Parker LaCourse (1815-1914)

Periods

Conservative Order

1815 - 1829

Concert of Europe

1815 - 1914

Revolution and Reform

1830 - 1850

Age of Nationalism

1851 - 1870

'Age of Progress'

1871 - 1893

Age of Modernity, Anxiety, and Imperialism

1894 - 1914

France

r. Louis XVIII

Approx. 1815 - January 1824

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

r. Charles X

January 30 1824 - January 1830

Serjents established

1829

r. Louis-Philippe

January 30 1830 - 1847

July Ordinances

July 26, 1830

July Revolution

July 27 1830

r. Louis Napoleon

1848 - 1852

Louis-Philippe Abdicated

February 22 1848

June Days (Workers Revolt)

June 1848

Reconstruction of Paris

1850

r. Napoleon III

1852 - 1870

Second Empire

1852 - September 1870

Occupy Saigon

1858

Fall of Paris

January 1871

Paris Commune

March 1871 - May 1871

Third Republic

1875

Conquest of Algeria

1879

Boulanger is discredited

1889

Dreyus Affair

1895 - 1899

Christian Socialists

1897 - 1910

Protectorate over Morocco

1912

Germany

Germanic Confederation established

1815

r. Frederick William III of Prussia

Approx. 1815 - 1839

Burschenschaften

1817 - 1819

Karlsbad Decrees

1819

ended Burchshaften thingy

Congress of Troppau

1820

Zollverin founded

1834

r. Frederick William IV of Prussia

1840 - 1861

Revolution in Germany

1848

Frankfurt Assembly

1849

Schutzmannschaft established

1850

Otto von Bismark becomes Minister-President

1862

Danish War

1864

Austro-Prussian War

1866

Battle of Koniggratz

July 1866

Franco-Prussian War

1870

Battle of Sedan

September 1870

German Empire proclaimed

January 1871

Chancellor Bismark

1871 - 1890

Three Emperors' League

1873

German Social Democratic Party created

1875

Antisocialist Law

1878

Congress of Berlin

1878

Defensive Alliance (w/ Austria)

1879

Triple Alliance (w/ Austria, Italy)

1882

Social Welfare Regultion

1883 - 1889

Reinsurance Treaty (w/ Russia)

1887

r. William II

1888 - Approx. 1914

Austria(-Hungary)

Congress of Vienna

1815

r. Prince Klemens von Metternich

Approx. 1815 - March 1848

Reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance

1815

Congress of Laibach

1821

r. Ferdinand I

Approx. 1835 - 1848

Metternich Dissmissed

March 1848

Revolt in Austrian Empire

March 1848

Austrian Forces Crush Czech Rebels

June 1848

Viennese Rebels Crushed

October 1848

r. Francis Joseph I

1849 - Approx. 1914

Defeat of Hungarians (w/ Russians)

1849

Reestablishes Control over Lombardy and Venetia

1849

Imperial Parliament established

1859

Dual Monarchy established

1867

Count Edward von Taaffe as Prime Minister

1879 - 1893

Great Britain

Corn Laws

1815

Peterloo Massacre

1819

Reform Act

1832

Poor Law

1834

Great Trek of The Boers

1835

r. Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

Anti-Corn Law League formed

1838

Bobbies established

1839

Obtain Hong Kong

1842

Repeal of Corn Laws

1846

Ministry of Palmerston

1855 - 1865

Reform Act

1867

First Liberal ministry of Gladstone

1868 - 1874

Contagious Disease Acts

1875

Female Qualifying Examination Bill

1876

Victoria made Emperess of India

1876

Seize Transvaal

1877

Second Ministry of Glastone

1880 - 1885

Expeditionary Force in Egypt

1882

Reform Act

1884

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Labour Party created

1900

National Insurance Act

1911

Home Rule

1914

Russia

r. Alexander I

Approx. 1815 - 1824

Decemberist Revolt

1825

r. Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Gained Protectorate of Wallachia and Moldovia

1829

Treaty of Adrianople

1829

Polish Revolt against Russia

1830 - September 1831

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

r. Alexander II

1856 - 1881

Treaty of Paris

1857

Emancipation Edict

1861

Zemstvos established

1864

People's Will assassinates tsar

November 1881

r. Alexander III

1882 - 1894

Military Alliance (w/ France)

1894

r. Nicholas II

1895 - Approx. 1914

The Marxist Social Democratic Labor Party created

1898

First congress of Social Democratic Party

1898

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Revolution in Russia

1905

Triple Entente (w/ France, Britain)

1907

Italy (and The Vatican)

Crushing of Revolt in So. Italy

1821

Congress of Verona

1822

r. Charles Albert of Piedmont

1831 - 1849

Young Italy founded

1831

r. Pope Pius IX

1846 - 1878

Failed Revolutions

1848 - 1849

Charles Albert attacks Austrians

December 1848

Revolutions in Italy

December 1848

r. Victor Emmanuel II

1850 - 1878

Count Camillo di Cavour named Prime Minister

1852

Agreement with Napoleon III

1858

Austrian War

1859

Garibaldi & the Red Shirts

1860

Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

March 1861

Annexation of Venetia

1866

Annexation of Rome

1870

r. Pope Leo XIII

1879 - 1903

Defeat by Ethiopians

1896

Seize Tripolo

1911

Universal male suffrage

1912

Spain & Smaller States

Union of Netherlands and Belgium

1815

r. Ferdinand VII (ESP)

Approx. 1815 - 1833

Revolution in Latin America

1819 - 1824

Greek Revolt against Ottoman Empire

1821

Monroe Doctrine

1823

Crushing of Revolt in Spain

1823

Independence of Greece and Belgium

1830

r. Leopold II (BEL)

1865 - 1909

r. Alfonso XII (ESP)

1874 - 1885

New Constitution (ESP)

1875

Belgium established settlements in the Congo

1876

Serbia and Montenegro attach Ottoman Empire

1876

Treaty of San Stefano

1878

First Balkan War

1912

Second Balkan War

1913

Cultural

Romantic Movement

Approx. 1815 - 1850

David Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)

1817

Lord Byron (Romantic Poet)

1818

Walter Scott (Romantic Writer, historical)

1820

Percy Bysshe Shelley (Romantic Poet)

1820

Mary Shelley (Gothic writer)

1823

Caspar David Friedrich (Romantic artist)

1824

Robert Owen (New Lanark)

1824

Thomas Malthus (Economic Liberalism)

1826

Edgar Allen Poe (Gothic Poet)

1827

Eugene Delacroix (Romantic artist)

1827

Beethoven (Romantic composer)

1827

Charles Fourier (Phalansteries)

1828

Hector Berlioz (Romantic composer)

1830

Giuseppe Mazzini (Italian Nationalist)

1831

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Romantic writer, tragics)

1832

British Medical Assosication founded

1832

Amalie Sieveking (Nursing pioneer)

1832

Joseph M. W. Turner (Romantic artist)

1839

Thomas Carlyle (Romantic Writer, heroes)

1840

Urban Public Health Movement

1840 - 1859

William Wordsworth (Author, Love of Nature)

1843

Flora Tristan (Utopian Socialist)

1843

Charles Dickens (Realistic novelist)

1843

Alexander Herzen (Social reform)

1845

Women's Colleges

1845

Franz List (Romantic composer)

1845

Joseph Lister (Antiseptic Principle)

1846

Louis Blanc (Socialist)

1847

Friedrich Engels (Marxism)

1848

Karl Marx (Marxism)

1848

William Thackeray (Realistic novelist)

1848

Elizabeth Blackwell (Female Medicine)

1849

Richard Wagner (Romantic composer)

1849

Auguste Compte (Human Activity)

1850

Growth of Scientific Knowledge

1850 - 1870

Gustave Courbet (Realistic artist)

1850

Population Boom

1850 - 1910

Realism Movement

1851 - Approx. 1890

Florence Nightingale (Nursing)

1855

Michael Faraday (Electromagnetic Induction)

1856

Louis Pasteur (Germ Theory of Disease)

1857

Jean-Francois Millet (Realistic artist)

1857

Gustave Flaubert (Realistic novelist)

1857

John Stuart Mill (Political Liberalism)

1859

Charles Darwin (Darwinism)

1859

Modernism Movement

1860 - Approx. 1914

V. A. Huber (Housing Reformer)

1861

English Football Association establsied

1863

Michael Bakunin (Anarchism)

1865

Dmitri Mendeleyev (Periodic Law)

1865

Fyodor Dostoevsky (Realistic novelist)

1866

Thomas Cook (Mass Tourism)

1867

Impressionism Movement

1867 - 1884

Leo Tolstoy (Realistic Novelist)

1869

Second Industrial Revolution

1870 - 1914

State-Run Education

1870

Increased Standard of Living

1871

Increase in Literacy

1871

White-Collar Jobs for Women

1872

German Doctor's Society founded

1872

Camille Pissarro (Impressonist artist)

1873

London School of Medicine for Women founded

1874

Joseph Swan (Light bulb)

1875

August Bebel (Marxist leader)

1875

Wilhelm Liebnecht (Marxist leader)

1875

Alexander Graham Bell (Telephone)

1876

Edvard Grieg (Modernism composer)

1876

Vera Zasulich (Radical reform)

1878

First Internal Combustion Engine

1878

First Electric Railway

1879

Mass Emigration begins

1880

Aletta Jacob (Birth Control)

1882

Friedrich Nietzsche (the Irrational)

1882

Post-Impressionism Movement

1883 - Approx. 1914

Emile Zola (Naturalism author)

1885

Josephine Butler (Women's Equality)

1886

Lord Leverhulme (Model village)

1887

Second International formed

1889

Vincent van Gogh (Post-Impressionist artist)

1889

Revival of racism

1890

Georges Sorel (Revolutionary Socialism)

1891

J. Hopkins University School of Medicine founded

1893

Henri Bergson (Against Reason)

1894

Claude Debussy (Impressionist movement)

1894

'la belle epoque'

1895 - 1914

Paul Cezanne (Post-Impressionist artist)

1895

Herbert Spencer (Social Darwinism)

1896

Wassily Kandinsky (Abstract art)

1896

Maria Montessori ("new woman")

1896

Theodor Herzl (Zionist)

1896

First Oil-Fired Engine

1897

Eduard Bernstein (Evolutionary Socialism)

1899

Houston Stewart Chamberlain (Volkish Thought)

1899

Sigmund Freud (Psychoanalysis)

1900

Max Planck (Physicist)

1900

Guglielmo Marconi (Radio waves across Atlantic)

1901

Millicent Fawcett (Women's suffrage)

1901

Ebenezer Howard (Garden City)

1903

Emmeline Pankhurst (Woman's equality)

1903

Jean Jaures (Independent Socialist)

1905

Albert Einstein (Theory of Relativity)

1905

Bertha von Suttner (Peace)

1905

Claude Monet (Impressionism artist)

1906

Pablo Picasso (Cubism)

1907

Robert Baden-Powell (Boy Scouts)

1908

Marie Curie (Radium Radiation)

1911

Events

START

1815

PRINTING END

1925