Southard Unit 4 1800-1846 Group 3

CH9

Samuel Slater Cotton Textile Mill in Providence, RI- Kaelyn

1789 - Approx. 1791

The American Industrial Revolution began with Britain's Samuel Slater immigrating to America in 1789 and instituting the cotton textile mill which soon spread through New England.

Development of new machinery

1793 - Approx. 1860

In 1793, Eli Whitney created the machine that separated the seeds in a cotton ball from the delicate fibers. This machine lead to an increase in cotton production. In 1798 Eli Whitney manufactured military weapons. He designed and built machine tools that produced interchangeable parts. Machine tools were created all the way until 1860. The number of patents issued rose from 200 to 4,000 a year. If new machinery had not been produced, then a slow production of goods, thus the decrease in workers needed because production rates were low.

Eli Whitney Manufactures Military Weapons- C. Smith

1798 - 1825

Whitney decided to manufacture military weapons in 1798. He had some success with the cotton gin, but other manufacturers had improved on his design and captured the market. He still sought fortune, so he turned to the production of military weapons and revolutionized weaponry through interchangeable parts. This development of new machinery, specifically interchangeable parts in weapons, revolutionized the battlefield and allowed for guns to be fixed more easily; thus warfare became much more efficient.

Creation of Steamboats- C. Smith

1807 - 1817

The creation of the steamboat, made successful by Robert Fulton, goods and people cold be transported along the Erie Canal; thus connecting the midwest and northeast and allowing for international trade.

Creation of the Erie Canal

1819 - 1825

Erie Canal was the first major engineering project in America. It was 75-mile and quickly yielded enough revenue to repay its construction cost. Erie Canal brought up prosperity to the farmers of central and western New York and the entire Great Lakes region. The canal cut transportation costs and accelerated the flow of goods. If the Erie Canal had not been constructed, then transportation costs would not have been cut, thus no prosperity to farmers/merchants in New York or Great Lakes region.

Division of Labor

Approx. 1820 - 1830

This is a system of manufacture that divides production into a series of distinct and repetitive tasks performed by machines or workers. If the division of labor had not been created, then production of goods wouldn't have increased, thus no decrease in prices of goods produced.

The Market Revolution

1820 - 1860

The dramatic increase between 1820 to 1860 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Reflected the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the creation of a transportation network of roads, canals, and railroads. If American factories and farms hadn't produced more goods, then legislators and businessmen wouldn't have created cheaper and faster ways to get those products to those consumers, thus no market revolution.

Waltham-Lowell System

1820 - 1830

The Waltham-Lowell System was a strategy to tap a cheaper source of labor. Boston Manufacturing Company recruited thousands of young women from farm families, providing them with rooms in boarding houses and with evening lectures of other cultural activities. Had strict guidelines. If the Waltham-Lowell System had not been created, then women would have never joined the workforce in textile industries, thus a decline in affects of the industrial revolution.

Women Join the Work Force- Kaelyn

1820 - Approx. 1825

If women had not taken textile jobs, then they would have less working and wage rights that were gained by working women unions, thus a less free America.

Artisan Republicanism

Approx. 1825 - Approx. 1840

Artisan republicanism was an ideology of production based on liberty and equality. They saw themselves as small-scale producers, equal to one another and free to work for themselves. If the industrial revolution hadn't changed the nature of worker's lives, then artisan republicanism wouldn't have been created, thus no free workers forming unions.

Free workers form unions

1825 - 1840

Workers strong sense of identity, enabled workers to form unions. Workers resented low wages and long hours, which restricted their family life and educational opportunities. They also wanted to improve working conditions. If workers had not developed a strong sense of identity, then they wouldn't have formed unions, thus President Van Buren wouldn't have issued an executive order setting a 10-hour workday for federal workers.

Growth of Cities on Canals- Kaelyn

1830 - Approx. 1839

Cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans grew rapidly in the 1830s because they were at junctions where goods were transferred between different types of transportation.

Change in Labor Ideology brought by the Formation of Unions- C. Smith

1834 - 1836

As unions formed, the perspective on labor changed. People began to see the negative effects of the extensive work week, and even more so the unfairness present in how contrasting the employers and employees lived. If Unions were not formed and a new perspective on labor had not been established, then the subjugation of workers without improving conditions would continue.

Cholera Breaks Out- Kaelyn

1849 - Approx. 1850

Poor immigrants were susceptible to disease due to crowded living conditions, ineffective sanitation systems and rampant poverty. In 1849 Cholera broke out in several large cities. If Cholera had not broken out, large cities may have become overpopulated, thus leading to a shortage of jobs and an increased number of unemployed.

Market Revolution- Leads to Construction of Railroads- C. Smith

1850 - Approx. 1860

During the 1850s, the railroads joined canals as the core of the national transportation system. The Market Revolution introduced new modes of transportation to be utilized in trade, and the railroad system was an effective way for goods to be shipped between the midwest and northeast; and would eventually make their way to international markets.

CH10

Indian Removal Act of 1830

1802 - 1830

Act that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Jackson insisted that his goal was to save the Indians and their culture. Indians resisted the controversial act, but in the end most were forced to comply. This act created the Indian territory on national lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.

States expand voting rights-kaelyn

1810 - Approx. 1819

If voting rights had not been expanded, notables would not have declined, and thus no new political parties would be formed.

War of 1812 and its Aftershocks on the Indians- C. Smith

Approx. 1812 - Approx. 1830

During the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson had forced the Creeks to relinquish millions of acres, but Indian tribes still controlled vast tracts and wanted to keep them. As a result, there was resistance brought forth by the Cherokee Indians, and even winning a court case against Georgia. If the War of 1812 and the Cherokee resistance to its events had not occurred, then the further assimilation of Indian peoples into American society may have occurred; thus forever changing frontier life. I would add this information to the Indian removal act, as these events were vital to its ratification.

Second Bank of the United States

1816 - 1834

The Second Bank of the United States was founded in Philadelphia in 1816. The bank was privately managed and operated under a twenty year charter from the federal government, which owned 20% of its stock. The bank's one, major role was to stabilize the nation's money supply, which consisted primarily of notes and bills or credit.

Election of 1824

1824 - 1828

The advance of political democracy in the states undermined the traditional notable-dominated system of national politics. This election had no candidates with an absolute majority, so the House of Representatives chose the president. Without this election, John Quincy Adams would have never been the last notable president.

Tariff of Abominations

1824 - 1828

A tariff enraged in the South, which produced the world's cheapest raw cotton and did not need to protect its main industry. The tariff cost southern planters. They had to buy higher cost American textiles and iron goods which enriched northeastern businesses and workers, and payed the expenses of the national government.

Adams Becomes President- Kaelyn

1824 - 1828

If Adams had not been elected, he would not have been able to endorse the American System, thus Jackson may not have tried to become the next president to change things.

John Quincy Adams Becomes President

1829 - 1837

Adams called for bold national action. He endorsed Henry Clay's American system with the three main elements: protective tariffs to stimulate manufacturing, federally subsidized roads and canals to facilitate commerce, and a national bank to control credit and provide a uniform currency.

Jacksonian Presidency-Kaelyn

1829 - 1837

If Jackson had not been president, then would not have created the rotation in office, thus the Bank War would not have happened.

Jackson's Bank Veto- C. Smith

1832

I would add Jackson's bank veto to the "Second Bank of the United States" post. Jackson turned the tables on Clay and Webster by declaring that Congress had no constitutional authority to charter a national bank. If Andrew Jackson had not vetoed the bank, then it most likely would have been renewed early by its supporters, thus he may not have obtained victory in the 1832 election. I would add this information to the Second Bank of the United States, as its downfall was vital to the Jacksonian Era.

Bank War

1833 - 1836

Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States. The bank war escalated into an all out political battle. Jackson declared that his reelection represented the decision of the people against the bank. When the bank's national charter expired in 1836, Jackson prevented its renewal.

Trail of Tears- C. Smith

1835 - 1838

In 1835, American officials and a minority Cherokee faction negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which specified that Cherokees would resettle in Indian Territory. Along the way, 3,000 Indians died of starvation and exposure. I would include the Trail of Tears in your post, as it pertains to the Indian removal act and lead to the future mistreatment of Indians across the nation as migration lead to westward areas.

Panic of 1837- Specie Circular- C. Smith

1836 - 1837

The Panic of 1837 encompassed the extreme struggles of citizens across America. Because of overprotective tariffs and the Specie Circular, the Panic of 1837 was able to grip the people. Many people blamed the Democratic Party for the depression of 1837-1843. They criticized Jackson for destroying the Second Bank and directing the Treasury Department in 1836 to issue the Specie Circular; an executive order that required the Treasury Department to accept only gold and silver in payment for lands in the national domain. Critics charged that the circular drained so much specie from the economy that it sparked the Panic of 1837. In the end, the curtailing of credit by the Bank of England was the main cause of the panic. I would add these factors to the Panic of 1837. If these factors had not occurred, then the Panic of 1837 may not have occurred; thus changing the outcome of the future election.

Panic of 1837

1837 - 1843

Second major crisis of the United States. The Bank Of England tried to boost the faltering British economy by sharply curtailing the flow of money and credit to the United States. Lead to hard times for many merchants and workers in the United States.

Mayor of NY vs Miln-Kaelyn

1837

If this case had not happened, there would be no effort to enhance regulatory power of the state, thus Marshall’s interpretation may have been applied.

CH11

Mother Ann and the Shakers- Christian Smith

1770 - 1784

To add to Stacy's post on the "Formation of the Shakers", Anna Lee Stanley led followers to America and established a church near Albany, New York. She had a vision that she was an incarnation of Christ. After her death in 1784, the Shakers honored her as the Second Coming of Christ, withdrew from the "profane" world, and formed disciplined religious communities. Were it not for Mother Ann, the Shaker communities would not have been established; thus utopian communities that reflected the Shakers' core values would not have been established in the future.

Response to Formation of Fourierists- Christian Smith

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1840

I would also add that to formation of Fourierism was a result of the slowed growth of Shaker communities. Without the formation of fourierist communities, socialist ideas that liberated workers from capitalist employers would not have been established; thus future communities and even nations would have different institutions that supported socialism.

Formation of the Shakers

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1840

If Americans had not grown dissatisfied with their lifestyles, then they wouldn't have sought to create utopias (Shakers embraced common ownership of property), thus no creation of the Fourierists.

Response to Formation of Mormons-Christian Smith

Approx. 1822 - Approx. 1832

The formation of mormon communities led to the to the development of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Beyond that, the development of Mormon communities connected American settlers in the northeast to the lands in the west. Without the formation of these communities, religious independence and multiple utopian ideas would not have been developed; thus improving overall American society.

Violent Responses from African Americans

Approx. 1827 - 1830

In the 1790s if African Americans in the North hadn't advocated a strategy of social uplift, encouraging free blacks to elevate themselves, then Samuel D. Cornish wouldn't have published the first African newspaper, thus no violent responses after 1827 by black in the North when whites in northern cities did not accept blacks as equals.

Formation of the Fourierists

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1840

If the Shakers' growth had never slowed during the 1840s, then the Fourierists wouldn't have been created (socialists ideas of liberating workers from capitalists employers to a slavish like system), thus no creation of the Oneidians.

Creation of Transcendentalism

1832 - 1850

Transcendentalism was an intellectual movement that celebrated the liberation of the individual. If Emerson had not thought highly of individualism, then no transcendentalism would have been created, thus no Utopian societies would have been formed.

Creation of Underground Railroad

Approx. 1835 - Approx. 1838

if abolitionists hadn't turned to mass communication (steam powered press to print their anti-slavery campaign), then the underground railroad wouldn't have been established, thus the American Anti Slavery society wouldn't have had Resistance to Civil Government created.

Underground Railroad- Christian Smith

1835 - 1838

To reply to the post "Violent responses from African Americans", the Underground railroad served African Americans and sparked so much change that ultimately lead to a civil war. If the Underground Railroad had not been established by countless caring citizens across America, then countless African Americans would not have been saved and migrated to the northern states; thus a shift in population composition would not have occurred in the northern states.

Formation of the Oneidians

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1850

If the Fourierists had not rapidly declined, then there would have been no creation of the Oneidians (perfectionists would believed Christ had already returned to Earth and the people could aspire to sinless perfection in their earthly lives), thus no formation of mormonism.

Formation of Mormons

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1860

If religious beliefs from Oneidians had not triggered new religious ideas, the Mormons would have never been formed (religious tradition that believed in a world on wonders, supernatural powers, and visions of the divine), thus no such religion as Mormonism in the world today.

CH12

Domestic Slave Trade

1790 - Approx. 1860

If the domestic slave trade never took place, then the coastal and inland slave systems would have never been created, thus no major depressing impact on blacks (individually) and on their marriages and families.

Domestic Slave Trade Reply- Christian Smith

1810 - Approx. 1860

I would also add to the domestic slave trade topic the creation of the task system. The task system allowed for slaves to complete a task or goal for the day, and if completed, they received the rest of the day to rest or tend to their own personal fields. Without the creation of the task system, slaves would not have received as many freedoms, thus they may not have been emancipated.

Inland Trade System

Approx. 1812 - Approx. 1850

If the inland system had not been created, then slave owners wouldn't have sold slaves to other slaves owners, thus having no way to make a new profit or to climb out of debt.

Coastal Trade System

Approx. 1812 - Approx. 1850

If the coastal system had never been created, then slave owners wouldn't have found male slaves for hard labor in sugar fields, thus a lower production rate in sugar for the south.

Mississippi Becomes Slave State

1817

If the federal government had not played a role in the expansion, then Mississippi would not have become a slave state, thus white planters would not have imported enslaved laborers from Africa.

Alabama Becomes Slave State

1819

If the federal government had not played a role in the expansion, then Alabama would not have become a slave state, thus white planters would not have imported enslaved laborers from Africa.

Alabama Constitution

1819

If the Alabama Constitution had not been created, then suffrage would not have been granted to all white men, thus no secret ballot.

African American Worship Reply- Christian Smith

1820 - 1845

I would add the powerful religious preservation of African religion through dance to your posts. African Americans expressed their Christianity in distinctive ways. The thousands of blacks who joined the Methodist church respected its ban on profane dancing but praised the Lord in what minister Henry George Spaulding called the “religious dance of Negroes”. Without the ingenious ways African Americans developed to worship, African religion would not have been preserved in the Americas; thus they would have fully assimilated into American society.

The Settlement of Texas Reply- Christian Smith

Approx. 1821 - Approx. 1835

I would also add to your list of events the settlement of Texas. The coastal and domestic slave trade sparked an economic boom in southern plantations and agricultural economy. The boom in these institutions lead to the settlement of western lands, including Texas. If the boom in coastal and domestic slave trade did not occur, the westward movement of citizens and the issue of admitting new states would not have been as complicated.

Taxation Policy

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1850

If Alabama Democrats wanted to win the votes of taxpaying slave owners, then they had to advocate limited government and lower taxes, thus having to attack Whig parties for favoring their higher taxes and providing more government support.

Emergence of the Planter Elite Reply- Christian Smith

1840 - Approx. 1865

I would add to the newly formed statehood of Alabama post. I would add that the emergence of the planter elite did in fact contribute to the induction of alabama as a state and the migration of poor citizens to Alabama. Poor citizens migrated to Alabama because of Alabama's tax system, which taxed wealthy citizens more than poor citizens.