Antioch Antioch church starts as result of persecution in Jerusalem shortly after Stephen ۪s martyrdom in 35AD. First Gentile Church. Peter and Paul were both in Antioch before 44AD.
Gentiles can join the church without Circumcision. Paul, Peter and James in Jerusalem. Peter advised James on how to resolve the gentile question. James made the decision Peter and Paul in Jerusalem for Council of Jersusalem (most likely concerning the gentile converts in Antioch.)
Peter doesn't want to eat with the Gentile Christians but winds up baptizing them
Peter must have been in Corinth at some point before that time
Paul Writes to Romans from Corinth. Peter isn't among those being addressed.
Paul is arrested and appeals to Ceasar
Martyred after fire during reign of Nero in Rome; His letters say they were written from Babylon.
Martyred after fire during reign of Nero;
The interesting thing about this is that Corinth was much closer to the Sees in Asia-Minor. Why would the far-west bishop be intervening?
Victor, Bishop of Rome, was going to excommunicate churches in Asia-Minor over when Easter was celebrated. The bishops in Asia-Minor had rejected Victor's authority to compel them to change when Easter was celebrated. Other bishops intervened and convinced him not to.
First claim in writing; Stephen claimed to be bishop of bishops to the North African bishops and that he had authority concerning the validity of baptism of those baptised by heretics.
Constantine commissioned bibles from Eusebius; Damasus commissioned bibles shortly thereafter from Jerome;
Council of Constantinople called by Constantine (not attended by West)
Council of Rome called by Damasus I (not attended by East)
Eastern Church in Constantinople in Miaphysite heresy. (Oriental Orthodox believe this definition of Jesus) Divine and Human nature of Jesus united in one nature.
Gave the West back power that it hadn't had in a long time
Transfer of Primacy of Rome to Constantinople
Papal Authority was main argument
Emperor in East removed Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople and replaced with Photius.
Roman Bishop rejected Photius and tried to reinstate Ignatius.
Not bishop vs bishop but legate vs bishop, not a true split; tit for tat - leavened bread vs unleavened bread for greek churches in sicily and for latin churches in Turkey, disagreement over papal authority outside of diocese, the filoque. Rome started by forcing greek churches to use unleavened bread in Eucharist in Sicily; East responded by forcing Latin churches in Turkey to use leavened bread and closed them down upon refusal.
Constant attacks by West and Ottomans
West occupied Constantinople at this time
The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence. Under threat of Muslim Invasion
East(Constantinople) - surrounded by Ottomans
The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence.
Under threat of Muslim Invasion
East/West Schism; Western Schism; Hussites; All of the Eastern Bishops except Mark of Ephesus submitted to papal supremacy in order to get Rome to help against the Invading Ottomans. Authority not accepted so Rome didn't help.
Corruption of the Eastern Church leadership.
The Orthodox Church found itself subject to the Ottoman system of corruption. The patriarchal throne was frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government. In order to recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops taxed the local parishes and their clergy.
Nor was the patriarchal throne ever secure. Few patriarchs between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries died a natural death while in office. The forced abdications, exiles, hangings, drownings, and poisonings of patriarchs are well documented. But if the patriarch's position was precarious so was the hierarchy's. The hanging of patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday 1821 was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops.