1815-1914 Maggie

Italy

Revolts in Southern Italy and Sardinia

1821

King Charles Albert of Piedmont

1831 - 1849

Revolutions Throughout

1848

Victor Emmanuel II

1849 - 1878

Prime Minister Cavour

1852 - 1861

Austrians Invade Piedmont

April 1859

Garibaldi Invades Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

May 1860

Unification of Italy

1861

Annexation of Venetia

1866

Annexation of Rome

1870

Maria Montessori Recieves MD

1896

Anarchists Assassinate Italian King

1900

Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti

1903 - 1914

Universal Male Sufferage

1912

Great Britain

Corn Laws

1815

Peterloo Massacre

1819

Bobbies Established as Police Force

September 1829 - May 1830

Whigs Come Into Power

1830

British Medical Association Founded

1832

First Reform Act

1832

Poor Law

1834

Houses of Parliament Burn Down

1834

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

Repeal of Corn Laws

1846

Ministry of Palmerston

1855 - 1865

Divorce is Legalized

1857

Salvation Army is Founded

1865

Second Reform Act

1867

Gladstone's First (Great) Ministery

1868 - 1874

Women Gain Right to Own Property

1870

Education Act

1870

Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli

1874 - 1880

Elementary Education Made Cumpulsory

1880

Gladstone's Second Ministry

1880 - 1892

Third Reform Act

1884

Walkout by Female Workers in Match Industry

1888

Walkout by Dockworkers

1889

Second Education Act

1902

Boy Scouts Founded

1908

Ireland Granted Home Rule

1914

France

King Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

GB, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, decide to add France

King Charles X

1824 - 1830

Serjents Established

1829

King Louis-Philippe

1830 - 1848

July Ordinances

July 26, 1830

July Revolution

July 28, 1830

System of State-Run Schools Created

1833

Provisional Government Formed

February 1848

June Days (Workers' Revolt)

June 1848

Second Republic Established

November 1848

President Louis Napoleon

December 1848 - 1851

Creation of the Second Empire

1852

Emperor Napoleon III

1852 - 1870

Previously President Louis Napoleon

Authoritarian Empire

1852 - 1860

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Treaty of Paris

1856

Liberal Empire

1860 - 1870

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Battle of Sedan

September 1870

Fall of Paris

January 20 1871

Surrender of Provisional Gov't to Germany

January 26 1871

Paris Commune

March 1871 - May 1871

Republican Constitution (Third Republic)

1875

Boulanger is Discredited

1889

Anarchists Assassinate French President

1894

Dreyfus Affair

1895 - 1899

Church and State are Completely Separated

1905

French Socialist Parties Unify

1905

Napoleonic Concordat Terminated

1905

Women Gain Right to Own Property

1907

Russia

Tsar Alexander I

1801 - 1825

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Tsar Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Treaty of Adrianople

1829

Obtain Moldavia and Wallachia

1829

Polish Uprising

1830

Suppression of Polish Revolt

1831

Assist Austria in Defeat of Hungarians

1849

Crimean War

October 4, 1853 - September 1855

Tsar Alexander II

1855 - 1881

Treaty of Paris

March 1856

Emancipation Edict

March 1861

Zemstvos Created and Legal Reforms

1864

Three Emperors' League

1873

Russo-Turkish War

1875

Anarchists Assassinate the Tsar

1881

Tsar Alexander III

1881 - 1894

Sergei Witte, Minister for Finance

1892 - 1903

Military Alliance with France

1894

Tsar Nicholas II

1894 - 1917

Marxist Social Democratic Party Organized

1898

Pogroms Take Place, Mostly in the Ukraine

1903 - 1906

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Russian Revolution

1905

Triple Entente with Britain and France

1907

Germanic States

Frederick William III of Prussia

1797 - 1840

Germanic Confederation Established

1815

Burschenschaften

1817 - 1819

Karlsbad Decrees

1819

Zollverein Formed

1834

Frederick William IV of Prussia

1840 - 1861

Frankfurt Assembly

1848 - 1849

Revolution in Germany

1848

Schutzmannschaft Established

1848

King William I of Prussia

1861 - 1888

Danish War

1864

Seven Weeks' War

1866

Austro-Prussian War

1866

Battle of Königgrätz

July 1866

North German Confederation

1867

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Battle of Sedan

September 1870

French Provisional Gov't Surrenders

January 1871

Chancellor Bismark

1871 - 1890

German Unification

January 1871

Fall of Paris

January 1871

German Doctors' Society Founded

1872

May Laws

1873

German Social Democratic Party Formed

1875

All Catholic Priests Arrested/Expelled

1876

Congress of Berlin

1878

Antisocialist Law

1878

Bismark Begins Persecuting Socialists

1878

First Electric Railway Installed in Berlin

1879

Number of Factory Workers Increases Substantially

1882 - 1907

Social Wellfare Legislation

1883 - 1889

Reinsurance Treaty with Russia

1887

William II

1888 - 1918

Women Gain Right to Own Property

1900

First Balkan War

1912

SPD Becomes Largest single Party in Germany

1912

Second Balkan War

1913

Austrian Empire

Metternich's Ministry (Chancellor in 1821)

1809 - 1848

Congress at Troppau

1820

Quintuple Alliance

Congress at Laibach

1821

Russia, Prussia, and Austria

Congress at Verona

1822

Austria, Russia, and Prussia

Emperor Ferdinand I

1835 - 1848

Francis Joseph I

1848 - 1916

Revolt Throughout Empire

March 1848

Metternich dismissed

Austrian Forces Crush Czech Rebels

June 1848

Emancipation Act

September 1848

Viennese Rebels Crushed

October 1848

Defeat of Hungarians

1849

Assisted by Russian Troops

Imperial Parliament Established

1859

Invasion of Piedmont

April 1859

Seven Weeks' War

1866

Austro-Prussian War

1866

Battle of Königgrätz

July 1866

Ausgleich, Dual Monarchy

1867

Free, Cumpulsory Education Established

1869

Defensive Alliance with Germany

1879

Count Edward Von Taaffe as Prime Minister

1879 - 1893

Triple Alliance with Italy and Germany

1882

Karl Lueger, Mayor of Vienna

1897 - 1910

Universal Male Sufferage

1907

Other States

Union of Netherlands and Belgium

1815

Serbian Independence

1817

Greeks Revolt Against the Ottomans

1821 - 1827

Monroe Doctrine

1823

Greek and Belgian Independence

1830

American Medical Association Founded

1847

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

Lincoln Elected and Secession of SC

1860

American Civil War

1861 - April 1865

Spanish Banking System Collapses

1864

Formation of the Dominion of Canada

1867

Opening of Suez Canal

1869

King Alfonso XII (Spain)

1874 - 1885

Spain's New Constitution

1875

Amsterdam: First Birth Control Clinic Founded

1882

Anarchists Assassinate POTUS

1901

Cultural & Intellectual

William Wordsworth (England)

1797

Romanticism

1800 - 1850

Beethoven (Germany)

1800

Joseph Turner (England)

1801

Genius of Christianity by Chateaubriand (France)

1802

Walter Scott (England)

1805

Charles Darwin (England)

1809 - 1882

Lord Byron (England)

1812

Brothers Grimm (Germany)

1812

Karl Marx (Germany)

1818 - 1883

Mary Shelly's Frankenstein

1818

Friedrich Engels (Germany)

1820 - 1895

Herbert Spencer (Britain, Social Darwinism)

1820 - 1903

Percy Bysshe Shelly (England)

1820

Hans Christian Andersen (Denmark)

1820

Elizabeth Blackwell (America)

1821 - 1910

Louis Pasteur (France)

1822 - 1895

Franz Liszt (Hungary)

1823

Delacroix (France)

1825

Wilhelm Liebknecht (Germany)

1826 - 1900

Joseph Lister

1827 - 1912

Barbra Bodichon (Great Britain)

1827 - 1891

Edgar Allen Poe (America)

1827

Josephine Butler (England)

1828 - 1906

Joseph Swan (Great Britain)

1828 - 1914

Camille Pissarro

1830 - 1903

Berlioz (France)

1830

Caspar David Friedrich (Germany)

1830

Thomas Carlyle (Great Britain)

1831

British Medical Association Founded

1832

Dmitri Mendeleyev (Russia)

1834 - 1907

The Life of Jesus by David Strauss

1835

Auguste Comte (France)

1837 - 1857

Paul Cézanne

1839 - 1906

Charles Dickens (England)

1840

Claude Monet

1840 - 1926

August Bebel

1840 - 1913

Berthe Morisot

1841 - 1895

Bertha Von Suttner (Austria)

1843 - 1914

Friedrich Nietzsche (Germany)

1844 - 1900

Pope Pius IX

1846 - 1878

Millicent Fawcett

1847 - 1929

Georges Sorel (France)

1847 - 1922

Alexander Graham Bell

1847 - 1922

Thomas Edison (America)

1847 - 1931

American Medical Association Founded

1847

Realism Begins

1848

William Thackeray (Great Britain)

1848

Communist Manifesto

1848

Richard Wagner (Germany)

1849

Gustave Courbet (France)

1849

Jean-François Millet (France)

1850

Protestant Third Great Awakening

1850 - 1900

Vincent van Gogh

1853 - 1890

Florence Nightingale

1854

Gustave Flaubert (France)

1857

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Theodor Hertzl (Zionism)

1860 - 1904

"Life of Jesus" by Ernst Renan (French)

1863

Fyodor Dostoevsky

1866

Marie and Pierre Curie (France)

1867 - 1906

Leo Tolstoy

1869

First Vatican Council

1869 - 1870

Impressionism

1870 - 1890

Symbolism

1870 - 1910

Émile Zola (France)

1870

German Doctors' Society Founded

1872

Economic Crises Throughout Europe

1873 - 1895

Edvard Grieg (Scandinavia)

1876

Bell's Telephone

1876

Emergence of Mass Newspapers

1880 - 1885

First Vaccine Develped (Rabies)

1885

Post-Impressionism

1886 - 1905

Second International Formed

1889

Henri Bergson (France)

1890 - 1900

Claude Debussy

1894

Gustave LeBon (Germany)

1895

Sigmund Freud Begins Using the Term "Psychoanalysis"

1896

Montessori Becomes First Italian Woman with MD

1896

"The Foundations of the Ninteenth Century" Chamberlain (Germany, Racism)

1899

Evolutionary Socialism, Eduard Bernstein (Germany)

1899

Max Planck (Germany) States Quantum Theory

1900

First Radio Waves Sent Across the Atlantic

1901

Albert Einstein Publishes Paper Containing Theory of Relativity

1905

Max Weber (Germany)

1905

Catholic Church Condemns Moderism

1907

Cubism is Introduced by Picasso

1907

Igor Stravinsky

1910