History and Contemporary Architecture: 1960-64

Architectural Styles

Futuristic

1960 - 1966

International Style

1960 - 1966

Brutalism

1960 - 1966

Modernism

1960 - 1966

International

1960: Pirelli Tower in Milan, Italy (Built); by architect Gio Ponti with Pier Luigi Nervi and Arturo Danusso

1960

1960: Euromast in Rotterdam, Netherlands (Built); by Hugh Maaskant

1960

1960: Sydney Opera House by Anatol Kagan (Unbuilt)

1960

1960: Mirante do Vale by engineer Waldomiro Zarzur (Built)

1960

1960: American Embassy London Chancery Building (Built), by Eero Saarinen

1960

1960: Amsterdam Orphanage, Aldo van Eyck (Built); Amsterdam, Netherlands

1960

1960: Teatro General San Martín in Buenos Aires (Built), by Mario Roberto Álvarez

1960

1960: Sainte Marie de La Tourette (Built); Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis

1960

1960: Kurashiki City Hall in Kurashiki, Japan (Built) by Kenzo Tange

1960

January 1, 1960: Cameroon gains independence from French administered U.N.

January 1, 1960

January 24, 1960: A major insurrection occurs in Algiers against French colonial policy.

January 24, 1960

February 10, 1960: A conference about the proposed independence of the Belgian Congo begins in Brussels, Belgium.

February 10, 1960

March 6, 1960: Vietnam War: The United States announces that 3,500 American soldiers will be sent to Vietnam.

March 6, 1960

April 27, 1960: Togo gains independence from France, with the French-administered United Nations Trust Territory.

April 27, 1960

June 26, 1960: The Malagasy Republic, now Madagascar, becomes independent from France.

June 26, 1960

June 30, 1960: The Belgian Congo receives its independence from Belgium as the Republic of the Congo.

June 30, 1960

August 1, 1960: Dahomey, now known as Benin, becomes independent from France.

August 1, 1960

August 3, 1960: Niger becomes independent from France.

August 3, 1960

August 5, 1960: Upper Volta, now known as Burkina Faso, becomes independent from France.

August 5, 1960

August 7, 1960: The Côte d'Ivoire (the Ivory Coast) becomes independent from France.

August 7, 1960

August 13, 1960: Ubangi-Shari becomes independent from France.

August 13, 1960

August 15, 1960: Middle Congo becomes independent from France.

August 15, 1960

August 16, 1960: Cyprus receives its independence from the United Kingdom.

August 16, 1960

1961: The Kremlin Palace of Congresses in Moscow, Soviet Union (Built) by a team led by M. Posokhin

1961

1961: The Empress State Building in London, UK (Built); by Stone, Toms & Partners

1961

1961: Guildford Cathedral, England (Built) by Sir Edward Maufe

1961

1961: The Palazzo del Lavoro in Turin, Italy (1961) by Pier Luigi Nervi

1961

1961: Michael Faraday Memorial at Elephant and Castle in London

1961

1961: Palazzetto dello sport in Rome, Italy (Built) by Annibale Vitellozzi and Nervi

1961

April 12, 1961: Vostok 1 - USSR sent the first man into outer space

April 12, 1961

June 4, 1961: Vienna Summit - John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev

June 4, 1961

August 13, 1961: Construction of the Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961

1962: Sentech Tower in Johannesburg, South Africa

1962

1962: Pilgrimage Church in Neviges, Germany

1962

January 9, 1962: Cuba & Soviet Union Trade Pact

January 9, 1962

March 19, 1962: Algerian armistice begins, Organisation de l'armée secrète resists

March 19, 1962

July 10, 1962: First transatlantic satellite broadcast by Telstar Satellite

July 10, 1962

July 13, 1962 - "Night of Long Knives"

July 13, 1962

August 6, 1962: Jamaica became independent from UK

August 6, 1962

August 31, 1962: Trinidad and Tobago became independent from UK

August 31, 1962

October 10, 1962: Sino-Indian War begins.

October 10, 1962

November 6, 1962: United Nations General Assembly condemns South Africa's racial policies, calls for cease in military and economic relations.

November 6, 1962

1963: The bikini came into fashion after being featured in the film, Beach Party.

1963

1963: Kobe Port Tower in Kobe, Japan

1963

1963: Alpha House, Coventry, England

1963

1963: Vickers Tower on Millbank in London,

1963

1963: Berliner Philharmonie in Berlin, Germany

1963

May 23, 1963: Fidel Castro visits the Soviet Union

May 23, 1963

June 11, 1963: Buddhist monk commits self-immolation, protesting Ngô Đình Diệm administration.

June 11, 1963

August 5, 1963: United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

August 5, 1963

August 5, 1963: Nelson Mandela arrested by South African government

August 5, 1963

November 2, 1963: Assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, S Vietnamese President

November 2, 1963

December 12, 1963: Kenya gains independence from UK

December 12, 1963

December 19, 1963: Zanzibar gains independence from UK

December 19, 1963

1964: The Snowdon Aviary, London Zoo

1964

1964: The Who, is formed

1964

1964: The Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, Canada

1964

1964: Kyoto Tower in Kyoto, Japan

1964

1964: Brazilian National Congress Building

1964

1964: The Economist Group headquarters in the City of London

1964

1964: Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, Japan

1964

April 20, 1964: Nelson Mandela "I Am Prepared to Die" speech.

April 20, 1964

December 11, 1964: Che Guevara addresses UN Assembly

December 11, 1964

National

1960: Norman Fisher House by Louis Kahn (Built); Philadelphia, PA

1960

1960: Climatron Geodesic Dome, by R. Buckminster Fuller (Built); St. Louis

1960

1960: Apartment Buildings in Harlem by Buckminster Fuller (Unbuilt)

1960

1960: Cary House by Joseph Esherick (Built); Mill Valley, California

1960

1960: Mabel McDowell Elementary School, by John Carl Warnecke (Built); Columbus, Indiana

1960

1960: Stahl House, by Pierre Koeing (Built) Los Angeles, CA

1960

1960: Candlestick Park, by John Bolles (Built); San Fransisco, CA.

1960

1960: The Chemosphere, by John Lautner (Built); Hollywood Hills, CA

1960

March 1960: Elvis Presley recorded "It's Now or Never" and "Are you Lonesome Tonight"

March 1960

May 1960: Theodore Maiman demonstrates first working lasser

May 1960

May 6, 1960: United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960 into law.

May 6, 1960

August 6, 1960: Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro nationalizes all American and foreign-owned property in Cuba.

August 7, 1960

October 26, 1960: Robert Kennedy secures MLK's release from jail.

October 26, 1960

November 1960: Oakland A's on Lake Merrit (Unbuilt)

November 1960

December 5, 1960: Boynton v. Virginia: segregation in public transportation is illegal.

December 5, 1960

1961: Guild House in Philadelphia, by Robert Venturi (Built)

1961

1961: The Civic Arena, Pittsburgh by Mitchell and Ritchey (Built)

1961

1961 - Santa Monica Offshore Freeway (Unbuilt)

1961

1961: The Space Needle by Edward Carlson, John Graham and Victor Steinbrueck (Built); Seattle, Washington

1961

1961: One Chase Manhattan Plaza, by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (Built); New York City

1961

January 3, 1961: President Eisenhower announces that the U.S. has severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba

January 3, 1961

January 20, 1961: John F. Kennedy becomes 35th President

January 20, 1961

March 29, 1961: 23rd Ammendment is ratified, granted D.C. residents voting rights

March 29, 1961

May 4, 1961: U.S. Freedom Riders begin interstate bus rides

May 4, 1961

May 5, 1961: JFK signs Fair Labor Act

May 5, 1961

May 21, 1961: Alabama Governor--John Patterson--declares martial law amidst race riots

May 21, 1961

May 24, 1961: Freedom Riders arrested in Jackson, Mississippi

May 24, 1961

July 2, 1961: Ernest Hemingway commits suicide.

July 2, 1961

July 22, 1961: University of California utilizes radioactive dating to find human existance in excess of one million years

July 22, 1961

September 13, 1961: University of MIssissippi admits first black student

September 13, 1961

October 30, 1961: USSR detonates the largest, 50 megaton Hydrogen Bomb

October 30, 1961

November 18, 1961: JFK sends 18,000 military advisors to S Vietnam

November 18, 1961

December 11, 1961 - Vietnam War officially begins.

December 11, 1961

1962: Ohio Art Company produces the Etch-A-Sketch

1962

1962: New England Aquarium in Boston by Cambridge Seven Associates (Built)

1962

1962: Goodel Monoril System (Unbuilt)

1962

1962: Vanna Venturi House, by Robert Venturi (1962); Philadelphia, PA

1962

1962: TWA Flight Center at JFK Airport, New York, designed by Eero Saarinen

1962

1962: United States Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel, Colorado Springs (Built)

1962

1962: Solar Telescope in Kitt Peak, AZ; by SOM (Built)

1962

1962: Two Mile Dome by Buckminster Fuller (Unbuilt)

1962

February 3, 1962 - Cuban Embargo implemented.

February 3, 1962

April 2, 1962: MLK begins non-violent campaign to end segregation.

April 2, 1962

April 14, 1962: Cuba convicts 1,179 for Bay of Pigs attacks

April 14, 1962

June 25, 1962: Engel v. Vitale: mandatory school prayers ruled unconstitutional

June 25, 1962

August 5, 1962: Marilyn Monroe found dead

August 5, 1962

August 28, 1962: MLK "I Have A Dream," from the Lincoln Memorial

August 28, 1962

September 17, 1962: Justice Department files lawsuit to end public school segregation.

September 17, 1962

October 14-28, 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962

December 24, 1962: Cuba released 1,113 Bay of Pigs participants

December 24, 1962

1963: MetLife Building in Manhattan, New York (Built); Designed by Emery Roth & Sons, Pietro Belluschi and Walter Gropius

1963

1963: Salk Institute, by Louis I. Kahn, at La Jolla, California

1963

1963: St. Mary’s Cathedral in Tokyo, by Kenzo Tange (Built)

1963

1963: Beinecke Rare Book Library by Gordon Bunshaft (Built) New Haven, Connecticut

1963

1963: Boston City Hall by Kallman, McKinnell and Knowles (Built)

1963

1963: Institute of Public Administration by Louis Kahn

1963

1963: Bunshaft Residence by Gordon Bunshaft; East Hampton, New York

1963

February 15, 1963: "Feminine Mystique," Betty Friedan

February 15, 1963

April 16, 1963: MLK issues "Letter from Brimingham Jail"

April 16, 1963

June 10, 1963: Equal Pay Act

June 10, 1963

September 15, 1963: KKK Bombs 16th St Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama

September 15, 1963

November 22, 1963- Kennedy was assassinated

November 22, 1963

1964: Art and Architecture Building at Yale University, Paul Rudolph (Built) New Haven, CT

1964

1964: Carpenter Center in Cambridge, MA (Built) by Le Corbusier

1964

1964: Marina City Towers in Chicago, IL by Bertrand Goldberg

1964

1964: Houston Astrodome, Houston, Texas (Built); Hermon Lloyd & W. B. Morgan, and Wilson, Morris, Crain and Anderson

1964

1964: Prudential Tower in Boston, by Charles Luckman and Associates (Built)

1964

1964: Skylots by Harlan Georgescu (Unbuilt)

1964

1964: Rohm and Haas Corporate Headquarters, Philadelphia (Built) by Pietro Belluschi and George M. Ewing Co.

1964

1964: Erdman Hall Dormitories by Louis Kahn (Built)

1964

January 8, 1964: Lyndon B Kohnson State of the Union Address: "War on Poverty"

January 8, 1964

February 7, 1964: The Beatles arrives in USA

February 7, 1964

April 1964: Ford Automobile Company launches their first Mustang

April 1964

July 2, 1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Righs Act into law.

July 2, 1964

August 28-30, 1964: Philadelphia 196 Race Riot

August 28, 1964 - August 30, 1964

Regional

1960: First Christian Church (Built); Hagerstown, MD

1960

1960s: Heroin Usage Boom - Baltimore

1960 - 1964

Heroin usage in Baltimore reveals the explosive rise of illegal drug use in the United States in the 1960s. In the late 1940s there were only a few dozen African-American heroin addicts in the Pennsylvania Avenue area of the city. Heroin use began largely for reasons of prestige within a group that most middle-class blacks looked down on. When the Baltimore police formed the three-man narcotics squad in 1951 there was only moderate profit in drug dealing and shoplifting was the addict's crime of choice. By the late 1950s young whites were using the drug, and by 1960 there were over one thousand heroin addicts in the police files; this figure doubled in the 1960s. A generation of profiteering young, violent black dealers took over in the 1960s as violence increased and the price of heroin skyrocketed. Increasing drug usage was undoubtedly the primary reason for burglaries rising tenfold and robberies rising thirtyfold from 1950 to 1970. Soaring numbers of broken homes and Baltimore's declining economic status probably exacerbated the drug problem. Adolescents in suburban areas began using drugs in the late 1960s.

1960: St. Andrew Catholic Church (Built); Silver Spring, MD

1960

1960: William L Slayton House, I.M. Pei (Built); Cleveland Park, Washington D.C.

1960

1960: Hooper House II, Marcel Breur (Built); Baltimore, MD

1960

1961: Covergirl by Noxzema Chemical Group is established in Maryland

1961

1961: Gallblum House (Built); Bethesda, MD

1961

1961: American National Bank Building (Built) Silver Spring, MD

1961

1962: National Institute of Health, Keyes Lethbridge & Condon (Built); Rockville, MD

1962

1962: St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church (Built); Silver Spring, MD

1962

1962: Carderock Springs in Bethesda, MD (Built)

1962

1963: One Charles Center (Built) Baltimore, MD

1963

1963: St. Hugh of Grenoble Church (Built); Greenbelt, MD

1963

1963: Wheaton Youth Center (Built); Wheaton, MD

1963

1964: The Smithsonian Institution's Museum of History and Technology, by McKim, Mead, & White (Built); Washington D.C.

1964