zDOCTRINE: 02 - Papal Authority

Papal Authority

St Stephen Martyred (Jerusalem) - Stoned

34 AD

Church Spreads from Jerusalem to Antioch

Approx. 35 AD - 44 AD

Antioch Antioch church starts as result of persecution in Jerusalem shortly after Stephen ۪s martyrdom in 35AD. First Gentile Church. Peter and Paul were both in Antioch before 44AD.

Peter Bishop of Rome 25yrs from tradition

42 AD - 67 AD

Roman Christians Arrive in Corinth

50 AD

Council of Jerusalem

50 AD

Gentiles can join the church without Circumcision. Paul, Peter and James in Jerusalem. Peter advised James on how to resolve the gentile question. James made the decision Peter and Paul in Jerusalem for Council of Jersusalem (most likely concerning the gentile converts in Antioch.)

Peter in Antioch with Paul

52 AD

Peter doesn't want to eat with the Gentile Christians but winds up baptizing them

Corinthians claim to folllow Peter/Paul/Apollos

56 AD

Peter must have been in Corinth at some point before that time

Romans Written from Corinth by Paul

57 AD

Paul Writes to Romans from Corinth. Peter isn't among those being addressed.

Paul back in Jerusalem (riot breaks out)

58 AD

Paul is arrested and appeals to Ceasar

Paul living in Rome - under armed guard

61 AD - 63 AD

Peter Writes 1&2 Peter from (Rome/Babylon?)

66 AD

Martyrdom of St. Peter - crucified in (Rome/Babylon?)

67 AD

Martyred after fire during reign of Nero in Rome; His letters say they were written from Babylon.

Martyrdom of St. Paul - beheaded in Rome

67 AD

Martyred after fire during reign of Nero;

RCC - Pope ***Linus (Taught by Apostles Peter and Paul)

67 AD - 76 AD

Clement, Bishop of Rome, Writes to Correct Corinthian Church Schismatics

96 AD

The interesting thing about this is that Corinth was much closer to the Sees in Asia-Minor. Why would the far-west bishop be intervening?

Tensions between East/West over Papal Authority

156 - 1059

Split Between East and West over Date of Easter

156 AD - 193 AD

Victor, Bishop of Rome, was going to excommunicate churches in Asia-Minor over when Easter was celebrated. The bishops in Asia-Minor had rejected Victor's authority to compel them to change when Easter was celebrated. Other bishops intervened and convinced him not to.

First Assertion of Papal Primacy in West (Pope Stephen I) to Carthage re:Novatian

254 AD

First claim in writing; Stephen claimed to be bishop of bishops to the North African bishops and that he had authority concerning the validity of baptism of those baptised by heretics.

Power In Constantinople - Byzantine Era

321 - 700

First Assertion of Papal Primacy based on Peter - Pope Damasus I


Constantine commissioned bibles from Eusebius; Damasus commissioned bibles shortly thereafter from Jerome;

Council of Constantinople called by Constantine (not attended by West)
Council of Rome called by Damasus I (not attended by East)

******************** Fall of Rome to Germanic Tribes **************************

476 AD

Acacian Schism - East/West

484 - 519

Eastern Church in Constantinople in Miaphysite heresy. (Oriental Orthodox believe this definition of Jesus) Divine and Human nature of Jesus united in one nature.

Emperor Justinian Reclaims many Western Lands from Germanic Tribes

527 - 565

Filioque Introduced - RCC


Bishop of Rome Adopts "Pope" title


Muslim Expansion in East

622 - 1923

Byzantine/Muslim Wars Back and Forth

632 - 1204

Iconoclasm Controversy

726 - 787

Coronation of Charlamagne of the Franks in West as Holy Roman Emperor


Gave the West back power that it hadn't had in a long time

Photian Schism - East/West

858 - 863

Filioque disagreement
Transfer of Primacy of Rome to Constantinople
Papal Authority was main argument

Emperor in East removed Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople and replaced with Photius.
Roman Bishop rejected Photius and tried to reinstate Ignatius.

Period of Bad Popes

896 - 1048

Great East/West Schism


Not bishop vs bishop but legate vs bishop, not a true split; tit for tat - leavened bread vs unleavened bread for greek churches in sicily and for latin churches in Turkey, disagreement over papal authority outside of diocese, the filoque. Rome started by forcing greek churches to use unleavened bread in Eucharist in Sicily; East responded by forcing Latin churches in Turkey to use leavened bread and closed them down upon refusal.

Indulgences West

1095 - 1567

Inquisition in West

1184 - 1834

Byzantine Empire reduced to just Constantinople

1204 - 1453

Constant attacks by West and Ottomans

Sacking of Constantinople by Western Crusaders

1204 - 1261

Bad Pope Innocent IV

1243 - 1254

Council of Lyons


West occupied Constantinople at this time

The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence. Under threat of Muslim Invasion

Eastern Capitulation to West

1274 - 1439

Bad Pope Urban VI

1378 - 1389

Union of Florence


East(Constantinople) - surrounded by Ottomans

The eastern representatives affirmed latin doctrine of the filioque, papal supremacy, etc at both the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence.
Under threat of Muslim Invasion

East/West Schism; Western Schism; Hussites; All of the Eastern Bishops except Mark of Ephesus submitted to papal supremacy in order to get Rome to help against the Invading Ottomans. Authority not accepted so Rome didn't help.

Orthodox Captivity by Ottomans

1453 - 1923

Corruption of the Eastern Church leadership.

The Orthodox Church found itself subject to the Ottoman system of corruption. The patriarchal throne was frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government. In order to recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops taxed the local parishes and their clergy.

Nor was the patriarchal throne ever secure. Few patriarchs between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries died a natural death while in office. The forced abdications, exiles, hangings, drownings, and poisonings of patriarchs are well documented. But if the patriarch's position was precarious so was the hierarchy's. The hanging of patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday 1821 was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops.

Period of a Bad Popes

1492 - 1534

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 2016

Russian Orthodox Church Becomes a Patriarch


Immaculate Conception - Infallible papal claim


Vatican I - Papal Supremacy and Infallibility


Assumption of Mary - Infallible papal claim


Vatican II - Bishops get authority from God not the Pope

1962 - 1965