zBIBLE: Raw - Pre-New Testament Timeline

Pre-Bible Timeline

Septuagint "LXX" Translated

250 BC - 100 BC

Hebrew OT Translated to Greek Including Deuterocanonical Books

Life of Jesus

0 AD - 32 AD

Clement, Bishop of Rome,

Approx. 30 AD - 99 AD

1Clement to Corinthians 44:2 - Apostolic succession; 57:2 - Conditional Security;

Corinth is on the eastern side of Greece, near Constantinople.

Apostolic Period

32 AD - 100 AD

Christ's Resurrection

32 AD

St Stephen Martyred (Jerusalem) - Stoned

34 AD

Matthew Written

35 AD

Ignatious, Bishop of Antioch, Martyred

35 AD - 107 AD

3rd Bishop of Antioch; hearer of John the Apostle; To the Magnesians IX-Sunday Worship; To the Smyrneans VII - The Eucharist IS the body of Jesus; Only the Bishop can give permission to serve communion or baptize; To the Philadelphians III - If any man follows a schismatic, he doesn't inherit the kingdom of God (conditional security)

Paul of Tarsus converted

37 AD

Acts 6:5 Deacon Nicolas (NICOLAITANES) Heresy

40 AD - 60 AD

James Written

40 AD

John Written

42 AD

Mark Written

42 AD

Martyrdom of James,son of Thunder - Beheaded

44 AD

Council of Jerusalem

50 AD

Gentiles can join the church without Circumcision

Eucharist is a sacrifice - It's more than bread and wine

50 AD

Didache
I don't understand it but there is more going on than a symbolic sharing of bread and juice. Is it transubstantiation in the way the Catholics teach? I don't know but Jesus is present in communion somehow.

John 6:53-57
So Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in yourselves. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For My flesh is true food, and My blood is true drink. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats Me, he also will live because of Me." 66 As a result of this many of His disciples withdrew and were not walking with Him anymore.

The word to eat, trogo, means to chew, gnaw, crunch

1 Thessalonians Written

50 AD

Acts Refers to Christians as "The Way"

50 AD - 63 AD

Acts 9:2, 19:9, 19:23, 24:14, 24:22

Didache References "The Way"

50 AD - 100 AD
  • (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) Fragments have been found in Greek, Coptic, Ethiopian, and a complete Gregorian; Referenced in Barnabas 18-20; 4th century Apostolic Church Order; Helped serve as a distinction between Christians and Jews in worship practices

Conditional Salvation - OSAS is a False Teaching

Approx. 50 AD

Epistle of Barnabas 70AD; Clement of Rome 80AD; Ignatius 106AD; Theophilus of Antioch 180AD; Iranaeus 180 AD; Athenagoras 177AD; Justin Martyr 155 AD; Clement of Alexandria 195; Didache 50AD - "the whole time of your faith will not profit you, if you are not made perfect in the last time."

Closed Communion - Open Communion is False Teaching

50 AD

Justin Martyr 155AD; Didache 50AD;

I don't have to be convinced of this, I agree non-believers shouldn't have communion.

Confess to God in Presence of a Priest

50 ad

Didache Actually taught confessing to God in the Presence of the whole church.

Baptism by pouring or immersion - Immersion only is False Teaching

50 AD

Baptism by immersion is great, but it is simply false teaching that it is the only valid baptism method.

Didache;

But immersion is not the only meaning of baptizo. Sometimes it just means washing up. Thus Luke 11:38 reports that, when Jesus ate at a Pharisee’s house, "[t]he Pharisee was astonished to see that he did not first wash [baptizo] before dinner.

Fast on Wed and Fri

50 AD

Didache
Fasting is talked about in a lot of places in the bible but don't know many protestants that do it. Fasting in and of itself isn't necessary but if used as a tool to deepen your prayer life and open yourself to God then I'm all for it. If not Wed and Fri then when? It's probably easier to do when the rest of the church is doing it as well, not as much temptation to break it.

Liturgy Description

50 AD

Justin Marty 150; Didache 50-100AD;
Not a big fan of the lack of "entertainment factor" in traditional services, but the contemporary service, I think, has become more about emotions and being seen than worship.

2 Thessalonians Written

51 AD

Galatians Written

53 AD

Martyrdom of Phillip - Crucified

54 AD

1 Corinthians Written

56 AD

2 Corinthians Written

57 AD

Romans Written

57 AD

Luke Written

59 AD

Martyrdom of Matthew - slain with halberd

60 AD

Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis

60 AD - 130 AD

VI. Pre-millenial not a whole lot more to it
(hearer of John, companion of Polycarp)

Colossians Written

61 AD

61-63?

Ephesians Written

61 AD

61-63?

Hebrews Written

61 AD

61-63?

Philemon Written

61 AD

61-63?

Philippians Written

61 AD

61-63?

Hierarchical Church - Not congregational

62 AD

Acts 16:4 62AD; Acts 20:28 62AD;
62AD assumes James was among the elders in Jerusalem per Acts16:4, he was martyred in 62AD; Ignatius 100; Irenaeus 189; Tertullian 200
Clement 80AD;

Martyrdom of James the Just - Clubbed

62 AD

Martyrdom of Matthias - beheaded

63 AD

(Jerusalem)

1 John Written

63 AD

63-64?

1 Timothy Written

63 AD

2 John Written

63 AD

63-64?

3 John Written

63 AD

63-64?

Titus Written

63 AD

1 Peter Written

64 AD

64-65?

Martyrdom of St. Paul - beheaded

64 AD

2 Peter Written

65 AD

65-66?

Martydom of Luke - beheaded - not sure of date, Nero

65 AD

Jude Written

66 AD

66-67?

2 Timothy Written

67 AD

Martyrdom of St. Peter - crucified

67 AD

Martyrdom of Mark - dragged to death

68 AD

Infant Baptism - Exclusive Believer's Baptism is a False Teaching

Approx. 69 AD

Polycrates 190; Justin Martyr 150; Iranaeus 180; Tertullian (opposed because a waste of baptismal regeneration so early in life) 200; Hippolytus 215; Origin 244; Cyprian 251; Polycarp 155 alludes to being a christian his whole life 69AD;

Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, Martyred

69 AD - 155 AD

Ordained by John the Apostle; Phillipians XI - If a man refrain not from covetousness, he shall be defiled by idolatry, and shall be judged as one of the Gentiles who know not the judgement of the lord. (conditional security); At Polycarp's Martyrdom he says he served Jesus his whole life, infers infant baptism but not conclusively

Epistle of Barnabas

70 AD - 100

(attached to cannon in 400 but not offically canon)

Baptismal Regeneration - Symbolism Only is a False Teaching

Approx. 70 AD

Epistle of Barnabas 70; Iranaeus 180; Theophilus 180; Tertullian 200; Clement of Alexandria 202; Justy Martyr 130-165?;

Martyrdom of Jude - crucified

72 AD

Martyrdom of Thomas - slain with a spear

72 AD

Martyrdom of Barnabus (Cyprus) - Stoned

73 AD

Martyrdom of Simon (Britain) - Sawed into pieces

74 AD

Martyrdom of Andrew (Greece) - crucified

75 AD

Martyrdom of Bartholomew (Azerbajan) - flayed

75 AD

Invocation of Mary/Saints for Intercession - ??

Approx. 80 AD

not seeking answers but asking for intercession

(80AD) 1 Clement 56 - For in this way they shall secure a fruitful and perfect remembrance from us, with sympathy for them, both in our prayers to God, and our mention of them to the saints.

Origin 253 - Two of them, namely pleading and thanksgiving, might be offered not only to saints but to people alone in general, whereas supplication should be offered to saints alone, should there be found a Paul or a Peter, who may benefit us and make us worthy to attain authority for the forgiveness of sins.

250AD - Egypt - John Ryland’s Papyrus
Beneath your compassion
we take refuge, Theotokos.
Our petitions do not despise in time of trouble,
but from dangers ransom us,
Only Holy, Only Blessed

Then I looked, and I heard the voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, who praised the Lord. (Rev 5:11)

Our communion in prayer with the saints is the realization of the bond between Christians on earth and the Heavenly Church. (Heb 12:22-23)

We fly to your patronage,

O holy Mother of God,

despise not our petitions

in our necessities,

but deliver us from all dangers.

O ever glorious and blessed Virgin. - Sub Tuum Praesidium (250 A.D.)

For St. Irenaeus, Mary is an "Advocate," or interceding helper, for Eve and for her salvation. (7) St. Gregory Thaumaturgis (d.350) depicts Mary interceding for those on earth from her position in Heaven. (8)

Clement, Bishop of Rome, Writes Corinth to advise not command

80 AD

Writes to Correct Corinthian Church Schismatics

Acts Written

85 AD

Revelation Written

95 AD

St John dies in (Ephesus)

100 AD

Emperor in West

100 AD - 321 AD

Theologians of 2nd Century

100 - 220

Papias of Hierapolis (died. c. 160s)

Valentinus (c. 100 c. 160)

Quadratus of Athens (fl. 124/125)

Basilides (died c. 132)

Aristides the Athenian (died c. 133 or fl. c. 140)

Aristo of Pella (fl. c. 140)

Marcion (c. 110 c. 160)

Justin Martyr (c. 110 c. 165)

Hegesippus (c. 110 180)

Melito of Sardis (died c. 180)

Athenagoras of Athens (c. 133 c. 190)

Dionysius of Corinth (fl. c. 171)

Heracleon (fl. c. 175)

Apollinaris Claudius (fl. c. 177)

Ptolemy (fl. c. 180)

Pantaenus (died c. 200)

Irenaeus of Lyons (died c. 202)

Apollonius of Ephesus (fl. c. 180 c. 210)

Serapion of Antioch (died 211)

Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 211 or 216)

Bardaisan (154 222/3)

Tertullian (c. 160 c. 220)

Sunday Worship vs Saturday Worship

Approx. 106

Ignatius 106; Justin Marty 155

Transubstantiation

Approx. 106

Justin Martyr 155; Ignatius 106

I don't understand it but there is more going on than a symbolic sharing of bread and juice. Is it transubstantiation in the way the Catholics teach? I don't know but Jesus is present in communion somehow.

The substance of something isn't perceived up by the senses. The accidents of the substance are what the senses perceive. If a substance of something changes the senses (sight, smell, touch, hearing, taste) will not detect any change unless the accidents of the substance change as well. So the Eucharist, looks like bread and wind, smells like bread and wine, feels like bread and wine, tastes like bread and wine BUT it IS the body and blood of jesus, not bread and wine. Nothing about the accidents change when the bread and wine is consecrated, only the substance changes. This difference between the substance of something and the accidents of something is a concept I need to think through further. There's the old saying of walking like a duck...

Substance and accidents are an aristotle philosophy. For example, a chair can be made of wood or metal, but this is accidental to its being a chair: that is, it is still a chair regardless of the material from which it is made. To put this in technical terms, an accident is a property which has no necessary connection to the essence of the thing being described.

To follow that thinking...The body of Christ can be perceived as flesh or perceived as bread. Whether it is perceived as flesh or perceived as bread is accidental to the fact that it is the body of Christ. The body of Christ is also the Church...whether it is perceived as a single individual, Jesus, or perceived as a bunch of individuals, the Church, is accidental to the fact that it is the body of Christ.

Shepherd of Hermas Written

115 AD

(attached to cannon in 400 but not offically canon)

Aristides the Athenian

Approx. 117 - Approx. 138

Tatian (apologist)

120 AD - 185 AD

Justin Martyr (earliest christian Aplogist), Martyred

130 AD - 165 AD

converted in 130

Athenagoras of Athens (apologist)

133 AD - 190 AD

Gnosticism (Jesus was a spirit not a man) Heresy

137 AD

Addressed at first council of nicea in nicean creed

Early Biblical Canon Development

Approx. 140 - Approx. 367

Justin Martyr 155; Marcion of Sinope (heretic) 140

Clement of Alexandria

150 AD - 215 AD

Clement of Alexandria flees to Syria until his death 202-215

Synod of Rome - Date of Easter

155

Polycarp came to Rome but he and the Bishop of Rome agreed to disagree.

Montanist (very similar to pentacostalism) Heresy

156 AD

Phrygria/Turkey - Bishop of Rome declared Heresy and Excommunicated Them

Papal Authority Disagreement - Date of Easter

156 AD - 193 AD

Victor, Bishop of Rome, was going to excommunicate churches in Asia-Minor over when Easter was celebrated. The bishops in Asia-Minor had rejected Victor's authority to compel them to change when Easter was celebrated. Other bishops intervened and convinced him not to.

Tertullian (aplogist)

160 AD - 225 AD

Prayers for the Reposed/Physically Dead - ??

Approx. 170

Tertullian in 220; Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia (latter part of the 2nd century) bears the inscription: Let every friend who observes this pray for me, i.e. Abercius, who throughout speaks in the first person.; 2nd Maccabees 12:43-45 states that it is holy to pray for the dead (2nd Maccabees is in the greek bible but not the protestant one)

Theologians of 3rd Century

170 - 320

Minucius Felix (2nd or 3rd century)

Caius, Presbyter of Rome (early 3rd century)

Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 c. 236)

Origen of Alexandria (c. 184 254)

Sabellius (fl. c. 215)

Cyprian (died 258)

Novatian (c. 200 258)

Paul of Samosata (c. 200 c. 275)

Dionysius of Alexandria (died 265)

Gregory Thaumaturgus (c. 213 c. 270)

Methodius of Olympus (died c. 311)

Lucian of Antioch (c. 240 312)

Lactantius (c. 240 c. 320)

Ireneaus Defines Gospels 4 pillars of Church with all Truth

180 AD

Sites 21 NT Muratorian Canon NT Books

Ireneaus, Bishop of Lyons, (heard Polycarp), Martyred

180 AD - 202 AD

Origen of Alexandria lists what he believes is canon

Approx. 184 - Approx. 253

Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament canon except for four books: James, 2nd Peter, and the 2nd and 3rd epistles of John. Included Sheperd of Hermes

Iraneus cites 22 NT Books

185 AD

(Include Shepherd of Hermas, excludes Hebrews)

Origin

185 AD - 254 AD

Synod of Ephesus

193

Synod of Rome

193

Dormition of Mary

Approx. 193

Shortly after Synod of Ephesus in 193
Mary Died a normal death and Went to Heaven (Dormition). Orthodox don't believe in Immaculate Conception or the Assumption of Mary.

Current NT pretty much fixed

200 AD

Hernias (apologist)

200 AD - 300 AD

Muratorian NT canon

200 AD

omits Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1/2Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocolyps of Peter

Sign of the Cross

200

Tertulian says Christians wear out the foreheads doing it

St. Cyprian (bishop of Carthage), Martyred

200 AD - 258 AD

Virgin Mary - Mother of God "Theotokos"

Approx. 250

Origen 254. This doctrine really says more about Jesus than it does about Mary. If Jesus was truly God, then Mary is the mother of God on earth. That doesn't mean she had any thing to do with his eternal existence or that she eternally existed in any way. It just means that she was Jesus' mom and JESUS IS GOD.

250AD - Egypt - John Ryland’s Papyrus
Beneath your compassion
we take refuge, Theotokos.
Our petitions do not despise in time of trouble,
but from dangers ransom us,
Only Holy, Only Blessed

Synod of Carthage - Regional (Africa) - Novation Schism

254 AD

Baptism by splinter groups/heretics are invalid; Bishop of Rome (Stephen I) claimed to be bishop of bishops which strained relations between bishop of carthage and bishop of rome; The issue of valid baptisms was to be addressed later at the First Council of Nicea

Baptism By Sprinkling

257

Athanasius born

297 AD

Veneration of Icons - OK

Approx. 312 - 787

St. Epiphanius of Salamis objects in 315;
"Christians pray in the presence of Icons (just as Israelites prayed in the presence of Icons in the Temple), but we do not pray to the image."

"Orthodox Christians do venerate Icons, which is to say, we pay respect to them because they are holy objects, and because we reverence what the Icons depict. We do not worship Icons any more than Americans worship the American flag."

Edict of Milan - Chrsitianity Becomes Legal

313 AD

Made Christianity Legal in East and West

Emp. Constantine in East Becomes Christian

321

Eusebius Includes Didache in Canonical Books

324

"Let there be placed among the spurious works the Acts of Paul, the so-called Shepherd and the Apocalypse of Peter, and besides these the Epistle of Barnabas, and what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, and also the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought proper; for as I wrote before, some reject it, and others place it in the canon."

Council of Nicea - Ecumenical

325
  • 318 attendees (5 from the West)

Nature of God the Father and God the Son; Uniform Date of Easter; Constructed first part of Niceane Creed; Acknowledged exceptional authority for the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Rome, for their respective regions as well as honorary rights for the patriarch of Jerusalem

Seven Ecumenical Councils

325 AD - 787 AD

Church of Nativity Built

327 AD

"Canonization" of Greek Bible

331 - 367

27 Books of NT; Septuagint for OT; Septuagint included what protestants consider apocryphal

Constantine Commissioned 50 Bibles from Eusebius in Greek

331

Codex Sinaiticus (appears to be LXX) and Codex Vaticanus (used LXX) are possible surviving examples of these Bibles; NT included Epistle of Barnabas and Shepherd of Hermes

Greek Bible Compiled by Eusebius for Constantine in East

331

Greek Old Testament Canon is the Septuagint (LXX)

331

Codex Sinaiticus (LXX)

350 AD

Includes Shepherd of Hermes and Epistle of Barnabas in NT; uses LXX in old Testament; omits Baruch, but includes 4 Maccabees from LXX
- Greek Bible with Deuterocanonical Books and extra NT books

Codex Vaticanus (LXX)

350 AD

Missing 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Revelation; lacks 1 4 Maccabees but includes 1 Esdras from LXX
- Greek Bible with Deuterocanonical Books

Synod of Laodecia (East) - 27 NT minus Revelation

363 AD

30 clerics

Considered Judaizing to rest on Saturday instead of Sunday; Forbade reading non-canonical books in church. There is a canon60 that came out of the meeting that lists the current protestant bible but it is questionable as to whether canon 60 originally existed. Decrees Death to those who don't observe Sunday as the Lord's Day; Biblical Canon (didn't include Revelation)

Pope asserts Universal Primacy based on Peter - East Shrugs

366

Constantine commissioned bibles from Eusebius; Damasus commissioned bibles shortly thereafter from Jerome;

Council of Constantinople called by Constantine (not attended by West)

Council of Rome called by Damasus I (not attended by East)

Athanasius List 27 NT Canon Books (East)

367

Used word "canonized" in regards to them; Athanasius also included the Book of Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah, in his Old Testament canon. However, from this canon, he omitted the book of Esther.

Athanasius Lists Didache as Apocraphyl

367

Greek New Testament "Canon"ized

367

Doesn't include Revelation
Paschal Letter of Athanasius
East never really "Canonized" the bible, never saw a need to

Vigilantus Opposed icons, praying to saints

370 - 403

403 started writing against icons, praying to saints etc...; Jerome and Augustine disagreed

Rufinus lists Didache as Apocryphl

380

Council of Constantinople - Ecumenical

381 AD

Convened by Emp. Theodosis to bring church back to Nicene Christianity. Bishop of Constantinople was an Arian at the time as well as much of the rest of Constantinople. There was discussion of changing the Nicene Creed. The emperor deposed the Arian bishop because he wouldn't accept the Nicene Creed and proceeded to clean house of Arians throughout the empire. There was an attempt, headed by bishop of Alexandria to install a bishop in constantinople, Maximus, that was thwarted. Emp. Theodosis asked for advice from Bishop of Rome Damasus and was advised to repudiate Maximus and install a bishop beyond reproach. Emperor appointed Gregory bishop of constantinople

  • 150 attendees none from the West; This looks like the beginnings of Schism.

Finalized Concept of the Trinity; No attendees from the West. It looks like Bishop Damasus I of Rome asserted primacy of and didn't attend this council, instead he schedule a council in Rome and invited the East (they didn't attend that one either)

Canonization of Latin Bible

382 - 402

27 books of NT Testament; Old Testament included protestant "apocraphyl" Books, but not as many as in the Greek OT that was "canonized"

Council of Rome - West Only

382 AD

Affirms 27 books of NT....maybe not sure what this one was about

Synod of Rome - West Canon Agreement

382

Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)

Tobit.

Judith.

Esther.

Ezra, ij. books.

Macchabees, ij. books.

Jerome Compiled and Translated Latin Vulgate

383

Use of Hebrew OT (OT in Protestant Bible Today) vs LXX caused a big stir between Jerome and Augustine. The Hebrew OT doesn't include the deuterocanonical books in LXX.
Virtually fixes 27 NT Book Canon in the West, Jerome went against Augustine's view and used Hebrew OT (no deuterocanonical books) not LXX (includes deuterocanonical books). Superceded the previous version "Venus Latina" which used LXX; 405-408 the Greek OT books not in the Hebrew OT were added to the Latin Vulgate by Jerome in his next revision

Prohibit Marriage of Clergy - West

385

Latins Establish 27 NT Book Canon

393 - 419

Augustine already considered the books "Canonized"; Augustine and North African Synods

Synod of Hippo - Regional (North Africa) - West of Rome

393 AD

Recognizes the modeern Roman Catholic Canon; excludes deuterocanonical/apocraphyl writings, this was a regional meeting though as the EO always recognized the deuterocanonical books from the LXX; Canon still neeeded ratification by Rome; Hippo was west of Carthage

Synod of Hippo - West Canon Agreement (North Africa)

393

Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)

Tobit.

Judith.

Esther.

Ezra, ij. books.

Macchabees, ij. books.

Synod of Carthage - Regional (Africa) - West of Rome

397 AD

Agrees with Council of Hippo

Synod of Carthage - West Canon Agreement (North Africa)

397

Included Deuterocanonical Books: Pope Damasus List (382)

Tobit.

Judith.

Esther.

Ezra, ij. books.

Macchabees, ij. books.

East and West Agree on NT Canon 27 books

400 AD

Holy Water - OK

400

Water that has been prayed over for baptism and whatnot

Jerome Adds Deuterocanonical Books to Latin Vulgate

402

Jerome's letter to Eustochium, in which Jerome quotes Sirach 13:2.[30] Elsewhere Jerome apparently also refers to Baruch, the Story of Susannah and Wisdom as scripture.; In his prologue to Judith, without using the word canon, he mentioned that Judith was held to be scriptural by the First Council of Nicaea.; What sin have I committed in following the judgment of the churches? But when I repeat what the Jews say against the Story of Susanna and the Hymn of the Three Children, and the fables of Bel and the Dragon, which are not contained in the Hebrew Bible, the man who makes this a charge against me proves himself to be a fool and a slanderer; for I explained not what I thought but what they commonly say against us. (Against Rufinus, II:33 [AD 402]).

Jerome Writes Against Vigilantus

406