History of American and Philippine Civil Service

U.S. and Western Countries

Prussia was first nation to institute a merit system in 18th century


France followed Prussian Model of Merit System


Great Britain adopted professionalized civil service in homeland.

1830 - 1839

First deveoped professionalized civil service in colony.

President Garfield's Assassination by Charles Guiteau

September 19, 1881

Issues on spoils system clouded the US executive. This was one of the catalyst that highlighted the importance of a merit based civil service reform.

Pendleton Act

July 16, 1883

Pendleton Act was passed anchoring on the concept of political neutrality


Philippine Civil Service Act (Act No.5 ) was passed

September 19, 1900

"An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippines"

-Broad in coverage and centralized in organization
-Civil Service Board had administrative control of system that classified employees in provincial and municipal governments. Under the control of Governal general
-CSB had control and supervision of examinations
-CS Act prohibited political and religious biases, direct or indirect solicitations
-Civil servants enoyed security of tenure, attractive hours of work, leaver priveleges, etc.

Filipinization of Civil Service

1913 - 1921

Governor General Francis Burton Harrison impplemented rapid Finilipinalization by:
-forced resignations of Americans in office
-abolition of certain positions
-iplemetation of policies favorable for Filipinos

Civil Service law was embodied in the new Administrative Code


Filipinos constituted 94% of Bureaucratic Force


"A bureaucracy for Filipinos assidted by Americans"

Mr. Jose GIl, A Filipino, was appointed head of the Bureau of Civil Service


Filipinized Civil service started to normalize under Governor general Wood

1921 - 1927

Undersecretaries who were FIlipinos were delegated the jobs of their superiors when the entire cabinet resigned. Gov. Gen. Wood remarked that the operations were harmonious and normal under the Filipino employees.

Commonwealth Period gave Filipinos greater control over own affairs but still accountable to colonizers.


Act No. 117 was passed provided a wider and more defined role for civil service


Provisions included:
-extension of civil service in other government branches
-principle of competitive examination in all positions
-Commissioner of CS had the right to discipine subordinates

Bureau of Civil Service was elevated from a second class to a first class bureau


Commonwealth government strengthened civil service by providing provisions in the constitution.

Director of Civil Service became Commissioner of Civil Service with underecratary rank.

Creation of Government Service Insurance System and setting up Government Survey Board

November 1936

Government Survey Board assessed the administrative and government sources. It discovered faults in recruitment and position-classification system.

Second World War affected the progress of civil service

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945

Legelative enactment for advance position-classification system and salary adjustments


Philipppine Independence from US

July 4, 1946

Independence meant increased responsibility in political and administrative systems.

Increasing graft and corruption.

Emergence of two-party system in the country. Spoils system accomodation in the bureacracy.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Department of Public Works and communications became outlet of spoils system.

Bell Mission


Bell Mission's findings recommended more efficiency and honesty in servie

Proliferation of Corruption in Government Offices

1950 - 1960

Establishment of first school of public administration in UP Dilian


Organization of Government Survey and Reorganization Committee


GSRC's mandate:
-promote executions of the law and more effective management f the government
-promote fullest extetent wit efficient operations of government
-increase efficiency of government operations

GSRC made recommendations on:
1. One position calssifcation system
2.Standard pay plan
3.Creation of Wage and Position Classification Office (WAPO)

Forfeiture Law of 1955 enacted


This allowed for forfeiture of any property unlawfully acquired by any government employee

Civil Service Act of 1959 was passed


CSA sought to remedy the defects of civil service and included the followig provisions:
1. Amending and repealing provisions in present legislation which defeated the purpose of merit system
2.Provisions for more economic and effective requirements for public service
3. Creation of personnel offices and officers in government agencies
4. In-service training
5.Improved performance rating systems and improved promotion systems
6. Banned improper solicitations from subordinates.

Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices act was passed


Listed 11 acts of officials which constituted corruption

Presidential Decree no. 1 activated President Marcos' reorganization plan


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