Italian Unification

Events

The Carbonari

1815

The Carbonari are the best known of the secret societies and were the largest. There were active Carbonari groups across Italy in the years after the restoration of 1815. They had significant numbers, estimated at 60'000 in Naples alone. However they were not coherent with a plan for Italy, they had ranging political views and were largely concerned with their local states. Most wanted their Dukes to remain in Power but as constitutional rulers.

The Vienna Settlement

1815

-The Great powers of Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia divided the old Napoleonic kingdom of Italy into eight separate states - similar to how Italy was before Napoleon's invasion.
-This was known as the restoration because so many rulers were restored, or brought back to power.
-The important aims of the Vienna Settlement was the 'containment' of France, in the hope its power could be limited so another French Empire could not arise.
-A related idea was that of the 'balance of power that none of the powers of Europe should be more powerful than the others, this was hoped to lead to peace.

The Restoration

1815

-Italy before 1797 was made up of many different states (although were dominated by Austria), Some of these states were republics such as that of Genoa or Venice, in which rich and powerful citizens voted for their leaders.
-The Restoration of 1815 did not allow the restoration of these republics, monarchies were restored and the republics absorbed into these.
-Austria's domination over Italy was restored and strengthened with its acquisition of Lombardy and Venetia, and it family connections with rulers in Modena, Parma and Tuscany (the central Duchies) through Hapsburg family members and by treaties offering military protection to the Pope and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

  • Lombardy-Venitia was a wealthy area and being ruled by the absolute Austrians became an important source of tax income, the Austrians got 1/3 of their taxes from Lombardy-Venetia.

Victor Emmanuel who was restored to Piedmont began to return things to pre-Napoleonic days:
- Including destroying the parks and gas street lighting France had built.
-Reintroducing feudal taxes.
-Reintroducing Church privileges.
-Digging up roads.
-Cancelled the code Napoleon, the civil and criminal laws set up by the French.
-Discriminated against Jews and Protestants, sacking all those appointed to government jobs.

In the papal states (especially in the cities Ferrera and Bologna in the Romagna) during French rule the clergy had been thrown out of important jobs with middle class professionals replacing them. When the Pope was restored he in turn sacked these professionals, this caused a lot of resentment especially in the Romagna.

In the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily the absolute Bourbon King Ferdinand I brought back many of the powers of the Church hoping it would keep his subjects quiet.

The Vienna Settlement and restoration of autocratic rule did enormous damage to the fortunes and aspirations of the educated classes, professionals found they were pushed aside. Many became active opponents of the restoration and Austrian influence.

The Revolts in Naples and Sicily

1820 - 1821

The Kingdom of two Sicilies had extensive Carbonari membership. King Ferdinand was unpopular with the middle classes, having imposed high taxes, conscription and censorship of the press.
Sicily was also unhappy, it was not conquered by Napoleon and in 1812 King Ferdinand had issued a constitution which he went back on in 1815 being given the throne of Naples, ruling as an absolute monarch.

In 1820 the Bourbon king of Spain had been forced by a revolution to grant a constitution, this was a spark:
-In Naples many army officers decided to force King Ferdinand to do the same. These rebels were joined by General Pepe and his troops.

-The King promised to grant a constitution, to end the power of the Church and to introduce the vote to all male members of the Kingdom.
-A new government was formed, Pepe had control of the army and the revolt seemed successful.
-Austria called a meeting that resulted in the Troppau protocol.
-1821 King Ferdinand asked the Austrian Emperor for help in crushing the rebellion, the Austrians agreed.
-The Austrians marched through the Papal states and crushed the rebellion, aided by General Pepe's forces who were busy fighting a REVOLT IN SICILY, who wanted INDEPENDENCE from Naples.

Troppau Protocol agreement

November 1820

When News of the revolt in Naples reached the major powers, Austria called a 'congress which took place in 1820 at Troppau, where the 'Troppau protocol' was signed. This was signed by Austria, Prussia and Russia and stated that the great powers should intervene to stop rebellions being successful. (This is what allowed Austria to crush the Naples rebellion of 1820-21) France did not sign because it was still unstable and Britain because wanted to 'maintain the balance of power'.

Revolt in Piedmont

1821

The Troppau protocol gave Austria an excuse to end a rebellion in Piedmont.
-A Piedmontese army officer and minor aristocrat (Santarosa) led a group of soldiers demanding a constitution.
- The King Victor Emmanuel I abdicated in favour of Charles Felix who was aboard, Victor Emmanuel I named Charles Albert his nephew as regent.
-Albert made vague promises of a constitution and made Santarosa the chief of the army, yet Albert fled when the Austrians invaded piedmont.
-They defeated Sanarosa's men and confirmed Charles Felix as absolute monarch of Piedmont.

Louis Philippe is King of France

1830

In 1830 the Bourbon King of France (Charles X) was overthrown in a revolution. A new king, Louis Philippe was installed in his place, he had a reputation as a liberal reformer. It was hoped by some in Italy that this might mean France would support attempts to change things in Italy.
However, Louis was often too scared that Britain, France, Prussia or Austria might try to restore the Bourbons to the French throne so he couldn't afford to offend these powers by helping Italy.

Revolt in Modena

1831

-In Modena, Enrico Misley a lawyer and Carbonari member approached Duke Francisco of Modena with the idea of causing a revolt in Modena and in Piedmont.
-Misley tried to persuade the Duke that he could in the confusion take the throne of Piedmont. Francisco liked the sound of this but realised Austria would not stand for it.
-Francesco arrested Misley whose followers rebelled anyway.
-In the confusion Francesco fled as did Marie Louise the Hapsburg leader of Parma.
-The revolt was crushed by the Austrian army; faced with revolt the Pope and the Duke of Modena asked for help from the Austrian Emperor.

Revolt in Romagna - (northern Papal States)

1831

-Middle class liberals in the cities of Bologna, Perugia and Ancona decided to challenge the rule of the Pope; resentful t their loss of power after the restoration.
-1831 looked to these reformers as an opportunity to claim independence from the Papacy.
-The rebels in Bologna refused to send troops or aid to ?Modena which they referred to as a 'foreign city'.
-The revolt was crushed by the Austrian army; faced with revolt the Pope and the Duke of Modena asked for help from the Austrian Emperor.
Like earlier revolts, those in the Romagna were localised; the ambition here was to create an independent state without any wider aims.

Young Italy

1831

Young Italy was a secret society, founded in 1831 by Mazzini, this orginisation had an impact on the political development of Italy. it was crucial in speading Mazzinian ideas. it held a strong belief in the people and republican views.

Charles Albert becomes King

1831

Charles Albert became king of Piedmont-Sardinia, he showed himself to be a cautious reformer but one who didn't really want extensive change. His principle aim was to strengthen and expand his kingdom. so although he reformed the legal system and decided to join the customs union with Tuscany and the Papal states, he stopped short of more extensive changes until 1847.

Outbreak of Cholera in Sicily

1836

There was a major outbreak of Cholera which had killed 65'000 people, many blamed Neapolitan rule for this disaster.

Bad Harvests and Hungry pesants

Approx. 1840 - 1848

-The workers and peasants of the peninsula were even more hungry, poor and desperate than usual, and this added to the tensions before 1848.
-Enclosure of the common land by the rich took fertile land for grazing away from the poor in the years leading up to 1848.
-The harvests of 1846 and 1847 had been catastrophic and as a result prices of food and grain had risen dramatically.
-Industrial workers in the cities in the North had been laid off due to over production.
-The cities and towns were full of unemployed and desperate workers from the countryside chasing the same jobs as those who had been laid off in the cities.

Everywhere public order was threatened; there were frequent riots and demonstrations.

Pius IX

1846 - 1847

Pius IX was elected as Pope in 1846 and at first was seen as a liberal Pope.
-On his election he released political prisoners.
-In 1847 press censorship by the Church was ended, this move allowed the creation of a freer press that was to have important consequences.
-A civic guard of local people was created to protect property.
-A council of state or consulta was set up in 1847 to advise the Papacy on how to run the Papal states. Although it's powers were limited to many liberals it was the first step towards the elected parliament they wanted.
As a result, many saw this new pope as being more liberal and had hopes that he would support change in Italy.

Austria sends troops to Ferrara

Approx. 1847 - Approx. 1848

-Austria grew alarmed at the changes and ideas and sent troops to garrison the city of Ferrara in the papal states - as they were entitled,
- It was a warning to the states of Italy, a reminder that Austria was in charge and in case to put down any revolutions.
-Many Italians reacted furiously, Pius XI sent a formal complaint and this was seized by the radicals and reformers as a further sign that Pius might be the one to lead Italy against Austria.

The Statuto

1847

In 1847 like the other rulers of Italy Charles Albert was under pressure. Protests and riots in Genoa and Turin in favour of greater political freedom forced Charles Albert to consider the introduction of a constitution.
This he agreed to do until 1847 - although it wasn't put in place until the following year,

Riots in Sicily

January 1848 - May 1849

-Revolutionaries demanded the return of the 1812 constitution and independence for Sicily from Naples.
-The revolutionaries had taken over most of the island by April despite 5000 soldiers and the shelling of the Capital by the Navy.
-They then elected a parliament which declared Sicily's independence.
-The Sicilian revolutionaries were not interested in with national unity, this was a separatist movement with the aim of breaking away from Naples.
-It took the Neapolitan army until May 1849 to crush the insurrection.

Riots in Vienna

1848

Riots in Vienna forced the resignation of Metternich - the Prime Minister who had done so much to keep Austria as the leading power in Europe and to maintain the status quo in Italy.

Smoking boycott - Milan

1848

In protest at Austrian rule and high taxes the people of Lombardy stopped smoking. The tobacco tax brought a lot of money so the Austrians could not collect this tax.

Revolution in Paris

1848

There was a revolution in Paris which toppled Louis Philippe, the last king of France and turned France into a republic.

The Glorious 'five days'

March 1848

In Milan five days (17th-22nd) of furious fighting in the streets led to the defeat and withdrawal of the Austrian army (led by General Radetsky). After some argument between the moderates who feared the creation of a rebublic, and the liberals who wanted a republic, the provisional Milanese government asked for Charles Albert to help them against the Austrians.

Charles Albert's war

Mar 1, 1848 - august 1849

-Charles declared war on Austria saying Italy would "make herself, by herself", and marched troops into Lombardy.
- Other troops from Naples, under the command of Pepe, and from the Papal states under Durando marched north to help Piedmont, Lombardy and Venice in a 'Princes war' that seemed to offer independence from Austria.
- Austria was on a back foot and had lost the leadership of Metternich, it's troops were withdrawn to fortresses on the border and almost all large Italian states were in open revolt against Austrian rule.
-Yet by July 1848 Piedmont had been defeated in the battle of Custcozza, and by August Lombardy had been recaptured, and the republic of Venice put under siege.
- By August 1849 absolute rule had been restored to Naples, Sicily the papal states and the central duchies and Austria had regained control over Lombardy and Venitia.

Venitia

22 march 1848

A Venetian republic was declared with Daniel Manin, a radical at its head. They too asked Charles Albert for help.

The Allocution

29 april 1848

Pope Pius was not willing to upset Austria for the sake of unity, in response to General Durando's disobediance, Pius issued his famous allocution, the main points being:
1. Pius stated that the war against Austria did not have his blessing.
2. He highlighted the fact that Charles Albert was the aggressor in the war.
3.The idea of a united Italy was not one supported by the papacy and the Pope did not wish to be considered as the potential leader on any Italian federation.

Why did the 1848 revolutions end in Failiure?

December 1848

There were five key reasons:
1. Divisions between revolutionaries.
The revolutions were still local, even though the excitement of the liberal Papacy and Charles Albert's war made them look 'Italian'. In Sicily the revolution renewed the call for independence. In Milan and Venice the revolutionaries were divided between republicans and those who feared a republic. Charles Albert wanted to expand Piedmont and be a great leader. Hatred of the Austrians only went so far - other than this they had differing motives.

  1. The incompetence of Charles Albert -In the words of Denis Mark Smith Charles "waited for four days until he was satisfied that the war was likely to succeed and to be in Piedmontese interests."
  2. Charles was afraid of a republic in Lombardy and a republican revolt in Piedmont. Consequently He didn't join until the 22nd by which time Radetsky had withdrawn to the border. -Charles saw himself as a great leader and liberator but he took no bold moves, his army was under-prepared and was weaker than Austria's. His Soldiers were not provided with maps of Lombardy. -He spent time holding plebiscites to ensure Lombardy and Venitia would be annexed showing his true motives. Instead of welcoming revolutionary troops he relied on the piedmontese army.
  3. Because of the 'expansionism' that dominated his aims he could not work alongside republicans or those that supported the Pope.

  4. The Papal Allocution
    The Pope issued his allocution and making it clear that he would not lead an Italian Federation, thus removing the papal 'seal of approval' for the war causing many soldiers to abandon the fighting and return home.

  5. The power of Austria
    Austria's military might and Radetsky's leadership were crucial factors, as Darby put it "Italy's window of opportunity was open only as long as Austrian paralysis lasted". Radetsky was able to build his army up to 70'000 by the summer of '48 compared to Piedmont's 20-30'000.

  6. Lack of foreign support
    -The threat from republican France and its refusal to help in 1849 when Charles tried to re-start the war with Austria meant Italy didn't have the strength to win independence.
    -Italy could't be helped from abroad without a challenge to Austria which in 1848 was too strong for any other state to contemplate.

The Roman Republic and the Siege of Rome

February 1849 - July 1849

-Following the allocution the Pope was becoming increasingly hated by radicals.
-Following the assassination of his Prime Minister the Pope fled Rome in November 1848.
-In February 1849 a new constitution for Rome was drawn up, Rome became a republic and the Pope's temporal power was removed.
-The City was led by Guiseppi Galletti when the Pope fled and after the constitution by three people including Mazzini.
-The new leaders introduced a series of radical laws (that lasted as long as the republic did.
1.They abolished the hated Macinato.
2.Press censorship was ended.
3. Land that had been owned by the Church was re-distributed.
-The Pope called on the Catholic powers to restore him.
-Louis Napoleon responded by sending 20'000 French troops - France's first involvement in foreign affairs since Napoleon was crushed.
-In April 1849 French troops landed near Rome.
-The defence of the city was led by Garibaldi, it took until the end of July '49 for the city to fall to the French.
-Garibaldi however was a hero of the defence but had to lead his supporters over the Apennine Mountains; his pregnant wife died with the many others.

Spreading Revolts to Naples - Ferdinannd grants constitution

Jun 1, 1849

-The revolutions in Sicily were spreading to the mainland and King Ferdinand was forced to grant a constitution.
-Although this constitution was very conservative and saved much power to the King, it did raise liberal expectations elsewhere in the peninsula.
-Ferdinand only issued the constitution because he could not rely on Austrian support as his father had done because Pope Pius IX refused to let their troops cross the Papal states.

The National Society

Approx. 1850

-Formed in the mid 1850's the membership of the National society was dominated by Italian exiles living in Piedmont.
-It's aim was to promote the cause of Italian unity.
-Many of its supporters had supported Mazzini.
-Yet its leaders were prepared to accept that unification that might come under a Piedmontese Monarchy than a republic.
-In 1856 Cavour, who was still sceptical of unification, met Manin (a leader) but despite these two men disagreeing over the future of Italy. In the same year Cavour met Garibaldi, these contacts were to come in useful in later years.

Piedmontese modernisation

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1859

The 1850's were an important period of political and economic development and change in Piedmont.
-In 1850 Cavour was made Minister of Trade and Agriculture, soon after he was given responsibilities over shipping to which he added technological improvement.
-Prompted by Cavour in 1845 the piedmontese government had begun a limited programme of railway construction, Having visited Britain Cavour was a firm believer in the future of railways. The result was by the end of the 1850's approximately 850km of railway track in operation.
-In 1853 the electric telegraph linking Turin to Paris flourished.
-The textile industry flourished with the removal of tariffs.
-The building of canals began in 1857 further boosted the construction industry.
-By the end on 1851 he had signed trading treaties with states including Portugal, France, Britain and Belgium. The aim of these was to ensure both political support and economic growth.
- Between 1850-59 imports and exports increased by 300 percent.

Both political and economic change enhanced Piedmont's role as the potential leader of the peninsula, and the state most likely to expel Austria as a modernised state.

The Siccardi Laws

Approx. March 1850

A member of the Piedmontese government (Giuseppe Siccardi) brought in a series of bills that were passed. These bills controlled the power of the Church:

1.Separate law courts for priests and other ecclesiastical people were abolished because their existence conflicted with the statuto which said all justice came from the King.
2. The right for criminals to seek sanctuary in churches was abolished.
3. Religious groups like monasteries were restricted in their right to buy property.
4. The number of feast days on which people were forbidden to work was abolished.

Cavour is Prime Minister

Approx. 1852

Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Piedmont

Napoleon is emperor

december 1852

Napoleon III becomes Emperor of France.

Crimean War

Approx. 1854 - Approx. 1856

In 1854 Britain and France declared war of Russia and sent troops to fight in the Crimea.
In January 1855 Cavour decided to join the war on the allies side and he dispatched the 15'000 troops to the Crimea. He took this decision for a number of reasons:
-Austria remained neutral, making enemies of Russia a powerful state.
-British anf French forces had been ravaged by cholera and knowing reinforcements were needed they put pressure of piedmont.
-Victor Emmanuel II made it clear that he would replace Cavour following is reluctance for war.

The Paris Peace conference

Approx. april 1856

At the congress of Paris neither Britain or France was prepared to alienate Austria by addressing any Piedmontese request for a change in the status quo in the north of Italy, yet Cavour did achieve a number of points:
1. His attendance was a sign of Piedmont's growing diplomatic stature.
2. The 'Italian question' was discussed.
3. The French and British were grateful to Britain for it's support.

War with Austria

Approx. 1858 - Approx. 1859

-At Plombieres Cavour had promised 100'000 troops but these were hard to find, the National Society found 20'000 recruits and in the end the Piedmontese numbered 60'000.
-There was no poular enthusiasm for the war, it was not seen as freeing italy bus as engineered by Cavour.
-A war in northern Italy was unpopular in Europe, to many Austrian influence would be replaced with French, they pressed for a congress of powers to resolve the issue.
-In March 1859 the Piedmontese army mobilised and the Austrians followed suit.
-23rd April the Austrians demanded Piedmontese demobilisation within three days, when it was not forthcoming war was declared on 29th April

Orsisi's assasination attempt

Approx. January 14 1858

-Four Italians led by Count Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon, the rationale behind this was that France would return to a republic that would support the creation of an Italian republic.
-The bomb failed to harm Napoleon but killed several and injured many more.
- At his trial Orsini appealed to Napoleon to support Italian unification, this then supposedly led to Plombieres.

Plombieres

july 21 1858

It was agreed at a secret meeting that France would join Piedmont in a war against Austria, other terms were:
1. A kingdom of upper Italy would be created to cover Piedmont (ruled by house Savoy) , Lombardy and Venitia and the duchies of, Parma, Modena.
2. A kingdom of central Italy would be made of the central duchies Tuscany, Umbria and the papal marshes.
3. Rome and the surrounding area would remain in control of the papacy.
4. The King of Naples would be left as it was.
5. In return for the 200'000 troops Napoleon demanded Savoy and Nice.
6. The agreement was to be settled with the marriage of 15 year old Marie-Clothilde (daughter of Victor Emmanuel) to Prince Jerome Bonaparte.

Villafranca

Approx. 1859

-Napoleon disapproved of the revolutions in central Italy and vied for peace.
-Austria agreed that Lombardy should be given to France but Venitia was still to be Austrian.
-Piedmont was not to have control of Modena or Parma.
-An Italian federation headed by the Pope was to be set up.
-Cavour resigned and was not present at the signing of the Treaty of Zurich.

National Society revolutions

Approx. april 1859 - Approx. june 1859

In April 1859 - in Florence there was a demonstration against the Grand Duke Leopold, he fled and Baron Bettino Ricasoli led a government that favoured union with Piedmont.

May 1859 - National Society engineered peaceful revolutions in Tuscany, Modena and Parma, all the leaders fled leaving provisional governments in control.

June 1859 - The Duke of Modena and the Duchess Regent of Parma fled and were replaced with a government led by Luigi Farini, that was close to Piedmont and all major decisions were made in Turin.

The Battle of Magenta

Approx. 4 june 1859

The Austrians were defeated and so much blood was spilt that 'Magenta' is now a colour.

The Battle of Solferino

Approx. 24 June 1859

The Austrians were defeated and driven out of Italy.

Treaty of Zurich

Approx. november 1859

The treaty that formerly ended the war.

Brigands War

1860

-Social unrest, especially among the lower classes, occurred due to poor conditions, and the fact that the Risorgimento benefited only the bourgeoisie vast-land owning classes.
-New taxes were introduced by the Piedmontese state to pay for the 2.5 billion lira of national debt accumulated from the recent wars.
- Many turned to brigandage in the mountains to continue the fight against the northern invaders.
- Amongst the brigands were a mixture of people, with different working backgrounds and motives, but the same desire to defeat the common enemy.
-They launched attacks against the Italian authorities (who were regarded as foreigners) and the land owning upper-classes, coming to be viewed by many of the common people as Robin Hood like figures, some of them gained celebrity in the area via the spreading of their stories.
-Civil liberties were repressed in the South and the piedmontese deployed an army of 12'000 to deal with the threat.
-In total several thousand southerners were arrested and executed, while many more were deported or fled the country.

Piedmontese Annexation

Approx. March 1860

-All males over 21 were given the vote in the plebiscites engineered by Cavour via the National Society with help from Ricasoli and Farini.
- The choice was annexation to the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emmanuel or to be a separate kingdom, this choice remaining deliberately vague.
-All were in favour of annexation.

Sicily and 'the Thousand'

Approx. april 1860

-The reaction of Garibaldi to the surrender of Nice his birthplace was to organise a force to prevent its annexation.
-The group became known as 'The Thousand' and met at the port of Genoa.
-In April 1860, news arrived of a rebellion on Sicily, Garibaldi was persuaded by his followers to help and they sailed.
-At Sea Garibaldi declared that they were going to liberate Italy in the name of "Italy and Victor Emmanuel".
-On the 11th of May Garibaldi arrived in Sicily and as they marched to Palmero their ranks were swelled by Sicilians.
-On the 15th May, their first encounter with the Neapolitan army at Calatafimi was a sensational victory, Palmero was taken later that month and the island conquered by the end of July.
-Cavour panicked and sent two agents to the Island to secure its annexation to Piedmont but both failed, Garibaldi retained control.

The Straights of Messina

Approx. 19 august 1860

Garibaldi's expedition was unpopular in France but they could do nothing as the British were supportive and their navy allowed Garibaldi and his thousand to cross the Straights of Messina to the mainland of Naples.

Garibaldi's conquest of Naples

Approx. september 1860 - Approx. 26 october 1860

-Garibaldi made increased his numbers with the peasantry, making promises of land and using religion etc.
-They were fighting in the name of Victor Emmanuel.
-Victory was achieved on the 26th October 1860.

Cavour Invades the Papal States

Approx. 11 september 1860

-Cavour was worried that Garibaldi would continue on to take Rome, regardless of the international consequences.
-The National society organised an uprising in the papal states on the 8th September. -Cavour demanded that the Papal army be disbanded rather than suppress the uprising, yet the uprising was a damp squib and many people internationally complained that Cavour was acting in breach of international law.
-However Cavour continued and invaded the papal states (with Napoleon's permission as long as Rome was untouched) on the 11th September 1860.
-On the 18th September the papal army was destroyed at the battle of Castelfidardo.

Southern Plebsites

Approx. 21 October 1860

-Plebiscites in Naples ans Sicily were arranged asking 'One, Italy, Victor Emmanuel, yes or no?'.
-The results were overwhelmingly for but it was more to be rid of the Bourbons than anything else.

Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel's triumphal entry

Approx. 7 november 1860

Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel make a triumphal entry into Naples and Garibaldi formerly handed over his conquests.
Garibaldi asked to rule the South for a year and was refused so returned to Caprera promising to free Rome.

Cavour dies

1861

Garibaldi tries to tak Rome

1862

-A challenge against the Pope's temporal domain was viewed with great distrust by Catholics around the world, and the French emperor Napoleon III had guaranteed the independence of Rome from Italy by stationing a French garrison in Rome.
-Victor Emmanuel was wary of the international repercussions of attacking the Papal States, and discouraged his subjects from participating in revolutionary ventures with such intentions. Nonetheless, Garibaldi believed he had the secret support of his government.
-In June 1862, he sailed from Genoa and landed at Palermo, seeking to gather volunteers for the impending campaign under the slogan Roma o Morte (Rome or Death).
- An enthusiastic party quickly joined him, and he turned for Messina, hoping to cross to the mainland there. When he arrived, he had a force of some two thousand, but the garrison proved loyal to the king's instructions and barred his passage. T
-He turned south and set sail from Catania, where Garibaldi declared that he would enter Rome as a victor or perish beneath its walls. He landed at Melito on 14 August, and marched at once into the Calabrian mountains.
-Far from supporting this endeavour, the Italian government was quite disapproving and sent a force to stop him.
-On 28 August the two forces met in the rugged Aspromonte.
- The fighting ended quickly, as Garibaldi forbade his men to return fire on fellow subjects of the Kingdom of Italy.
- Many of the volunteers were taken prisoner, including Garibaldi, who had been wounded by a shot in the foot.

The Syllabus of Errors

1864

The Pope signed the Syllabus of Errors:
-Pius rejected most of the philosophies developed in the nineteenth century from communism to nationalism and liberalism to nationalism.
-He claimed for the church control over the education system and therefore all culture and science.
-The Catholic Church rejected the idea of tolerance for other religions.
-The Church asserted the idea of the continuing temporal power of the Papacy.

Venice becomes part of Italy

1866

On 20th June 1866 Italy declared war on Austria with Prussia, yet the Italians were defeated at the battles of Custcozza and Lissa. However the Austrians were beaten at Sadowa by Prussia. Austria was forced to cede Venice to France who promptly gave it to Italy.

Garibaldi tries to take Rome

1867

1867 Garibaldi made a second attempt to capture Rome, but the papal army, strengthened with a new French auxiliary force, defeated his badly armed volunteers at Mentana.

Rome becomes part of Italy

1870

As the Prussian army threatened French borders in the Franco Prussian War, the French troops left Rome.
-The Italians invaded, there was little support despite the results of the plebiscite held on 2 October.
-Rome was pronounced the capital of Italy and Pius IX named himself "a prisoner in the Vatican" excommunicating Victor Emmanuel and his government.

New Ideas anbout "Italy"

Conclusion

1820 - 1848

The new ideas circulating around the intellectual classes were very important, they showed a desire for change among some Italians and that they inspired other people (e.g. Garibaldi). Yet they also showed how people who wanted change could not agree on what it should be or how to even get it.. This was a critical factor as to explaining why so little progress was made in the years 1815-49.

Guiseppe Mazzinni

1831 - 1848

-More than the other writers and thinkers Mazzini believed in "Italy", where others saw Neapolitans and Piedmontese etc. he saw Italians.
-He believed in an Italian character, spirit, one that would eventually rise up and throw off the Austrian domination.
-He founded Young Italy in October 1831 and wanted a mass political movement in which ordinary Italians took part.
-He said that only by working together could Italians destroy Austria's power and create a republic, democratic Italian state.
-From the start he wanted Young Italy to be a 'mass' political movement
He inspired many Italians however, including Giuseppe Garibaldi.

Cesare Balbo

1831 - 1848

-Balbo was from aristocratic Piedmontese family, he thought that Italy needed to be rid of the Austrians but that it could not be forced to become one country as the differences between the states were too great.
-He proposed instead a federation of Italian states, each would retain its rulers and customs and laws for most things.
-The Piedmontese king would be the head of this federation who would lead 'Italy' especially in teaching them how to fight so independence from foreigners could be assured. His ideas were much less radical than Mazzini's.
-Balbo saw a crucial role for piedmont who had a fairly modern army of about 150'000 soldiers and a strong monarchy.

Vincezno Gioberti

1831 - 1848

-Vincezno Gioberti was a radical Catholic priest.
-His book 'the moral primacy of the Italians' set out his hopes of a re-born Italy free from foreign control.
-He recognised Italian differences but that all 'Italians' had the Catholic faith in common.
-As such he wanted a federation of states all led by the Pope as Catholicism was the only thing strong enough to unite Italians.
-However the Church was not popular with many liberals, so many people pressing for change were unlikely to ask for the leadership of the autocratic Pope.
-Another problem was that Gioberti had no idea how to make this happen, he made no mention of the Austrians and did not say how the other leaders were to be persuaded to give their lands to the Pope.