The First Bank of The United States was needed because the government had a debt from the Revolutionary War. Each state had a different form of currency. The bank went away because state banks opposed it.
This bank was chartered with the same responsibilities and powers as the First Bank. The Second Bank of the US failed because it didn't regulate state banks or charter any other bank.
Before the American Civil War started, the U.S. Government was debt was more then $64 million. Once the war began debt grew. The Government started printing money as a solution.
The National Banking Act stated that banks could have a state or federal charter.
Before 1913 investors were unsure about the safety of their deposits. The Federal Reserve Act gave the 12 Federal Reserve banks the ability to print money in order to ensure economic stability.
After the stock market crash of 1929 hundreds of thousands of customers began to withdraw their deposits. With no money to lend, the American banking crisis deepened. This was later know as the Great Depression.
The Glass-Steagall Banking Act was passed during the Great Depression. It prevented commercial banks from trading securities with their clients deposits.
In 1970 a Bank Secrecy Act was established. It requires financial institutions in the U.S. to assist U.S. government agencies to detect and prevent money laundering.
In Chile, a major economic crisis took place. The unemployment rate rose.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act attempts to update and modernized the financial industry, It repealed the Glass-Steagall Act. It also stated that banks and other financial institutions were not allowed to offer financial services.