-Italy before 1797 was made up of many different states (although were dominated by Austria), Some of these states were republics such as that of Genoa or Venice, in which rich and powerful citizens voted for their leaders.
-The Restoration of 1815 did not allow the restoration of these republics, monarchies were restored and the republics absorbed into these.
-Austria's domination over Italy was restored and strengthened with its acquisition of Lombardy and Venetia, and it family connections with rulers in Modena, Parma and Tuscany (the central Duchies) through Hapsburg family members and by treaties offering military protection to the Pope and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
- Lombardy-Venitia was a wealthy area and being ruled by the absolute Austrians became an important source of tax income, the Austrians got 1/3 of their taxes from Lombardy-Venetia.
Victor Emmanuel who was restored to Piedmont began to return things to pre-Napoleonic days:
- Including destroying the parks and gas street lighting France had built.
-Reintroducing feudal taxes.
-Reintroducing Church privileges.
-Digging up roads.
-Cancelled the code Napoleon, the civil and criminal laws set up by the French.
-Discriminated against Jews and Protestants, sacking all those appointed to government jobs.
In the papal states (especially in the cities Ferrera and Bologna in the Romagna) during French rule the clergy had been thrown out of important jobs with middle class professionals replacing them. When the Pope was restored he in turn sacked these professionals, this caused a lot of resentment especially in the Romagna.
In the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily the absolute Bourbon King Ferdinand I brought back many of the powers of the Church hoping it would keep his subjects quiet.
The Vienna Settlement and restoration of autocratic rule did enormous damage to the fortunes and aspirations of the educated classes, professionals found they were pushed aside. Many became active opponents of the restoration and Austrian influence.