Fall of Acre

Events

War of St Sabbas

1256 - 1261

Venetian - Genoese war

Emergence of the Mamluks and Defeat of the Mongols

1260

Mamluk's capture Frankish towns

1260 - 1271

Papal Interregnum

1268 - 1271

Louis IX Second Crusade

1270

Council of Lyon

1274

Baybars and Gregoy X deaths

1277

War of Sicilian Vespers

1282 - 1302

Fall of Tripoli

1289

Death of Qalawun - Al - Ashraf al Kamil successor

1290

Fall of Acre

1291

Arrest of the Templars

1307

Templar Leaders burnt

3/18/1314

Dante's Inferno

Approx. 1321

"But he, the Prince of the modern Pharisees // Waging war near the Lateran - and // Not against Jews, nor Moslem enemies, // For his enemies were Christian // And none had been to conquer Acre."

Giovanni Boccaccio

Approx. 1355

"While describing the ritual beautification of a widow he writes:
“If, when she had finished washing, by some misfortune a fly were to land on her face, there was such uproar and pandemonium that in comparison the Loss of Acre was a delight for the Christians.”

Papal Blame

Bartholomew of Neocrastro

Approx. 1292

"Holy Father, if thou hast not heard our sorrow, out of bitterness of my heart will I reveal it. Would to God that thou hadst not been so intent on the recovery of Sicily."

Blamed the Papacy for the loss.

Blamed the Citizens - Divisions

Ptolemy of Lucca

Approx. 1307

"Ascribed the loss to the multitude of competing lordships and the absence of a strong central power. He claimed that the seven lords of the city, namely the Templars, Hospitallers, the Teutonic Knights, the consul of the pisans, King Henry II of Cyprus and Jerusalem, Charles II, kling of Sicily and Jerusalem and Patriarch Nicholas of Hanapes bickered." (Sylvia Schein - 'Babylon and Jerusalem', pp. 145-146

Ludolph of Suchem

Approx. 1350

Acre was "Lost by quarrels."

Sinfulness

Marino Sanudo

Approx. 1309 - Approx. 1321

"it is common knowledge that the same sins which caused the expulsion of the Christians from the Holy Land had previously caused that of the Jebusites."

Giovanni Villani

Approx. 1330 - Approx. 1349

"Claimed on the eve of it's fall Acre had seventeen different jursidictions and fell due to "the confusion of so many lords and captains", moreover "this disaster was not without the great and just judgement of God, for the city was more full of sinful men and women of every kind of abandoned vice than any other Christian city."" (Sylvia Schein - ibid)

Muslim Strength

Abu L-Fida

1291

Eyewitness

Abu L-Mahasin

1291

The Templar of Tyre

1291

Eyewitness

Letter of the Master of the Hospital

5/1/1291

The master of the Hospital, John de Villiers, wrote from his sickbed in Cyprus to William de Villaret, prior of St Gilles, describing the last dreadful hours:
They [the Muslims] entered the city on all sides early in the morning and in very great force. We and our convent resisted them at St Anthony’s Gate, where there were so many Saracens that one could not count them. Nevertheless we drove them back three times as far as the place commonly called ‘Cursed’. And in that action and other where the brothers of our convent fought in defence of the city and their lives and country, we lost little by little all the convent of our Order, which is so much to be praised and which is close to Holy Church, and then came to an end. Among them our dear friend Brother Matthew de Clermont our marshal lay dead. He was noble and doughty and wise in arms. May God be gracious to him! On that same day the master of the Temple also died of a mortal wound from a javelin. God have mercy on his soul!
I myself on that same day was stricken nearly to death by a lance between the shoulders, a wound which has made the writing of this letter a very difficult task. Meanwhile a great crowd of Saracens were entering the city on all sides, by land and by sea, moving along the walls, which were all pierced and broken, until they came to our shelters. Our sergeants, lads and mercenaries and the crusaders and others gave up all hope and fled towards the ships, throwing down their arms and armour. We and our brothers, the greatest number of whom were wounded to death or gravely injured, resisted them as long as we could, God knows. And as some of us were lying as if we were half-dead and lay in a faint before our enemies, our sergeants and our household boys came and carried me, mortally wounded, and our other brothers away, at great danger to themselves. And thus I and some of our brothers escaped, as it pleased God, most of whom were wounded and battered without hope of cure, and we were taken to the island of Cyprus. On the day that this letter was written we were still there, in great sadness of heart, prisoners of overwhelming sorrow.

Cartulaire général de l’ordre des Hospitaliers, ed. Joseph Delaville le Roulx, no. 4157; translated by Edwin James King, The Knights Hospitallers in the Holy Land (London, 1931), pp. 301-2: amended by H. J. Nicholson. A translation of the full letter can be found in King, The Knights Hospitallers.

The Chronicle of St Peter's Erfurt

8/31/1291

The Chronicle of St Peter’s, Erfurt
The Chronicle of St Peter’s abbey in Erfurt (Germany) gives an account of the last defence of Acre, focusing on the Templars:
...Also, it is said that a good 7000 people fled to the house of the Templars [in Acre]. Because it was located in a strong part of the city, overlooking the sea shore, and was surrounded by good walls, they defended it for perhaps twelve days after the capture of the city [by the Muslims]. But when the Templars and the others who had fled there realised that they had no supplies and no hope of being supplied by human help, they made a virtue of necessity. With devoted prayer, and after confession, they committed their souls to Jesus Christ, rushed out strenuously on the Saracens and strongly threw down many of their adversaries. But at last they were all killed by the Saracens.

[From: ‘Cronica S. Petri Erfordiensis Moderna’, ed. O. Holder-Egger, Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, 30, pp. 424-5. Written late summer 1291, before the news of the loss of Sidon and Castle Pilgrim had reached Germany.]