APES, Period 3
Real Date: 8000 BCE- 5000 BCE (to fit timeline)
Muir was an environmental philosopher who was an advocate for preservation of wilderness. He helped preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park, and other wilderness areas.
Walden, a book by Henry David Thoreau, reflects upon his experiences of living in a cabin near Walden Pond where he lived with the natural surroundings.
The Homestead Act, which was signed into law by Abraham Lincoln, encouraged western migration by giving settlers 160 acres of land for a small fee.
The Sierra Club was founded by John Muir, and it became one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations.
The Lacey Act was a conservation act in the U.S that prohibited trade of wildlife, fish, and plants that have been obtained illegally.
The first national wildlife refuge was Florida's Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge, which was designated by Theodore Roosevelt.
Leopold was an environmentalist who was influential in the movement for wildlife and nature conservation.
The Audubon Society is one of the oldest conservation organizations, which also uses science and education to reach its goal.
Pinchot is a forester and politician that reformed the development of forests in the U.S and advocated the conservation of the nation's resources.
The U.S Forest Service maintains and enhances the nation's forests to meet current and future needs.
The Antiquities Act gave the U.S president the right to create national monuments from public lands to protect important natural features.
The Civilian Conservation Corps, which was part of the New Deal, was a public work relief program for unemployed, unmarried men.
The Soil Conservation Service provides assistance to farmers and other private landowners. It also helps with soil surveying and water quality improvement.
The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act requires waterfowl hunters older than 16 to have a Federal hunting stamp.
The Taylor Grazing Act was a law that regulated grazing on public lands to improve rangeland condition.
The Fish + Wildlife Service is dedicated to conserving, protecting, and enhancing fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is an environmental science book that explained the harmful effects of pesticides on the environment.
The Wilderness Act, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, protects 9.1 million acres of federal land.
The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act was created to preserve rivers with outstanding, natural values for current and future generations.
The Cuyahoga River, one of the most polluted rivers, caught fire when floating pieces of oil slicked debris were ignited by sparks from a passing train.
The National Environmental Policy Act is a law that promotes the growth of the environment and also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality.
The Clean Air Act, one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world, is a law designed to control air pollution.
The Endangered Species Act provides for the conservation of species that are endangered throughout a large portion of their range.
FIFRA is law that regulates pesticide use in order to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.
The OPEC and Oil Embargo was the event in which Arab oil producers declared an embargo that limited oil shipment to the U.S in response to the Yom Kippur War.
Rowland and Molina studied the effects of CFC's and warned that they can deplete the ozone layer.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is a law that regulates the disposal of solid and hazardous waste.
The Clean Water Act is the law the regulates water pollution, which aims to restore and maintain the properties of water by preventing pollution sources.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act is a law that regulates the harmful effects of coal mining. It created two programs for regulating active coal mines and reclaiming abandoned mine lands.
The Love Canal, which was used as a chemical waste dump by the Hooker Chemical Company, gave way to chemical waste underground that got to people's houses and got them sick.
The Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident was a nuclear meltdown that released radioactive material into the area.
The Alaskan Lands Act was a law that provided protection for over 157 million acres of land, including national parks, wildlife refuges, scenic rivers, and forests in Alaska.
This was an event in which a gas leak exposed over 500,000 people to harmful chemicals.
CERCLA is a program that is designed to fund the cleanup of sites that have been contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
Chernobyl was a nuclear disaster that occurred in Ukraine that released large amounts of radiation that killed 31 people and left many others harmed.
The Montreal Protocol is a treaty that is designed to protect the ozone layer by eliminating certain substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Exxon Valdez was an oil tanker that spilled hundreds of thousands of barrels of crude oil in Alaska.
The Energy Policy Act was an act passed by Congress to amend utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency.
The Desert Protection Act established the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve in California.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The IPCC Report on Climate Change creates special reports based on climate change and global warming.
The Gulf Oil Spill, one of the worst oil spills in U.S history, occurred when an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, which killed 11 people and caused 3.19 million barrels of oil to leak.