nicholas of Rome rejected Photius and reinstated Ignatius. The Bishops in the East declared Nicholas a heretic and declared him deposed. Both Nicholas and the Emperor died; Photius was replaced by Ignatius. This whole thing was about Rome wanting authority over Bulgaria and Constantinople not giving it to him.

Fourth Council of Constantinople - West Only


not ecumenical/ Excludes East

Fourth Council of Constantinople - East only


Not truly ecumenical/ Excludes West

Bad Pope Steven VI

896 - 897

Period of Bad Popes

896 - 1048

Bad Pope Sergius III

897 - 911

Bad Pope John XII

955 - 964

Holy Roman Empire Power

962 - 1835

Bad Pope John XV

985 - 996

Canonization of Dead Saints


Abstain from Red-Meat on Fridays - West




Bad Pope Benedict IX

1032 - 1048

Great East/West Schism


Not bishop vs bishop but legate vs bishop, not a true split; tit for tat - leavened bread vs unleavened bread for greek churches in sicily and for latin churches in Turkey, disagreement over papal authority outside of diocese, the filoque. Rome started by forcing greek churches to use unleavened bread in Eucharist in Sicily; East responded by forcing Latin churches in Turkey to use leavened bread and closed them down upon refusal.

Roman Catholic - Pope Schism

1059 AD - 2016 AD

Not bishop vs bishop but legate vs bishop, not a true split; tit for tat - leavened bread vs unleavened bread for greek churches in sicily and for latin churches in Turkey, disagreement over papal authority outside of diocese, the filoque. Rome started by forcing greek churches to use unleavened bread in Eucharist in Sicily; East responded by forcing Latin churches in Turkey to use leavened bread and closed them down upon refusal.

Eastern Orthodox - Pope Schism

1059 - 2016

Not bishop vs bishop but legate vs bishop, not a true split; tit for tat - leavened bread vs unleavened bread for greek churches in sicily and for latin churches in Turkey, disagreement over papal authority outside of diocese, the filoque. Rome started by forcing greek churches to use unleavened bread in Eucharist in Sicily; East responded by forcing Latin churches in Turkey to use leavened bread and closed them down upon refusal.

Rosary Beads/Rosary


Crusades West

1095 - 1453

Indulgences West

1095 - 1567

Anselm introduces substitutionary atonement


First Latern Council - RCC Only


Inquisition in West

1184 - 1834

Byzantine Empire reduced to just Constantinople

1204 - 1453

Constant attacks by West and Ottomans

Sacking of Constantinople by Western Crusaders

1204 - 1261

Confess to Priests


Mass a Sacrifice of Christ




Adoration and Elevation of the Host


Bad Pope Innocent IV

1243 - 1254

Priestly Power of Absolution


Council of Lyons


West occupied Constantinople at this time

The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence. Under threat of Muslim Invasion

Bad Pope Urban VI

1378 - 1389

Union of Florence


East(Constantinople) - surrounded by Ottomans

The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence.
Under threat of Muslim Invasion

East/West Schism; Western Schism; Hussites; All of the Eastern Bishops except Mark of Ephesus submitted to papal supremacy in order to get Rome to help against the Invading Ottomans. Authority not accepted so Rome didn't help.

Orthodox Captivity by Ottomans

1453 - 1923

Corruption of the Eastern Church leadership.

The Orthodox Church found itself subject to the Ottoman system of corruption. The patriarchal throne was frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government. In order to recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops taxed the local parishes and their clergy.

Nor was the patriarchal throne ever secure. Few patriarchs between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries died a natural death while in office. The forced abdications, exiles, hangings, drownings, and poisonings of patriarchs are well documented. But if the patriarch's position was precarious so was the hierarchy's. The hanging of patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday 1821 was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops.

Bad Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

Period of a Bad Popes

1492 - 1534

Bad Pope Leo X

1513 - 1521

Lutheran - Indulgence Schism

1517 - 2016

Bad Pope Clement VII

1523 - 1534

Anglican - Divorce Schism

1534 - 2016

Protestant Persecution of Catholics

1534 - 1605

Council of Trent - Dogmatized Catholic Canon


Included deuterocanonical books that had been included since 382AD

Catholics Persecute Protestants and Orthodox

1550 - 1945

Russian Orthodox Church Becomes a Patriarch


Friendly relations between East and West outside Ukraine

1600 - 1750

KJV Includes Deuterocanonical at first, removed later


Orthodox Taken over By Tsar in Russia

1721 - 1917

Absolution Certificates/Indulgences - East

1727 - 1838

East declares West baptisms invalid


Crimea War - Russians v. Ottomans

  • Ottomans gave Church in Jerusalem to Catholics; Orthodox were furious, most Orthodox are in Russia

Immaculate Conception of Mary


Papal infallibility


Ottoman Genocide of non-muslims

1894 - 1923

Sharp decline in number of Orthodox because of this genocide

More Martyrs than first 300 years of Christianity

1918 - 1948

Soviet Persecution of Orthodox in Russia

1927 - 1941

Stalin Revives Orthodox Church in Russia

1941 - 1957

Assumption of Mary - West


Soviet Persecution of Orthodox in Russia

1959 - 1991

Ressurgence of Russian Orthodox

1991 - 2016

after Soviet Collapse