The Second Boer War rages in Africa.
1899 - 1901
The Introduction of the "Brownie" camera makes photography accessible to amateurs.
Max Planck develops quantum theory.
Queen Victoria dies, bringing an end to the Victorian Age of England. Her son, Edward VII, comes to the throne.
Theodore Roosevelt serves his first term as President after McKinley is assassinated.
1901 - 1904
Guglielmo Marconi sends the first wireless trans-atlantic message.
The Wright brothers achieve the first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, NC.
Construction begins on the Panama Canal.
Russo-Japanese War is fought, ending when Roosevelt mediates a peace treaty in Portsmouth, NH.
1904 - 1905
Albert Einstein publishes his theory of relativity.
Freud publishes, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.
Roosevelt serves his second term as president.
1905 - 1909
San Francisco earthquake kills over 700 people.
Roosevelt sends out the Great White Fleet
John Arthur "Jack" Johnson becomes the first black heavyweight champion in the world.
William Howard Taft is President.
1909 - 1913
W.E.B. Du Bois establishes the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Great Britain lays the world's first oil pipeline in Persia.
Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen establishes a new republic in South China.
146 people die in a fire at Manhattan's Triangle Shirt-waist Factory.
1,517 people perish when the "unsinkable" Titanic sinks.
Ottoman Empire collapses; great European powers carve it up.
Yuan Shikai is President of the Republic of China.
1912 - 1916
Sun Yat-sen establishes the Republic of China.
Congress passes the Federal Reserve Act, the most wide-reaching banking bill in the nation's history.
Wilson signs the Underwood Tariff Act, reducing or eliminating import tariffs.
Woodrow Wilson is President.
1913 - 1921
Sixteenth Amendment authorizes in income tax.
Seventeenth Amendment provides for direct election of senators.
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan and the final battles of the Race to the Sea necessitate trench warfare on the Western Front.
Congress passes the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Adamson Act (8-hour day for railroad workers), and the Child Labor Act.
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand sparks World War I.
Balkan campaign fails for Austria-Hungary.
German U-boats sink the Lusitania.
Alexi Brusilov launches his campaign against Austria-Hungary.
Germans utilize a poison gas against Allied troops during the Second Battle of Ypres.
Italy joins the Allies.
The Allies lose 50,000 men in the disastrous Dardanelles campaign (Gallipoli)
Over a million men die in the Battle of the Somme.
Over a million men die at the Battle of Verdun.
Both the Allies and Central Powers claim victory at the Battle of Jutland.
The British issue the Balfour Declaration, supporting a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Police arrest White House suffragette picketers.
Jerusalem is overtaken by the Allies.
China dissolves into civil war and chaos.
Wilson ends diplomatic relations with Germany after Germans sink the U.S.S. Housatonic.
Wilson's administration makes the Zimmermann Note public to Americans.
Congress declares war against Germany.
The heartbreaking Third Battle of Ypres (known as Passchendaele) takes thousands of lives.
July 1917 - November 1917
Italians are devastated at the Battle of Caporetto.
October 1917 - November 1917
Bolsheviks take over the Russian Government
Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for a just peace.
Russian Civil War is fought between Reds (Communists) and Whites (anti-Communists).
1918 - 1920
Germany breaks the Allied line on the Western Front during its Spring Offensive.
Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, conceding enormous amounts of land and people to Germany.
U.S. troops help the Allies win the Second Battle of the Marne.
July 1918 - August 1918
Allies break the Hindenburg Line and pursue the retreating Germans.
The Ottoman Empire collapses.
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates.
Allies and Germans agree to an armistice, effective at 11 a.m.
November 11, 1918
British fire on Indians in the Amritsar Massacre.
Germany is forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
Eighteenth Amendment prohibits the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the United States.
First radio network broadcast
Nineteenth Amendment gives women the right to vote.
Warren Harding is President.
1921 - 1923
Congress refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.
Mao participates in the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Mussolini secures dictatorial powers in Italy.
Stalin is named the general secretary of the Russian Communist Party.
Hitler is arrested and put in prison, where he writes Mein Kampf after the failed Beer Hall Putsch.
Calvin Coolidge is President.
1923 - 1929
The CCP and the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) unite to fight against Japanese invaders.
Gandhi begins the Great Fast in opposition to Hindu-Muslim violence.
J. Edgar Hoover becomes head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
The Scopes Trial takes place.
Chiang Kai-shek becomes the leader of the KMT.
Robert Goddard launches the first modern rocket.
Charles Lindbergh successfully flies an airplane nonstop from New York to Paris.
Mao forms the Red Army.
Stalin introduces the first Five-Year Plan to expand the U.S.S.R.'s military and industry.
The stock market crashes on Black Tuesday.
FDR becomes governor of New York.
Herbert Hoover serves as President.
1929 - 1933
Stalin rules as undisputed dictator of the Soviet Union.
1929 - 1953
Gandhi leads the salt march to protest British rule.
Stalin persecutes church members and leaders, drastically reducing active churches in the U.S.S.R.
1930 - 1939
Stalin forces a secret famine in the Ukraine and other rich farming areas in order to break the people's resistance to his seizure of personal property.
1932 - 1934
15,000 veterans march on Washington, D.C., demanding to be paid their bonus insurance early.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is established.
Roosevelt has his first "fireside chat."
In March, the Enabling Act is passed, and Hitler becomes dictator of Germany.
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany in January.
Franklin D. Roosevelt serves as President.
1933 - 1945
In late February, the Reichstag is burned to the ground.
Twenty-first Amendment is ratified, repealing Prohibition.
Twentieth Amendment is ratified.
A drought hits the Great Plains, causing the Dust Bowl and displacing 60% of the Plains population.
Mao leads his army on the Long March.
1934 - 1935
Italy invades Ethiopia.
Congress passes the Social Security Act.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) is established.
German troops occupy the Rhineland.
Francisco Franco leads the Nationalists against the left-wing Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.
1936 - 1939
The Works Progress Administration (WPA) begins.
The Boulder (later Hoover) Dam is completed.
Japan seizes the main ports of China and commits many heinous acts against the Chinese people.
1937 - 1938
Demanding Anschluss (unification), Germany takes over Austria.
British "White Paper" policy limits Jewish immigration into Palestine.
Hitler and Stalin sign a non-aggression pact to divide Poland.
Germany seizes the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia under the Munich Agreement.
Franco turns Spain into a fascist state.
Japan invades Chinese Manchuria.
Germany invades Poland. Hitler and Stalin divide Polish lands and people between them.
September 1, 1939
Soviets invade Finland.
November 30, 1939
Finland surrenders to the U.S.S.R.
March 12, 1940
Nazi troops invade Norway and Denmark.
April 9, 1940
German armies invade Belgium and Holland.
May 10, 1940
Miracle of the Dunkirk rescue.
May 27, 1940
Battle of France ends when France signs an armistice with Germany.
June 12, 1940
The Battle of Britain is fought.
July 10, 1940 - September 17, 1941
The United States repeals the Neutrality Act of 1935 and passes the Lend-Lease Act.
March 11, 1941
The German army unleashes the first airborne invasion in history on the island of Crete.
May 20 1941
Hitler launches Operation Barbarossa and invades the U.S.S.R.
June 22, 1941
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor.
December 7, 1941
U.S. declares war on Japan, entering World War II.
December 8, 1941
Executive Order 9066 directs all Japanese-Americans to relocation camps in the American West.
February 19, 1942
Bataan, the last defense of the Philippines, falls to the Japanese.
Japan's advance is stopped by the U.S. at the Battle of the Coral Sea.
U.S. victory at the Battle of Midway is the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
General Montgomery defeats Rommel at the Battle of El Alamein in Africa.
The Germans surrender to the Soviets at the Battle of Stalingrad.
February 2, 1943
German officers attempt to assassinate Hitler.
The Allies liberate Rome.
June 4, 1944
The Allied troops land in Normandy on D-Day.
June 6, 1944
Nuremberg Trials are held.
1945 - 1946
Harry Truman serves as President.
1945 - 1953
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta.
U.S. bombs Dresden, killing 135,000 civilians.
Iwo Jima and Okinawa are taken by the Allies.
President Roosevelt dies.
April 12, 1945
The Soviet army surrounds Berlin.
April 16, 1945
Hitler commits suicide.
April 30, 1945
Victory in Europe (V-E) Day
May 8, 1945
Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
August 6, 1945
Atomic bomb dropped on Nagaski.
August 9, 1945
Japan announces surrender (V-J Day).
August 15, 1945
The United Nations Charter is ratified.
Yugoslavia joins the Communist bloc.
Soviet Communists take control of Bulgaria and Romania.
Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech
President Truman issues the Truman Doctrine, supporting the containment of Communism.
United Nations authorizes a sovereign Jewish state.
Soviet Communists take control of Poland and Hungary.
Marshall Plan offers aid to European countries.
Baby boom marks a dramatic increase in U.S. births.
1947 - 1961
Pakistan becomes an independent nation: Mohammad Ali Jinnah is Pakistan's first governor-general.
August 14, 1947
India becomes an independent nation: Jawaharlal Nehru is the first prime minister of India.
August 15, 1947
Czechoslovakia becomes a Soviet satellite.
1948 - 1949
Gandhi is assassinated.
Israel fights a brief war for independence against five Arab states.
1948 - 1949
Israel is officially declared a state.
Soviets successfully test a nuclear bomb.
Allies merge their occupied territories in Germany to create West Germany.
Israel enters the United Nations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is formed.
Mao defeats Chiang and declares the People's Republic of China.
Korean War is fought.
1950 - 1953
Joseph McCarthy conducts investigations.
1950 - 1953
Twenty-second Amendment limits presidents to two terms.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are tried and executed as Communist spies.
1951 - 1953
Nikita Khrushchev leads the U.S.S.R. after Stalin's death.
1953 - 1964
Mao's Five-Year Plan is announced.
Dwight D. Eisenhower is President of the U.S.
1953 - 1961
Ray Kroc founds the McDonald's Corporation.
Jonas Salk's polio vaccine ends the polio epidemic.
The Little Rock Nine attend a previously all-white high school.
Elvis Presley stars on the Ed Sullivan show, performing his new rock 'n' roll music.
Construction of an interstate highway system begins.
Mao initiates the Hundred (Many) Flowers campaign, followed by his anti-Rightist campaign.
1956 - 1957
Mao's Great Leap Forward begins; it ends with the worst famine in world history.
1957 - 1961
The U.S.S.R.'s Sputnik I orbits the earth.
Khrushchev and Mao disagree, causing Khrushchev to reduce Soviet aid to China.
Fidel Castro takes control of Cuba.
Seventy anti-apartheid protesters are massacred by the South African government.
The Greensboro Four sit in at a white-only lunch counter, igniting a flame of civil rights sit-ins.
Bay of Pigs invasion fails.
Alliance for Progress program offers aid to South American countries.
Freedom riders test the Supreme Court's decision to desegregate interstate buses.
The Peace Corps is established.
Khrushchev orders the Berlin Wall to be built.
John F. Kennedy serves as President of the U.S.
1961 - 1963
Cuban Missile Crisis
James Meredith becomes the first black student at the University of Mississippi.
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi begins the White Revolution in an attempt to modernize Iran.
Lyndon B Johnson is President of the U.S.
1963 - 1969
South Vietnam's President Diem is assassinated.
King is arrested and writes "Letter from a Birmingham Jail."
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated.
November 22, 1963
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress passes over 90 bills as a part of Johnson's Great Society initiative.
1964 - 1965
Civil Rights Act of 1964 becomes law.
Race riots occur in major U.S. cities, especially Watts, Los Angeles.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 becomes law.
Malcolm X is assassinated.
"Bloody Sunday" occurs in Selma, Alabama.
Mao initiates the Cultural Revolution in China.
The North Vietnamese gain a political (not military) triumph through the Tet Offensive.
Robert Kennedy is assassinated.
Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated.
Richard Nixon is President.
1969 - 1974
Half a million people attend the Woodstock Festival.
Neil Armstrong takes the first step on the moon.
The U.S. table-tennis team is invited to a table-tennis tournament in China, thus beginning the repairing of relations between U.S. and China.
Palestinians known as the Black September take nine Israelis hostage at the Olympics in Munich.
U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War ends.
Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns and is replaced with Gerald Ford.
OPEC places the first oil embargo on the U.S.
Arab-Isreali War (or Yom Kippur War)
The Supreme Court rules that women have the right to abortion in Roe v. Wade.
Gerald Ford is President.
1974 - 1977
President Nixon resigns after the Watergate scandal.
South Vietnam falls to Communist North Vietnam.
Mao Zedong dies at the age of 82.
Jimmy Carter is President.
1977 - 1981
James Warren Jones leads the Jonestown massacre, killing over 900 people at his compound in Guyana.
Camp David Accords promote peace between Isreal and Egypt.
Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident occurs.
Khomeini leads the Iranian Revolution and declares Iran an Islamic Republic.
OPEC enforces another oil embargo.
Saddam Hussein makes himself President of Iraq.
The U.S.S.R. invades Afghanistan.
Economic reform called the Four Modernizations is carried out in China.
Iranian hostage crisis
1979 - 1981
Iran-Iraq War is fought.
1980 - 1988
Ronald Reagan is President.
1981 - 1989
The space shuttle Challenger explodes.
Congress investigates the Iran-Contra scandal.
About 1,000 protesters are killed by Communist troops at Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
George H.W. Bush is President.
1989 - 1993
The Berlin Wall separating East (Communist) Berlin and West Berlin is torn down.
Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait.
The U.S.S.R. officially dissolves.
Operation Desert Storm (Persian Gulf War of 1991) commences in an effort to liberate Kuwait.
Bosnia declares independence from Yugoslavia, resulting in civil war and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia.
PLO leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin make a historic peace agreement (that later falls apart when Rabin is assassinated).
Branch Davidian massacre occurs in Waco, TX.
Bill Clinton is President.
1993 - 2001
Civil war between Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda leads to genocide.
Nelson Mandela is elected President of South Africa.
Bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City
Princess Diana is killed in a car accident.
Dolly the sheep is the first mammal to be successfully cloned.
NATO intervenes in Kosovo, forcing Milosevic to withdraw.
George W. Bush is President.
2001 - 2009
The U.S. declares war on Afghanistan.
The Patriot Act gives far-reaching powers to law-enforcement agencies to fight terrorism in the U.S.
Al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four passenger jets, crashing two into the Twin Towers and one into the Pentagon.
September 11, 2001
The U.S. invades Iraq.
The Supreme Court rules that prisoners at Guantanamo must be given access to U.S. courts.
Hurricane Katrina devastates New Orleans.
Bush orders a successful troop surge in Iraq.
Barack Obama becomes President of the United States.