Until 1450, the italian renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However ideas began to spread, leading to a renaissance period in Northern Europe
Leonardo da Vinci represents a transitional figure in the shift to High Renaissance principles. He carried on the fiftieth century experimental tradition by studying everything and even dissecting human bodies to see more clearly how nature worked. However he also stressed the need to advance beyond such realism and initiate the High Renaissance's idealization of nature.
Improvements in weapons and technology led to England's defeat. For example, the Chinese had invented gunpowder and devised a simple cannon. The Mongols developed more accurate cannons and cannonballs, both spread to the Middle East by the thirteenth century and to Europe by the fourteenth. The death of England's best commander and the instability of the English government also contributed to their defeat.
The Peace of Lodi ended almost a half century of war and began a peaceful forty-year era in Italy. An alliance system was then created that led to a workable balance of power within Italy.
Johannes Gutenberg played an important role in bringing the process of printing from moveable type to completion. His Bible was the first true book in the West produced from moveable type.
This was a dynastic union of two rulers not a political union. The two rulers worked to strengthen royal control of government, especially in Castile. Ferdinand and Isabella developed a strong army making it the best in Europe by the sixteenth century. They also recognized the importance of controlling the Catholic church, with its vast power and wealth.
Hearing reports of a route to India around the southern tip of Africa, Portuguese sea captains continued their exploration. In 1488 Bartholomeu Dias took advantage of westerly winds in the south atlantic to round the Cape of Good Hope, but he feared a mutiny from his crew and returned.
In 1492 with the success of their conquest of muslim Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all professed Jew and Muslims. It is estimated that 150,000 out of 200,000 Jews fled. A policy of uniformity enforced by the inquisition was, to be spanish was to be Catholic.
Columbus felt that Asia could be reached by sailing West instead of Around Africa and convince Queen Isabella of Spain to finance his exploratory expedition. In four voyages Columbus landed on all the major islands of the Caribbean and the main land of Central America convinced that he had reached the Indies in Asia.
The David was a 14-foot-high marble statue commissioned by the Florentine government. It was the largest sculpture in Italy since the time of Rome. The David proclaims the beauty of the human body and the glory of human beings.
Raphael's School of Athens reveals a world of balance, harmony, and order which were the principles of the art of the classical world of Greece and Rome.
In The Praise of Folly Erasmus was able to engage in a humorous yet effective criticism of the most corrupt practices of his own society. He was especially harsh on the abuses with the ranks of the clergy.
In 1511 a Portuguese fleet led by Afonso de Albuquerque attacked the Muslim sultanate at Malacca on the west coast of the Malay peninsula. Occupation of the port gave the Portuguese control over the strategic straight of Malacca and the route to the Spice Islands.
Mchiavelli's main concerns in The Prince were the acquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time. Machiavelli believed that a prince's attitude toward power must be based on an understanding of human nature, which he perceived as basically self-centered. Political activity therefore could not be restricted by moral considerations. The prince acts on behalf of the state and for the sake of the state must be willing to let mis conscience go.
Utopia was one of More's most famous work. It is an account of the idealistic life and institutions of the community of Utopia. This piece reflects More's own concerns with the economic, social, and political problems of his day. Utopian society is based on communal ownership rather than private property
Luthers Ninety-Five Thesis marks the beginning of the Reformation. He wrote this angered and arguing against the selling of indulgences
Since the climate and soil of much of West Africa were not conductive to the cultivation of sugar, African slaves began to be shipped to Brazil and the Caribbean to work on the plantations. The first were ant from Portugal,but in 1518, a spanish ship carried the first boatload of African slaves directly form Africa to the New World.
Charles V ruled over an immense empire, consisting of Spain and its overseas possessions. Politically, Charles wanted to maintain his dynasty's control over his enormous empire. Religiously he hoped to preserve the unity of the Catholic faith throughout his empire. However he faced many problems and his problems gave Luther's movement time to grow and organize.
Cortes arrived at Tenochtitlán, where he received a friendly welcome from the Aztec monarch Moctezuma. Moctezuma offered gifts of gold and gave them a place to use while in the city. However the spaniards took Moctezuma hostage and proceeded to pillage the city. Cortes won a great victory in result of the Aztecs dying from being exposed to new diseases like the smallpox brought by the Spaniards.
The Church was unable to accept Luther's forcefully worded dissent from traditional Catholic teachings (On the Freedom of a Christian Man) therefore they excommunicated him and was expected to recant the heretical doctrines he had supported.
This was a training manual for spiritual development emphasizing exercises by which the human will could be strengthened and made to follow the will of God as manifested through his instrument, the Catholic church.
Zwingli's preaching of the Gospel caused such nest that the city council held a public debate in the town hall. The disputation became a standard method of spreading the Reformation to many cities.
Social discontent soon became entangled with religious revolt as peasants looked to Martin Luther for support. Thomas Muntzer inflamed the peasants against their rulers. However Luther supported the rulers and called on the German princes to "smite, slay, and stab" the stupid and stubborn peasantry.
The Sack of Rome in 1527 by the armies of the spanish king Charles I brought a temporary end to the italian wars and thereafter the spaniards dominated Rome.
The Spanish imperial army of Charles V went berserk while attacking Rome and gave the capital of Catholicism a fearful and bloody sacking and by 1530 Charles V stood supreme over much of Italy.
Charles attempt to solve the Lutheran problem at the Diet of Augsburg proved completely inadequate, and the emperor wound up demanding that the Lutherans return to the Catholic church.
Francisco Pizzaro landed on the pacific coast of South America with an army of about 180 men and steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses. Pizzaro easily captured the Incan capital because the Inca Empire had already succumbed to an epidemic of smallpox and the Incan stones, arrows, and light spears provided little challenge to the charging horses of the Spanish, let alone their guns and cannons.
Munster became a heaven for the Anabaptists from the surrounding neighborhood, especially the Melchiorites, who believed that the end of the world was at hand and they would usher in the kingdom of god with Munster as the new Jerusalem. By the end of February these millenarian Anabaptists had taken control of the city, driven out anyone they considered godless, burned all books except the Bible, and proclaimed communal ownership of all property.
Calvin took up a ministry in Geneva that lasted until his death. The city council accepted his new church constitution, known as the Ecclesiastical Ordinances. A special body for enforcing moral discipline was set up as a court to oversee the moral life and doctrinal purity of Genevans. Calvin's success in Geneva enabled the city to become a vibrant center of Protestantism.
Portuguese traders had landed on the islands of Japan, and in a few years, Portuguese ships began stopping at Japanese ports on a regular basis to take part in the regional trade between Japan, China, and Southeast Asia.
Copernicus had become aware of ancient views that contradicted the Ptolemaic, Earth centered conception of the universe. He felt that the geocentric system was too complicated and failed to accord with the observed motions of the heavenly bodies. Copernicus hoped that his heliocentric or sun centered conception would offer a simpler and more accurate explanation.
This book was based on his Paduan lectures, in which he deviated from traditional practice by personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was dissecting. His anatomical treatise presented a careful examination of the individual organs and general structure of the human body.
In 1542 Pope Paul III took the decisive step of calling for a general council of Christendom to resolve the religious differences created by the Protestant revolt. The final doctrinal decrees of the Council of Trent reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant believes. With a new spirit of confidence the Catholic church as well as prepared as the Calvinists to do battle for the Lord. An era of religious warfare was about to unfold.
By the time of Luther's death all hopes of a peaceful compromise had faded. Charles brought a sizable imperial army of German, Dutch, Italian and Spanish troops to do battle with the Protestants.
An end to religious warfare in Germany came in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg, which marked an important turning point in the history of the reformation. The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged, with Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism.
Religion was the engine that drove the French civil wars. The Frence nobility became Huguenots, including the house of Bourbon, which stood next to the Valois in the royal line of succession. This made the Huguenots a potentially dangerous political threat to monarchial power. The extreme Catholic party favored strict opposition to the Huguenots. Resentful of the growing power of monarchial centralization, towns and provinces were only too willing to join a revolt against the monarchy.
William Shakespeare is one of the most famous playwrights of the Western world. He was a universal genius, outclassing all others in his psychological insights, depth of characterization, imaginative skills, and versatility. His historical plays reflected the patriotic enthusiasm of the English in the Elizabethan era.
The armada proved to be a disaster. The spanish fleet that finally set sail had neither the ships nor the troops that they had planned to send. The spanish fleet were battered by a number of encounters with the english and their travel back to Spain was also battered by storms. The defeat of the Spanish armada guaranteed for the time being that England would remain a Protestant country.
In his fist law he rejected Copernicus by showing that the orbits of the planets around the sun were not circular but elliptical with the sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center. In his second law, he demonstrated that the speed of a planet is greater when it is closer to the sun and decreases as its distance from the sun increases. Kepler's third law that the square of a planet's period of revolution is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun.
This book included his remarkable discoveries: mountains and craters on the moon, four moons revolving, around jupiter, the phase of Venus, and sunspots. The Starry Messenger stunned his contemporaries and probably did more to make Europeans aware of the new picture of the universe than the mathematical theories of Copernicus and Kepler did. In The Starry Messenger Galileo had revealed himself as a firm proponent of Copernicus's heliocentric system.
A devastating war that affected much of Europe and rebellions seemingly everywhere protracted the atmosphere of disorder and violence.
The Dutch pushed Portuguese and England out of the spice market. The Dutch also began to consolidate their political and military control over the entire area. After establishing a fort on the island of Java at Bataiva they found it was necessary to to bring the inland regions under their control to protect their position.
Francis Bacon called for his contemporaries "to commence a total reconstruction of sciences, arts, and all human knowledge, raised upon the proper foundations" Bacon did not doubt humans' ability to know that natural world, but he believed they had proceeded incorrectly.
Louis XIII's chief minister, initiated policies that eventually strengthened the power of the monarchy. By eliminating the political and military rights of the Huguenots while preserving their religious ones, Richelieu transformed the Huguenots into more reliable subjects.
Harvey demonstrated that the heart and not the liver was the beginning point of the circulation of blood in the body, that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries, and most important that the blood makes a complete circuit as i passes through the body. Harvey's theory of the circulation of the blood laid the foundation for modern physiology.
Descartes has long been viewed as he founder of modern rationalism and modern philosophy because he believed that human begins could understand the world by the same rational principles inherent in mathematical thinking. In His Discourse on method he elaborated on his approach to discovering truth.
The foundation of the Prussian state was laid by Fredrick William the Great Elector, who came to power in the midst of the Thirty Years War. Fredrick William built a competent and efficient standing army.
Parliament proved victorious in the first phase of he English Civil War. Supported by the New Model Army, Parliament ended the fist phase of the civil war with the capture of King Charles I in 1646.
France during the reign of Louis XIV has traditionally been regarded as the best example of the practice of absolute monarchy in the seventeenth century. French culture, language, and manners reached into all levels of European society.
In the 1630 a major epidemic devastated the population in many areas of the Ming dynasty. The suffering caused by the epidemic helped spark a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng. Li and his forces occupied the capital of Beijing but were overthrown by the Manchus.
As a result of the sixteenth century revolt of the Netherlands, the seven northern provinces, which began to call themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands, became the core of the modern Dutch state. The new state was officially recognized by the Peace of Wesphalia in 1648
During the first half of the seventieth century the British presence in India steadily increased. BY 1650 British trading posts had been established Surat, Fort William near the bay of Bengal, and Madras on the southern coast
Hobbes claimed that in the state of nature before society was organized, human life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" Humans were guided not by reason and moral ideals but by animalistic instincts and a ruthless struggle for self preservation. To save themselves from destroying each other, people contracted to form a commonwealth.
In the Pensées, Pascal tried to convert rationalists to christianity by appealing to both their reason and their emotions.
The Dutch were among the first to establish settlements on the North American continent. Within a few years the Dutch had established the mainland colony of New Netherlands, which stretched from the mouth of the Hudson River as far north as Albany, New York.
Attacked what she considered the defects of the rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientific knowledge and was especially critical of the growing belief that through science, humans would be masters of nature.
To Spinoza, human beings are not "situated in nature as a kingdom within a kingdom" but are as much a part of God or nature or the universal order as other natural objects.
Newton demonstrated the mathematical proofs for his universal law of gravitation and completed the new cosmology begun by Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. He also described the rules or reasoning by which he arrived at his universal law
Many historians have viewed the Glorious Revolution as the end of the seventeenth-century struggle between king and Parliament. By disposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had demolished the divine- right theory of kingship and confirmed its right to participate in the government.
Locke believed that humans lives then in a state of equality and freedom rather than a state of war. In this state of nature,humans had certain inalienable natural rights- to life, to liberty, and to property.
Peter the Great admires European technology and gadgets and desired to transplant these to Russia. His foremost goal was the creation of a strong army and navy in order to make Russia a great power.
The Bill of Rights affirmed Parliament's rights to make laws and levy taxes and made it possible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament. The Bill of Rights also confirmed the rights of citizens to petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail.
Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
Operating through the East India Company, which served as both a trading unit and the administrator of English territories in Asia, the English established their first trading post at Canton in 1699. Over the next decades trade with China increased rapidly
Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and eventually gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Baltic. War is decided with the Battle of Poltava, but ends with the Peace of Mystadt in 1721. Sweden becomes a second-rate power after the war.
Grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. He was more concerned with his mistresses than matters of the state. Eventually, he took action to defend his absolutist inheritance after Parliament objection. "The magistrates are my officers...In my person only does the sovereign power rest." Louis XV really enjoyed the lavish lifestyle that came to him upon becoming king. Instated the Parliament, but later dissolved it due to their opposing his absolutist style.
Both George I and George II relied on Robert Walpole as their chief or prime minister and the Duke of Newcastle as their main dispenser of patronage, putting the latter at the center of British politics
Bach became director of church music at the church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig in 1723. There Bach composed his Mass in B Minor, his Saint Matthews passion, and the cantos and motets that have established his reputation as one of the greatest composers of all time.
He was one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the eighteenth century. He was very well versed in Enlightenment thought
Maria Theresa was the Empress of Austrian. She resolved to reform the empire to prepare for conflict with Prussia. Maria Theresa also abolished the Austrian & Bohemian chancelleries and replaced them with departments of foreign affairs, justice, war, commerce, and internal affairs that functioned for both territories. She remained very Catholic and conservative and was not open to wider reform calls of the philosophes.
War over the control of Austria due to the fact that Charles VI left Maria Theresa (a girl) as heir to the throne. Frederick II of Prussia invaded due to a want for Silesia and France helped him in order to humiliate their enemy. Great Britain allied with Austria to prevent France from gaining more land. The colonies of France and Great Britain began to fight also. Austria gave Silesia to Prussia and the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war.
first performed in 1741 has been called "one of those rare works that appeal immediatley to everyone, and yet is indisputably a masterpiece of the highest order". This, along with great church works of composers such as Bach are indications of the continuing religious fervor of the first half of the 18th century. Handel's and Bach's music considered "baroque" in style
This treatise was a comparative study of governments in which Montesquieu attempted to apply the scientific method to the social and political arena to ascertain the "natural laws" governing the social relationships of human beings.
Diderots most famous contribution to the Enlightenment was his encyclopedia that he edited and called "the great work of his life" Its purpose according to Diderot, was "to change the general way of thinking."
(Could be called the first World War.) Prussia's well trained army invaded Saxony. (An Ally of Austria.) This caused France and Great Britain to be mad at each other over their colonies again so they begin fighting. France and Great Britain fought in the French and Indian War and in the West Indies, India, and central Europe. Prussia was losing until the Russian tsar died and a pro-Prussian withdrew Russia from the Franco-Austrian alliance. Prussia got to keep all the territory, including Silesia which it won earlier. Britain and France ended their fighting with the Treaty of Paris.
In 1757 a small british force numbering about three thousand defeated a Mughal-led army more than time times its size in the Battle of Plassey
The Social Contract was basically an agreement on the part of an entire society to be governed by its general will. The Émile is one of the Enlightenments most important works n education. Rousseau's concern was that education should foster rather than restrict children's natural instinct.
Catherine II the Great was Peter III's German wife who emerged as autocrat of Russia after Peter was murdered by a faction of nobles. She wished to reform Russia along the lines of Enlightened ideas but she could not afford to alienate Russian nobility. Catherine II reorganized local government and split Russia into 50 provinces.
smith presented a strong attack on mercantilism. First he condemned the mercantilist use of tariffs to protect home industries. Second he claimed that gold and silver were not the source of a nations true wealth but he did not believe that soil was either. Finally Smith believed that the state should not interfere in economic matters.
The Second Continental Congress had authorized the formation of a Continental Army under George Washington as commander and chief. Complicating the war effort were the internal divisions within the colonies. The revolutionary war was also a civil war, pitting family members and neighbors against one another. The French supplied arms and money to the rebels and French officers and soldiers also served in Washington's Continental Army. The British army was forced to surrender and the Treaty of Paris recognized the independence of the American colonies and granted the Americans control of the western territory.
The Second Continental Congress adopted a resolution declaring the independence of the american colonies. Two days later, the delegates approved the Declaration of Independence,which gave the reasons for their action. Its principle author was Thomas Jefferson.
He had a reform program which abolished serfdom and tried to give the peasants hereditary rights to their holdings. He also eliminated internal trade barriers, ending monopolies and removing gild restrictions. Joseph also made a new penal code which included equality before the law and abrogated death penalty. He also wanted complete religious toleration.
James Watt created an engine powers by steam that could pump water from mines three times a quickly as previous engines.
Mozart carried the tradition of Italian comic opera to new heights with The Marriage of Figaro, based on a Parisian play of the 1780's in which a valet outwits and out-sings his noble employers.
Edmund Cartwright's power loom allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn. Home-based hand-loom weavers were gradually replaced by the new machines.
National Assembly got locked out of their meeting spot so they meet at a nearby tennis court , where they take an oath to not break up until they have a constitution. This constituted the first step in the French Revolution.
Parisian crowds in search of weapons attacked and captured the royal armory known as the Bastille. It had also been a state prison, and its fall marked the triumph of "liberty" over despotism. This intervention saved the Third Estate from Louis XVI's attempted counterrevolution.
Wollstonecraft pointed out two contradictions in the views of women. To argue the women must obey men, she said, was contrary to the beliefs of the same individual that a system based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects or slave owners over their slaves was wrong. the subjection of women to me was equally as wrong.
The body that replaced the Legislative Assembly following a successful election in 1792. As one of its first actions, the convention declared the French monarchy abolished on September 21, 1792, and on the following day declared France a republic. Though originally dominated by moderates, the convention became controlled by radical Jacobins in 1793.
British traders had began to demand access to other cities along the Chinese coast and insist that the country be opened to British manufactured goods. In 1793 a British mission under Lord Macartney visited Beijing to press for liberation of trade restrictions.
A ten-month period of oppression and execution from late 1793 to mid-1794, organized by Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety to suppress any potential enemies of the radical Revolution. The Reign of Terror ended with the fall of Robespierre, who was arrested and executed in July 1794. Robespierre's execution ushered in the Thermidorian Reaction of 1794-1795 and the establishment of the Directory as the head of France's executive government.
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
The new executive branch established by the constitution written during the moderate Thermidorian Reaction of 1794-1795. The Directory was appointed by the legislative assembly. However, after 1797 election results proved unfavorable to elements in the Directory, it orchestrated an overthrow of the assembly and maintained dubious control over France until it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.
He had overwhelming influence over the legislature, appointed members of the bureaucracy, controlled the army, and conducted foreign affairs. In 1802 Napoleon was made consul for life and in 1804 returned France to monarchy when he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.
It attempted to prevent british goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain Economically and destroy its capacity to wage war. However the Continental System failed.
followers of King Ned Lud, critics of the Industrial Revolution who refused to believe in and use technology, they destroyed "looms" and factories.
An international congress that met from 1814 to 1815 to set peace terms for continental Europe after the Napoleonic Wars; notable for its creation of a European balance of power and the restoration of old dynasties.
At Waterloo on June 18, Napoleon met a combined British and Prussian army under the Duke of Wellington and suffered a bloody defeat. The vicious allies exiled him to Saint Helena, a small and forsaken island in the South Atlantic.
Napoleonic Wars destroyed Bourbon monarchy in Spain and decreased their authority in their colonies in Latin America. The struggle for independence in Venezuela was led by Simon Bolivar (the Liberator), who freed Colombia and Venezuela. Jose de San Martin, the second liberator, freed Chile and worked with Bolivar to free Peru. The Continental powers wanted to send troops to restore Spanish control, but this time when Britain opposed, they won. The British proposed action with the U.S. to keep Europe from interfering.
The merger of Catholic Belgium into the Protestant Dutch Republic never sat well with the Belgians, and in 1830 they rose p against the Dutch and succeeded in convincing the major European powers to accept their independence. The revolutionary scenarios in Italy and Poland were much less successful. Metternich sent Austrian troops to crush revolts in three italian states. Poland had a nationalist uprising when revolutionaries tried to end Russian control of their country, However the Russians had crushed the revolt and established an oppressive military dictatorship over Poland.
King Charles X issued July Ordinances, which included censorship of the press, dissolved legislature, and reduced the electorate to get ready for the new elections. The anger of the French people by these Ordinances produced this, where the liberals take charge and form a provisional government and ask Louis-Philippe to become their new king under a new constitutional monarchy.
This act in Great Britain disfranchised the rotten boroughs (buying seats in government by bribes) and abolished the ownership of property as a requirement to be able to vote.
For Friedrich nature was a manifestation of divine life. To Friedrich the artistic process depended on ones inner vision. This painting is an example of Romanticism in art.
Movement in Great Britain that outlawed the employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills. Also limited the work days for those aged nine to thirteen to nine hours a day, and teenagers to twelve hours a day
Its primary purpose was to coordinate a general strike for the eight-hour working day.
In it, Chadwick concluded that "the various forms of epidemic, endemic,and other disease" were directly caused by the "atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances, by damp and filth,and close crowded dwellings amongst the population in every part of the kingdom" Chadwick advocated a system of madern sanitary reforms consisting of efficient sewers and a supply of piped water.
Advocated the application of Fourier's ideas to reconstruct both family and work. She envisioned absolute equality as the only hope to free the working class and transform civilization. She wished to foster a "utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism"
The meeting of German states' delegates to write a new constitution for France. They disagreed on who was part of this new German state, as the Grossdeutsch wanted Austria included but the Kleindeutsch did not and wanted the Prussian king to rule as emperor of their new united state. This caused Austria to withdraw.
None of the revolutions succeeded, but demonstrated the power of political ideas, and uncovered the effects of a generation of social change. Peasants in Prussia and Austria were emancipated, and nationalism is now a powerful new force in politics
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles projected the creation of a classless society as the end product of the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
The British organized the world first industrial fair. It was housed in London in the Crystal Palace. The Great Exhibition displayed Britain's wealth to the world. It was a gigantic symbol of British success.
Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea. The intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose.The Russians realize the need to industrialize, and Austria and Russia see how antiquated their systems were
An explanation for evolution in the principle of natural selection.
It was the Prussian army that indirectly completed the task of Italian Unification. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the new italian state became an ally of Prussia. Although the italian was defeated by the Austrians, Prussia's victory left the Italians with Venetia. The Franco-Prussian war resulted in the withdraw of the French troops from Rome. The Italian army then annexed the city and Rome became the new capital of the united Italian state.
On March 3, 1861 Alexander issued his emancipation edict. Peasants could now own property, marry as they choose, and bring suits in the law courts. Nevertheless the benefits were limited.
The American Civil War was an extraordinarily bloody war. More than 600,000 soldiers died, either from battle or from deadly infectious diseases. The north gradually wore down the Confederate forces of the south. It became a war against slavery. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made most of the nations slaves "forever free".Lees Confederate Army surrendered on April 9, 1865. The union victory confirmed that the U.S. would be "one nation, indivisible"
Fearful of the American designs on Canada during the war and eager to reduce the costs of maintaining the colonies, the British government finally establish the Canadian Nation - The Dominion of Canada- with its own constitution.
A canal by Egypt that allowed passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, which provided the fastest route by sea to reach Asia. Britain tried to control it to regulate trade.
The leader of the Bolsheviks. Germany brought him to Russia in order to cause chaos in the Russian state. His speeches inspired the overthrow of the Provisional Government.
Bismarck often served to prevent the growth of more democratic institutions. At first Bismarck worked with the liberals to achieve greater centralization of Germany through common codes of criminal and commercial law. In 1878 Bismarck abandoned the liberals and began to persecute the socialists.
After France's defeat in the Franco-Prusian War, the liberal National Guard rebuffed the Third Republic's effort to disarm them and formed an independent Paris, with it's own government. The conservative president of France, Adolph Thiers, sent more troops to capture Paris and a bloodbath ensued. Independent Paris was defeated.
Bismark was proclaimed kaiser or emperor of the Second German Empire. German unity had been achieved by the Prussian monarchy and the Prussian army. The Prussian leadership of German unification meant the triumph of authoritarian, militaristic values over liberal, constitutional sentiments in the development of the new German state.
Espoused revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for the Reichstag.
This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea, and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. It was concluded by the Treaty of San Stephano.
A revolution in communications was fostered when Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876
In France, an 1882 law made primary education compulsory for all children between six and thirteen.
in 1882 in Amsterdam, Dr. Aletta Jacob founded Europe's first birth control clinic . Initially "family planning" was the suggestion of reformers who thought that the problem of poverty could be solved by reducing the number of children among the lower classes.
In his attempt to win workers away from socialism, Bismarck favored an extensive program of social welfare benefits including, old age pensions and compensation for absence from work due to sickness, and accident and disability.
Captain Albert Dreyfus was accused of giving secret information to the Germans. He was a scapegoat(he was Jewish). Found guilty by a military court and sent to Devil's Island. When the evidence was reexamined they determined that documents were formed to frame Dreyfus. Emile Zola exposes the truth. Leads to rise of anti-semtitism
Contained the basic foundation of what came to be known as psychoanalysis
Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters founded the Women's Social and Political Union 1903, which enrolled mostly middle-and upper-class women. Her organization realized the value of social media and used unusual publicity stunts to call attention to its demands.
According to the relativity theory, space and time are not absolute but relative to the observer, and both are interwoven into a four dimensional space-time continuum.
This occurred because of growing public discontent with the government as well as an increase in revolutionary parties or propaganda. The government refused to make any concessions and believed autocracy was the best form of government. War went so terribly that the Russian public had even less faith in its government. Police allowed father Gapon to go among the workers in an attempt to help but it resulted in the Bloody Sunday and a wave of political strikes and eventually the October Manifesto. The Russian government however was still not overthrown by this revolution
Britain, France, and Russia formed to check the power of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, and Italy)
Picasso was instrumental in the development of a new style called Cubism that used geometric designs as visual stimuli to re-create reality in the viewers mind. Picasso's 1907 work Les Demoiselles d' Avignon has been called the first Cubist painting.
This war lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, and achieved rapid success. As a result of the war, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured and partitioned among the allies. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied with the peace settlement and with the Ottoman threat gone, soon started a Second Balkan War against its former allies.
This war was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, penetrating into Bulgaria. Having previously engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, the new war caused a Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to give up much of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottomans.
This event led to the confrontation between Austria and Serbia that led to World War I.
The return to unrestricted submarine warfare brought the United States in to the war. The entry of the United States into the war in 1917 gave the Allied Powers a psychological boost when they needed it.
The Provisional Government called for an election of the Constituent Assembly, continued war against Germany, promised redistribution of land to peasants. However peasants burn and loot villages while the armies melt away. The Petrograd Soviet opposes the Provisional Government calls for termination of war and issues order no. 1 which forces the armies discipline too collapse. Lenin and Bolsheviks return however they are soon blamed for an uprising so Lenin flees but Kerensky is named the new head of the Provisional Government. Kerensky is then threatened from the right by Gen. Kornilov who dispatches cavalry to restore order but the movement is defeated by the Bolsheviks, everyone wanted the soviets to be repressed so they are upset by this and blame Kerensky. With the food crisis however the public was willing to listen to extreme radicals. Lenins 4 points calling for peace, redistribution of land, committees of workers, and the soviets as supreme power also appeal to the public. The Bolsheviks win the majority of the government while Kerensky creates a pre- parliament and continues to lose popularity. Lenin calls for a Congress of Soviets who take over all communication and end the Provisional Government and pronounce a Council of People's Comissars
War between the "White" armies and the Bolshevik "Red" armies in the summer of 1918 started when the White armies wanted to overthrow the Bolsheviks; Red armies were the victors
Proposed by President Woodrow Wilson, these terms of peace included self-determination, open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, disarmament, and the establishment of the League of Nations.
The communist camp of the Russian Civil War.
The German forces succeeded in advancing 40 miles to the Marne River, within 35 miles of Paris. But an Allied counterattack led by the French General Ferdinand Foch and supported by the arrival of 140,00 American troops, defeated the Germans at the Second Battle of the Marne.
The fourteenth point of Wilson's Fourteen Points. It was an international organization designed to peacefully mediate disputes. Although the United States proposed it, the US never joined.
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
The elections from 1930 through 1932 were indirectly responsible for Nazi's rise to power since they showed the importance of the Nazi party.
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
The treaty with the Soviet Union gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland and on September 1, German forces invaded Poland ; two days later, Britain and France declare war on Germany. Two weeks later Germanys new found ally, the Soviet Union, sent its troop into eastern Poland. Europe was agin at war
Hitler became convinced that Britain was remaining in the war only because it expected Soviet support. If the soviet Union were smashed, Britain's last hope would be eliminated. The massive attack stretched out along an 1,800-mile by november one German army group had swept through the Ukraine while a second was besieging Leningrad. A counter attack on December 1941 by a Soviet army brought an ominous ending to the year of the Germans.
Jews were being shipped from all throughout Europe to death camps. About 30 percent of the arrivals at Auschwitz were sent to a labour camp; the remainder went to the gas chambers. After they had been gassed the bodies were burned in the crematoria. The Germans killed between five and six million Jews.
Post-war meeting of the big three in which they decided to divide Germany into occupation zones. Also, Germany would pay heavy reparations to Russia, and Russia agreed to attack Japan after Germany.
Aftre the Japanese government decreed the mobilization of all people between the ages of thirteen and sixty into a "people's volunteer corps" President truman and his advisers feared that Japanese fanaticism might mean a million American casualties. This concern led them to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The destruction was incredible of 76,000 building near the hypocenter of the explosion 70,000 were flattened; 140,000 of the cities 400,000 inhabitant died by the end of 1945. By the end of 1950 another 50,000 died from the effects of radiation.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Struggle between America and USSR to get more and better nuclear weapons to be the superior country
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries. The importance of it was that it gave each country the piece of mind they needed against the Communists.
Khrushchev's policy of purging the Soviet Union of Stalin's memory; monuments of Stalin were destroyed. Stalin's body was moved outside the Kremlin Wall, Khrushchev did this because he disliked Stalin for jailing and killing loyal Soviet citizens. The importance of it was that it led to Russian decline
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members. The importance of it was that it was a movement towards European unity
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
A prolonged war between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
first woman Prime Minister in any major Western country. Conservative whose policies included, cutting government expenses, resisting trade unions demands, curbing Imports, encouraging productivity, and protecting the currency.
president, 1981-1989, who led a conservative movement against détente with the Soviet Union and the growth of the federal government; some people credit him with America's victory in the Cold War while others fault his insensitive social agenda and irresponsible fiscal policies.
Four groups of terrorists hijacked four commercial jet airplanes after takeoff from Boston, Newark, and Washington D.C. the hijackers flew two of the airplanes directly into the towers of the World Trade Center causing these building, as well as a number of surrounding building to collapse. A third hijacked plane slammed into the Pentagon near Washington D.C. The fourth place was headed for Washington but instead crashed in an isolated area in Pennsylvania. Nearly thousands of people were killed, including everyone aboard the four airplanes.
An American spy plane collides with a fighter plane of China and makes an emergency landing in Hainan, China. The U.S. crew is detained for ten days.
A tragedy at NASA occurs when the Space Shuttle Columbia explodes upon reentry over Texas. All seven astronauts inside are killed.
The War in Iraq begins with the bombing of Baghdad after additional measures and mandates from the United Nations and the United States coalition fail to gain concessions or the removal of Saddam Hussein from power. The U.S. coalition, upon failure to extract authority from the U.N. for action due to the veto power of France, begin land operations one day later with participation from U.S., British, Australian, and Polish troops.
President George W. Bush wins reelection over Democratic Senator John Kerry from Massachusetts. He wins 50.7% of the popular vote and 286 votes in the Electoral College.
The southeast Asian tsunami occurs following a 9.3 Richter scale earthquake in the Indian Ocean. Two hundred and ninety thousand people die from Sri Lanka to Indonesia, creating one of the greatest humanitarian tragedies in history. A worldwide relief effort, led by the United States and many other nations, is mobilized to assist.
In the first Space Shuttle flight since the tragedy of 2003, Discovery goes into orbit on a mission that returns to earth safely on August 9.
Hurricane Katrina strikes the Gulf Coast, inundating the city of New Orleans with water from Lake Pontchartrain when the levees that maintain the below sea level city break. Over one thousand three hundred people perish from Alabama to Louisiana in one of the worst natural disasters to strike the United States.
It recounted a year long investigation into the use and abuse of performance enhancing drugs over a two decade period, including steroids and human growth hormone. Nearly ninety players were named, and blame for the scandal was spread among players, the union, and the commissioner's office. Headed by former Senator George Mitchell, the report urged enhanced testing to stem the problem and a look forward attitude to restore the integrity of the game and its statistics. The report comes after a season when Barry Bonds broke the home run record of Hank Aaron amid suspicion of steroid use.
The Super Tuesday tornado outbreak kills over 60 people and produces $1 billion in damage across Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama.
Global financial crisis in September 2008 begins as the stock market crashes. In response, President Bush signs the revised Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law to create a 700 billion dollar Treasury fund to purchase failing bank assets.
Hurricane Ike kills 100 people along the Texas coast, produces $31 billion in damage, and contributes to rising oil prices.
A report by the U.S. embassy in Iraq states that 15 of the 18 goals set for the Iraqi government have been met, largely due to the surge implemented over the last year. The increase of 21,500 United States troops, commonly known as the surge, reduced violence and restored order to the nation, allowing the government of Iraq to focus more on solving other problems needed to establish a stable nation.
The United States Congress passes legislation, signed by President Bush, for a $700 billion bailout, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, giving the Treasury Department authority to assist distressed Wall Street and banking businesses of the United States due to the housing, banking, and subprime mortgage crises caused by excessive greed and speculation among Wall Street firms. This economic distress, coupled with oil prices above $140 per barrel during the summer, deepened the world economic crises that had been brewing all year. The bailout was supported by current President George W. Bush and both presidential candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain.
The first of a series of Tea Party protests are conducted across the United States, focusing on smaller government, fiscal responsibility, individual freedoms and conservative views of the Constitution.
Barack Obama takes the oath of office for President of the United States, becoming the first African-American president in the history of the nation. The Democratic Senator from Illinois comes into the office on a message of Change. The city of Washington, D.C. hosts more than one million visitors to the inauguration, covering the National Mall in a way reminiscent of the Civil Rights March of Martin Luther King forty-six years earlier.
The economic recession continues to deepen as jobless claims climb above 10.0%, reaching 10.2% with October's monthly figures. This occurs despite efforts by the Obama administration to ramp up massive government spending pushed by the $780 billion economic stimulus package passed earlier in the year.
President Obama announces a surge of 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan to stem increased efforts by the Taliban in the country. The surge, which was suggested by military officers, was not popular with the liberal base of the Democratic party which had put the President in power on a pledge to end both Middle Eastern wars. The war in Afghanistan, which started as a response to the terror attacks on 9/11/2001, and the war on terror in general, comes into focus again on December 25 when an airliner headed for Detroit is attacked by a Muslim extremist, 23-year-old Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who attempts to detonate a bomb, but fails.
A series of measures pass through an historic lame-duck session of Congress including an extension of Bush-era tax cuts for all Americans, the ratification of the New START II treaty with Russia, signing of an agreement to repeal the don't ask don't tell policy concerning gays and lesbians openly serving in the US military, and passage of a 9/11 first responders health-care bill.
Obama addressed fiscal policy and financial regulation in a speech before Congress.
On January 8, 2011 nineteen people were shot during a constituent meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, Arizona, in the Tucson metropolitan area. Six people died including a federal judge and a member of congress who he shot in the head. Loughner, a 22-year-old Tucson man was arrested at the scene.
Osama bin Laden head of anIslamist militant group Al-Qaeda was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011. The raid on bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, was launched from Afghanistan. The raid was supported by over 90% of the American public, was welcomed by the United Nations, NATO, the European Union, and a large number of governments, but was condemned by others, including two-thirds of the Pakistani public.
Hurricane Sandy kills at least 209 people in the Caribbean, Bahamas, United States and Canada. Considerable storm surge damage causes major disruption to the eastern seaboard of the United States.
Canada officially cuts diplomatic ties with Iran by closing its embassy in Tehran and ordered the expulsion of Iranian diplomats from Ottawa, over support for Syria, nuclear plans and human rights abuses.
Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense against the Palestinian-governed Gaza Strip, killing Hamas military chief Ahmed Jabari. In the following week 140 Palestinians and five Israelis are killed in an ensuing cycle of violence. A ceasefire between Israel and Hamas is announced by Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton after the week-long escalation in hostilities in Southern Israel and the Gaza Strip.
the Mars Science Laboratory mission's rover, successfully lands on Mars. Curiosity has been on Mars for 1311 sols (1346 total days) since landing on August 6, 2012.The rover's goals include: investigation of the Martian climate and geology; assessment of whether the selected field site inside Gale Crater has ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life, including investigation of the role of water; and planetary habitability studies in preparation for future human exploration.
Connecticut passes legislation that will raise its minimum wage from $8.70 to $10.10 by 2017, making it the first state to answer President Obama's call for an increase in the minimum wage.
Governor Phil Bryant of Mississippi signs a controversial bill that will allow individuals and businesses to deny service to anyone if it conflicts with their religious beliefs. Civil rights organizations such as the Southern Poverty Law Center and ACLU worry that such a law will have wide-ranging effects and lead to more animosity toward sexual minorities and members of faiths other than Christianity.
President Barack Obama delivers his annual State of the Union Address, focusing on, among other issues, the country's environmental policies, creating jobs and immigration reform, saying he wants 2014 to be a "year of action." Special attention is brought to Obama's willingness to circumvent the decisions of Congress should they not go forward with his plans, which some critics believe would overstep his executive powers and undermine the system of checks and balances.
14 people are killed in a mass shooting at a facility for the mentally disabled in San Bernardino, California, making it the deadliest mass shooting in the United States in 2015, and the deadliest since 2012. Police investigating on whether it may have been related to Islamic Terrorism. President Barack Obama called the mass shooting an act of terrorism.
Protests in Baltimore, Maryland from Baltimore City Hall to the Inner Harbor against the April 19 death of Freddie Gray in police custody soon turn violent, with extensive property damage, looting, numerous arrests, and injuries of both police officers and citizens being reported. Maryland Governor Larry Hogan declares a state of emergency in the city and deploys the Maryland National Guard in response.
NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft concludes its four-year orbital mission over Mercury by crashing into the planet at 3:26 p.m.EDT (1926 GMT) at 14,080 km/h (8,750 mph) at 54.4° N, 149.9° W. NASA confirmed the unobserved impact when the Deep Space Network failed to detect a signal from the spacecraft's beacon, confirming its demise.
a divided Supreme Court on Friday ruled that same-sex couples can marry nationwide, establishing a new civil right and handing gay rights advocates a historic victory.
President Barack Obama announces the full re-establishment of diplomatic ties with Cuba, with the countries planning to reopen embassies in each other's capital cities.
killed at least 130 people and wounded hundreds. The attackers, armed with assault rifles and explosives, targeted six locations across the city. ISIS has claimed responsibility for the attacks.