2016 Indian History

The Vedic Age

The Vedic Age is where India began. It was when the Aryans invaded, and settled along the Ganges river.

The Aryans Structures

1500 BC - 800

When the Aryans settled into India they lived in simple structures. The structures were shaped like domes. This is a significant event because these structures formed the basis for architecture in India.

Caste system introduced

Approx. 1300 BCE - Approx. 1000 BCE

In 1500 BCE the the Caste system was developed in India. This was a very significant and important event because it developed even more by the mahajanapadas. Even though it is now illegal, it still influences India today.

The Vedas were written

Approx. 1200 BCE - Approx. 1000 BCE

The Vedas were written in Sanskrit. Sanskrit is still practiced today in India, but it isn't used nearly as much as it used to be. The four Vedas were called the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. This is a significant event because the Vedas were very valuable to people in India, especially those of the Hindu faith.

Groups of villages joined forces

Approx. 1500 - 1500

Groups of villages joined forces and so small ‘cities’ or clans called ‘Vis’ were born. A group or clan formed a Jana and their leader was the Raja or King. A priest or Purohit, the commandant or Senani, and the administration, Sabha and Samiti, assisted him.

The Mahajanapadas

The Mahajanapadas era began when the Aryans spread to the East and developed into the people of the Mahajanapadas.

The Mahajanapadas era started

Approx. 600 B.C.E

This is significant because it started an era where people were in smaller groups but then began to have larger groups and began to spread out into cities which became kingdoms and republics.

The Caste System

Approx. 600 B.C.E. - Approx. 400 B.C.E.

The Caste System is significant because that was a way of communication of classes of society. It was invented in the Vedic Era but modernized in The Mahajanapadas era. There were four castes they are the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and the Shudras.

Gautam Buddha

566 B.C.E - 483 B.C.E

Gautam Buddha created the religion of Buddhism. This is important because this religion is still practiced today by millions of people.

Persians Invaded

Approx. 500 B.C.E. - Approx. 326 B.C.E.

The Persians invaded pushing there empire eastward and taking over the Indus valley, while the Mahajanapadas were developing east.

Jainism is created by Prince Mahavira.

500 B.C.E.

Jainism was created during this time by Prince Maharvira. It values self-salvation, but without the help of any gods. They also value ahimsa, or non-injury. To do this, many Jain monks starve themselves in order to harm absolutely nothing.

The Persians were conquered by the Greeks

326 B.C.E

The Persians were conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great’s rule, who defeated King Porus and an army of 200 elephants.

The Mughal Empire began

1526

Golden Age

The Golden Age is a time period where the religion of Buddhism was created and India was united for the first time.

Chandragupta Maura Conquered the northwestern part of India

Approx. 316 B.C.E

Chandragupta Maurya had conquered the northwestern part of India, and over time, with conquest and peace treaties, Chandragupta had succeeded in creating the whole India without little padas, that still stands today. He was also the first ruler of the Golden Age. This was after Alexander the Great had left because his troops refused to go further.

Ashoka the Great's life

304 B.C.E. - 232 B.C.E

Ashoka built many temples and buildings. He also gave right to many women and children, and established freedom of religion.

Ashoka's Conversion

262 B.C.E

Originally a Hindu, Asoka converted to Buddhism after shedding some much blood during the battle of Kalinga. He felt remorseful when he looked at all the lives he distroyed.

The Mughal Empire

A significant period in Indian history during which Muslim rulers created a unified India

The Establishing of the Delhi Sultanate.

Approx. 1200 - Approx. 1300

Qutb-ud-din was responsible for creating the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based in Delhi. This was an important time in India, because merging from the Delhi Sultanate came an Indo-Muslim culture along with the language of Urdu. These things have impacted India and can be seen in Indian culture even today, especially in Pakistan, where Urdu is the national language.

The First Battle of Panipat

1526

During the First Battle of Panipat the Delhi Sultanate fell and the Mughal empire came to power. To do this, Timur, a Turkish-Mongol conqueror launched an attack on the Delhi sultanate leaving the city behind in ruins. Later, Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal empire. When the Mughal empire started, it was a significant time in the history of India, because later it would become an empire that hosted some great leaders, had great architecture, and incorporated their own Muslim ideas into India. All of those things can be seen or remembered in India today.

Mughal Empire began

1526 - 1857

Humayun succeeded his father, Babur.

1531

Humayun succeeded his father and took over the throne. This was significant because it was when Humayun became king. In his time as king, he fought with Sher Shah, an Afghan general twice. After he lost the second battle he lived in exile in Persia. After Sher Shah died, he came back. Humayun was known for his military achievements but he also fused Persian and Indian arts together. Signs of this can be seen even today.

Akbar the great became king

1555

Akbar the great became king when his father, Humayun died falling down the stairs to the library. He became known as one of India's best kings. During the time that Akbar was king he impacted India in numerous ways. He was fair to his people and had a thirst for knowledge. He also fought bravely in the Second Battle of Panipat and many other fights. He also managed to spread his land out into parts of North, East, West, and South India. During his time many buildings were built under his command that stand even today. Some of them include the Jama Masjid and the Hawa Mahal.

The Second Battle of Panipat

1556

During the Second Battle of Panipat, Hemu, a Hindu minister of an Afghan Prince named Adil Shah, attacked Delhi. At the time Akbar ruled Delhi and wasn’t prepared. The Mughals lost, but they came back with a huge attack. This was the Second Battle of Panipat. The two armies fought until an arrow hit Hemus eye and he fainted. Hemus men retreated thinking that Hemu had died. Akbar crowned himself king again. This battle was important because it affected India. If the Mughals had not won this battle the Mughal empire would never have been developed. The Mughal empire affected India in numerous ways and so if it had not existed for long enough to make an impact, India would not be the way it is today. Some of the ways that the Muhgal empire impacted India included through architecture, art, music, and dance. Overall the Muhgal empire affected the culture of India.

Aurangzeb took over his father's throne.

1659 - 1707

When Aurangzeb's father died all of his brothers began to fight over his role. Aurangzeb killed all of his brothers to ensure he became king. He took over the throne at Agra and ruled for 49 years. When Aurangzeb took over his father's throne he proved he was very malicious. This was a turning point because the way that Aurangzeb ruled was malicious and that was different than before. When Auragzeb ruled India he lost a lot of political power because he sepnt too much time on military. This weakened the Muhgal empire and was one of the reasons that the Muhgal empire collapsed.

The Mughal Empire came to an end.

1857

When Aurangzeb died in 1707, the Mughal empire was no longer effective. The empire officially came to an end when Bahadur Shah Zafar, who was an emperor was put on trial. When this happened, the Mughal empire was completely ended. This was significant because it was the end of an empire that affected India's culture and how it turned out to be. The Mughal Empire hosted a lot of good leaders and affected architecture, art, music, religion, dance, and political issues.

The Colonial Era

The Colonial Era is an important time period in Indian History because the British colonized India and took its independence. India took part in a resistance against the British and won their liberty back.

Vasco de Gama arrived in Calicut, South India.

1498

After Vasco de Gama arrived, many European explorers started arriving. In 1502 Vasco de Gama started killing Muslims. He also created a Portuguese settlement in India. Portuguese influence is still in the state Goa and in the city Cochin.

The beginning of the East India Company

1605

In the early 1600's, Queen Elizabeth allowed merchants to trade with the East Indians. This was known as the East Indian Company. It was a turning point in Indian history.

The Battle of Plassey

1757

Robert Clive defeated The Army of Nawab of Bengal at The Battle of Plassey. This turned the association of traders into rulers of large portions of land.

The Sepoys or Indian soldiers mutinied.

1857 - May 19, 1857

In 1857, three regiments in the army refused to use the Enfield rifles, the cartridges of which had been greased with pig or cow fat. On May 19, 1857, the rest of the sepoys mutinied. 90,000 soldiers from the Bengal Army also mutinied. The soldiers mutinied because they learned that the Enfield cartridges were greased with pig and cow fat. Hindus consider the cow sacred and they do not want to eat it and Muslims consider the pig dirty and also do not want to eat it because it goes against their beliefs. The Indians were outraged and that is why they mutinied. This marked the start of the first revolt against the British Empire.
Why it is significant: This was significant because, following the Mutiny, the British decided that The East India Company was not fit to rule India. India became an English colony, directly governed by the British Parliament.

Colonial Era came to an end

May 19, 1857 - 1857

This was a turning point for India because The East India Company didn't rule anymore, The British government started to rule India. This is when The British Raj started. The next year, Queen Victoria the title of Viceroy was introduced to the Governor General of India. She introduced a policy of Divide and Rule which prevented Indians from uniting to rebel against her.