Mary Andrews & Halle Armstrong
born in Mecca, orphaned at an early age. worked as a merchant. Died on Monday, June 8 after falling ill and suffering symptoms of fever, head pain, and weakness
Muhammad experiences his first revelations from Allah, starting his work as a prophet. As he gains followers, the Islamic faith builds.
fled to Medina for safety. Medinian people promised to protect him as their own
After years in exile, Muhammad returns to Mecca with a new, large group of followers. This allows Islam to grow and represents the power of early Muslims.
father in law of Muhammad and his successor. became first Muslim caliph. "founder" of sunni branch of Islam
Conflict between Abu Bakr’s forces and rebelling Arabian tribes; victory of Abu Bakr creates a united Islamic empire.
succeeded Abu Bakr. second greatest caliphate according to Sunnis. expanded islam greatly to Sasanian Empire and Byzantine Empire
succeeded Umar and was his son-in-law twice. expanded Islamic empire into Fars (Iran), Khorasan (Afghanistan), and started conquests of Armenia
coincided with first Muslim Civil War. reigned over Rashidun Empire. followed strict Muslim law
Centered in Damascus, the Ummayad caliphate was the first major unification of the Islamic empire, especially in that they formed the first major centralized government.
Abbasid Revolt begins
Alyza Titschinger and Rachel Johanek
With a capital at Damascus, the Umayyad Caliphate came before the Abbasid Caliphate. They were generally tolerant towards the religions of dhimmi peoples. However, they did not treat all people within society equally. Muslim Arabs had a lot more advantages in society.
In 711, Sind, located in western India, was conquered by the Muslims under the Delhi Sultanate. Islamic civilization was carried to India in the 7th century by Muslim traders and invaders.
they had been on the decline for centuries already, the caliphates became figure heads, in 1258 the Mongols captured the capital at Baghdad and killed the last caliph
the Abbasid caliphs become figureheads, lose all real power, and the buyids rule through sultans
The Seljuk Turks came to power when they overthrew the Buyids, gaining the control of the caliphate. The Seljuks were Sunnis and worked to rid Shi'a officials and influences promoted under Buyid influences. They ruled the Abbasid Empire in the name of the caliphs.
The first Christian crusade took place in Palestine from 1096 to 1099. Muslim political divisions helped the Christian success of the crusades. The Islamic Holy Land was divided into individual Christian kingdoms. However, Muslims resisted most influence from the Christians.
The capture of Jerusalem brought the end of the first crusade. In June of 1099 Jerusalem was captured. Any Muslims and Jews living there were killed by the Christian knights capturing the city.
The society of the Delhi Sultanate consisted of Muslim rulers over Hindu subjects. The Hindus then ruled over small communities. Even though the Sultanate had a strong military, they were not able to establish a strong government.
Exactly what it sounds like, Mongols destroyed the city, killed the last Abbasid caliph, and then only ruled for a short time
The Islamic culture and faith is spread to southeast Asia through port cities, which helped to spread it through links in trading networks. Sufis also contributed to the spread of Islam to parts of Asia.
Grace Grove, Lauren Bouhall
Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire under Constantine. Moving the capital to Constantinople was used to strengthen the empire and to more so unite the eastern and western parts of Rome, but the western half started to fail. When Constantinople converted to Christianity, he attempted to use the religion to gain support and strengthen the empire. The Roman Catholic church started gaining more power in the western half of Roman. The East later breaks off from the west and becomes the Orthodox Christian Church. This is the start of the Byzantine empire.
Orthodox Christianity was official religion. Greek was official language. Emperors include: Constantine, Justinian, and Alexander the Great. Constantinople was capital.
Justinian was an empire who expanded the Byzantine Empire, and issued one unified Roman law. He built the Hagia Sophia, which was recognized as the most magnificent church in Constantinople. He was know for the architecture he had built in the empire. Justinian's wife, Theodora, was very influential in government and politics. Emperors where highly dependent on military and upper class. They were the head of Church and state, and thought to be ordained by God.
Slavic migrants started traveling into eastern Europe. Slavic kingdoms started developing in the Balkans. They started moving into "Russia" along with the Norse, and started developing trading posts and small towns. Slavic culture was mixed and they had an animistic religion. They were agriculturally based, and started building regional kingdoms in what is now Ukraine.
The Arabs started attacking the Byzantine Empire. They took provinces and influenced trade through Constantinople. Constantinople pushed back against the Arabs by using Greek fire. The Arabs were defeated, but the effect of the external invasions led to over taxation. Over taxations leads to the aristocrats gaining more power, and rural people are left to pay more taxes.
Scandinavian people started developing trade routes between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire. Some governments started growing. The kingdom of Kiev is set up along the way by Rurik, the first legendary king of Kiev. He became known as Kievan Rus.
Vlamdimir I converted to Christianity around 980. He then declared it the religion of the state. Forced mass conversions happened throughout the empire. This was the beginning of the Orthodox Russia Church. It was separate from both the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. The Byzantine Orthodox Church did help guide this new Church in the beginning by offering teaching to religious leaders. Russia did not take many of the teachings. The state controlled the church. Christianity influenced Russian art, music, icons, and architecture.
Led by the Byzantine emperor Bulgaroktonos the Byzantine empire defeated the Bulgarians. Bulgarian pressure came from the Balkans. This Slavic state led by their tsar, or king, pushed on Byzantian territory. Bulgaria became part of the Byzantine empire after the brutal defeat.
Yaroslav was the last great king who ruled Kiev. He issued a Byzantine law following their great empire's example. Yaroslav also used marraige to make strong ties with eastern Europe. He changed the church literature from Greek to Slavic. Courts became state run again.
The Roman Catholic Church in the west and the Orthodox Church in the east began to argue over issues with traditions. The western Church used the Latin Bible and the east used the Greek. The state controlled the church in the east and the western church had no hold on it. Issues about art and religious between the churches. Many old issues arose. The east believed in priests getting married. The arguments led to the split of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. After the split the Byzantine Empire stated to fall.
After the Great Schism, the Byzantine empire became weak and started declining. Turkish invasions slowly weakened the empire. The Seljuk Turks started capturing and overthrowing the power of provincial rulers. This led to the cutting off of taxes to the Byzantine empire. Slavic kingdoms rose to power in the Balkans. As the Byzantine empire called for help from the west, the west ignored calls and instead took Constantinople during the Crusades. With the external invasions, overtaxation, and a western feud, Byzantine Empire was left vulnerably weak. The Ottoman Turks finally took the empire, spreading Islam to the east. As the Byzantine Empire was fall, so were its neighbors in "Russia".
During the Fourth Crusade the Byzantine Empire was in decline and calling for help from Western Europe. The west took the opportunity to take Constantinople from under the weak Byzantine Empire.
Kievan Rus' and regional kingdoms were fighting over succession and power. Slowly the Byzantine empire was falling causing Kievan Rus to fall. Trade was cut off and the great empire that had set an example for Kiev was now in decline. Christianity stayed in "Russia". The Mongols, known as Tatars, invaded Kiev wanting to conquer all of Europe. They were the only successful invasion to Russia in the Winter.
The Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople which ends the Byzantine Empire. Islam is spread to the east. Trade was revived, but the fall of the Byzantine empire affected eastern Europe for a long time. The West was not affected by the fall of Eastern Europe.
Russia began to build up power in Moscow and build and army. Art and Christianity had stayed strong during the Mongol rule in Russia. The Mongols were pushed out of Russia, and the 3rd Roman Empire arose out of Russia.
Lily Mayle and Claudia Stephens
-Charles Martel defeats Muslims in France
-Frankish Empire takes power
-helped restore Church-based education
-restored intellectual activity in Europe
-his successors were not great leaders and his empire declined after his death
Frankish Kingdom is fragmented into three separate kingdoms.
-new plows are spread
-horses are used for agriculture and transport
-agriculture can be harvested faster
Christians fight to take their land back from Muslim Hispania. They are successful.
The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, was a measure taken against the unfair taxation of King John. The document limited the control of the king and put feudal rights over the monarchy's claims.
A war between the feudal monarchies of France and England over territory and feudal rights against the claims of national states.
A devastating plague that killed one third of Europe's population, most likely spread along the Silk Road and other trading routes.
-Developed Chichen Itza into a major city
-Toltec culture developed into Aztec people, also influenced Myans
-Large empire, Chichen Itza was an important city
Nomadic invaders destroyed Tula, the capital of the Toltec empire. When the capital fell, the entire empire collapsed with it.
Not all culture was contained in South America. North America also produced major civilizations and cultures at this time, such as the Missippian culture.
Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztecs. It was founded on an island in Lake Texcoco. This was a clever defense that helped them greatly in their later attempts at conquering people.
The Aztecs were a very civilized civilization that is commonly known for their human sacrifice. They rose to power rapidly and withheld a very strong empire for many years.
The Incas had complex technology in their little civilization. They had a 365 day calendar, and their political organization was beautiful. They ended up with a large empire that stretched across to what is now Chile to present day Columbia.
This was a ruler of the Aztecs who promoted spiritual unity, similar to the Pharaoh of Egypt. Although this never truly took hold, the idea was there.
This ruler promoted the biggest expansion in Inca history, and got them the bulk of their lands.
This was alliance made by the Aztecs and two other city-states. Because of the Aztecs thirst for power, it was not really an alliance but another territory for the Aztecs.
The Incas defeated their hostile neighbors and then launched a series of military campaigns that gained them control from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca. The Inca (ruler) who led this expansion was Pachacuti.
Moctezuma was the fifth Aztec emperor, and under his rule the Aztec empire was consolidated and major expansion was undertaken. He also helped Tenochtitlan become a more influential city.
Moctezuma was the fifth Aztec emperor, and under his rule the Aztec empire was consolidated and major expansion was undertaken. He also helped Tenochtitlan become a more influential city.
Most of his expansion was to the north (along the river Andes) through modern Ecuador.
Inca Topac moved primarily to the north along the Andes, and he took a special interest in the city of Quito. He rebuilt this city with the help of architects from Cuzco.
Huyana Capac was an Inca, and he expanded territory in modern Ecuador and to the south. He founded cities such as Atuntaqui.
He experienced the first contact mesoamerican culture had with the Europeans. He was killed near the beginning of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Maria and Natalie
A factor of the decline of the Han dynasty included not being able to collect enough tax revenues to support the government and the military that protected China from invaders. Another reason was because the population was growing, which meant that all the land was getting split up into smaller pieces to make sure all sons inherited land. This meant that the whole peasant class had trouble supporting itself. One of the most important factors was a series of wars that took place in western China, an area that was crucial for Silk Road goods to pass through.
-organized huge peasant revolts
-caused huge uprising with many other women (total of around 80,000 fighters)
-time of greatest Buddhist influence
-wars and political discord caused by the fall of the Han Dynasty
-several small kingdoms and princes fought for power and control
-finally Sui dynasty gained power and united China
-first to really unite China after the fall of the Han
-built the Grand Canal which is the longest man made canal in the world
-came directly after Song Dynasty
-Islam was introduced into China
-northeastern troops rebelled against court officials in the capital
-Emperor Wuzong's persecution of Buddhists
-Huang Chao's rebellions weaken the Tang Dyansty
-series of reforms in Japan that aimed at revamping the entire empire and government
-influence from China grew and impacted the government, art, religion, and culture of Japan
-under Tang Dynasty
-put into place by Emperor Wuzong
-Wuzong didn't want any religions besides Daoism
-all Buddhist monks and nuns under the age of 50 ordered to take "real jobs," marry, produce children, pay taxes
-agree to pay tribute to northern tribes (money + silk) to prevent invasions
-iron production peaked in this time period
-the population of China reached 100 million people
-the first reports of a working magnetic compass
-northern and southern Song
-the Mongols attack the empire
-Marco Polo journeyed to Beijing
a new invention that will change the face of warfare
-better than swords and bows and arrows
-made knights invaluable against guns
-between Taira and Minamoto families
-outcome was the Kamakura shogunate, which was established by the Minamoto
-lead to a time of chaos and turmoil
-no central leader or government
-military positions became more important
-rise of Neo-Confucianism
-under the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols captured China
-took over 20 years of war to completely take over China
Sarah Presley and Abby Robejsek
Because the mongols were now united under a strong ruler, they could prepare for massive conquests. Chinggis Khan went on to develop a messenger system and a supreme military forces. His greatest pleasure in life was making war
The mongols attacked the Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia, who were forced to pay tribute. Then, the mongols attacked the much more powerful Jin empire, which was established by Manchu-related Jurchens. In these conquests, they adapted to the Chinese military and fortified cities, as they had never encountered this before.
Chinggis Khan died because of a previous injury, which probably turned into an illness. After his death, his armies carried him back to Mongolia, killing every thing in their path. The Mongol Empire was split up into 4 parts after his death, one for each of his three sons and one grandson.
When Ogedei was elected as great khan, the conquests into China resumed. Kubilai Khan directed the conquests against the Song Dynasty. After the conquest of north China, south china proved much harder to conquer.
During these years, the Mongols were constantly on the move, fighting battle after battle. They somehow conquered extremely well fortified and strong cities. In 1271, the great khan Kubilai changed the name of his empire in China to Yuan. By the late 1270's he ruled most of China and was working to establish more permanent Mongol control.
In 1236, Batu first entered Russia and captured forces of nomadic groups and russian princes and destroyed Ryazan, Moscow, and Vladimir which were powerful cities. They killed their inhabitants and forced the princes to become vassals. They left during a spring thaw as they preferred fighting in the winter and came back in 1240, conquering Kiev which was the greatest city in Russia.
he was one of the grandsons of chinggis khan.
in 1260 he was named the great khan
in 1271 he changed the great khan name to a more chinese language title, the yuan.
he ruled most of china and worked on establishing more of a mongol rule
he passed many rules to preserve the distinction between mongols and chinese.
chinese scholars could not use the mongol script.
he was fascinated with chinese culture
he developed a new social structure with the mongols on top.
his wife played a critical role in how he ruled as well
they welcomed people of all cultures and religions
he went to great lengths to make the artisans and merchants had a higher ranking in the class system
was eventually taken out of power after his conquest of japan failed and many other forms of ruling took over
the people that overtook the mongols were the ones that they enslaved
this victory was possible with the help of the christians who let them cross through their territories from the crusades
hulegu was then forced to re consider his plans to take over the muslims and his cousin had converted to islam which forced him to just focus on ruling his one kingdom
The Yuan dynasty was the mongol dynasty in China, ruled by Kubilai Khan. Kubilai Khan wanted to keep the distinction between Mongols and Chinese, and put the Chinese at the bottom of the social pyramid. He did not allow a strong scholar gentry, but rather placed mongol and other foreign allied bureaucrats at the head of the empire's government. The Mongol women were given more freedom than the Chinese, and did not adopt foot binding. The Mongol rulers and administrators lived in Chinese style palaces and adopted Chinese style dress.
they tried to fight from the sea and then the japanese tricked them and told them to go farther out to sea so that the strong winds would not affect them, however they sent them straight into a typhoon which drowned many of kublai khan's soldiers.
the second time he tried to take over japan, he developed a new government group that was specially designed to take over japan. they sent out a huge army and it looked like they were going to crush the japanese. then pure luck happened and another typhoon occurred, wiping out most of the army.
Timur was the leader of a group of Turks who began conquests of the known world in the 1360's. Though his conquests did not conquer as much territory as the mongols, they were more brutal. People say that he was a highly cultured person who enjoyed the fine arts, but also a ruthless conqueror.