Worley Unit 4 1800-1846 Group 3



Samuel Slater opens spinning mill in Providence Rhode Island


The spinning mill was the jump start to the American Industrial Revolution. If Samuel Slater had not come to America and opened thee spinning mill, the Industrial Revolution might have been delayed, thus America would industrially be behind Britain.

Protection of National Markets by Congress- C. Smith

Approx. 1815 - Approx. 1828

As canals and railways linked the nation, international trade increased exponentially over the years. As American markets became stronger, the government protected them with Tariffs that set prices equal to that of Britain. If these tariffs had not been passed, then companies would not have been protected, thus British companies would have had more economic success.

Tariff Bills Passed by Congress

1816 - 1828

Congress passed tariff bills in 1816, 1824 and 1828 that taxed imported cotton and wool cloth. If congress had not passed these tariff bills, then American goods would not have been able to compete with British goods, thus America would have been in an economic crisis because no one would by American goods.

Erie Canal is Built

1817 - 1825

If the Erie Canal would not have been built, then many towns would not have developed as quickly and industrially we wouldn't have many advantages on Britain because many factories ran off of steam power from water provided by canals, thus a slower industrial growth in America.

Women Join the Work Force

1820 - Approx. 1825

If women had not taken textile jobs, then they would have less working and wage rights that were gained by working women unions, thus a less free America.

Division of labor-Stacy

1820 - 1860

This is a system of manufacture that divides production into a series of distinct and repetitive tasks performed by machines or workers. If the division of labor had not been created, then production of goods wouldn’t have increased, thus no decrease in prices of goods produced.

The Rise of the Business Elite- As a Result of Division of Labor- C. Smith

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1839

The Division of Labor allowed for businesses to become so efficient. Eventually, it lead to an assembly line and produced interchangeable parts at a faster rate. The large output of goods at a lower price by wealthy merchants allowed for even more wealth to flow in. Unfortunately for the merchant's workers, their wages decreased; thus widening the gap between the upper and lower class.

Waltham-Lowell System- C. Smith

Approx. 1822 - Approx. 1839

The Waltham-Lowell System introduced a great number of women into the workforce. Without the assurance of their well-being to their parents, many women would not have been allowed to work in textile mills and factories; thus wages would not have dropped so much from the influx of women working for lower wages.

Free workers form unions-Stacy

1825 - 1840

Workers strong sense of identity, enabled workers to form unions. Workers resented low wages and long hours, which restricted their family life and educational opportunities. They also wanted to improve working conditions. If workers had not developed a strong sense of identity, then they wouldn’t have formed unions, thus President Van Buren wouldn’t have issued an executive order setting a 10-hour workday for federal workers.

General Union for Promoting the Observance of Christian Sabbath

1828 - Approx. 1830

Lyman Beecher promotes Sabbath Observance, he and other protestant ministers founded the General Union for Promoting the Observance of Christian Sabbath. If this Union had not been created, then religious freedoms would have been restricted, thus many Christians would have to give up their religion or become unemployed which would dramatically increase unemployment or dramatically decrease Christianity in America.

Congress Reduces Tariffs

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1835

Congress reduced tariffs on imported goods. If tariffs would not have gone down, then the South would have not been able to afford many manufactured goods, thus reducing the economic growth of factories.

Temperance Movement-Stacy

1832 - 1845

The American Temperance society set out in 1832 to curb the consumption of alcohol. It's nationwide campaign employed revivalist methods-group confession and prayer, and emotional conversion. If the American Temperance society hadn't been formed, then drinking wouldn't have been cured by self discipline, thus the average drinking rate annually wouldn't have changed from 5 to 2 gallons.

Increase in immigration-Stacy

1840 - 1860

Cultural diversity was the result of a vast wave of immigration. Between 1840 and 1860 about 2 million Irish, 1.5 million Germans, and 750,000 Britons came to America. If so many immigrants had not come to America, then cultural diversity wouldn't have occurred, thus the United States wouldn't have gained more skilled workers.

Immigration and Cultural Conflict Resulting from the Potato Famine and the "Self-Made Man" idea- C.Smith

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

Irish Immigrants flocked to the United States, fleeing a famine caused by overpopulation. Irish immigrants mostly settled in the cities of New England and New York. Most took low paying jobs, and as a result between cultural/religious differences between the catholics and the protestants, cultural conflict ensued. In fact, there was even open warfare between Protestants and the Pennsylvania militia. Even as the American economic revolution attracted millions of European immigrants, it divided society along lines of ethnicity and religion as well as class. The idea that anyone could rise to the top was also appealing to many immigrants.

Cholera Breaks Out


Poor immigrants were susceptible to disease due to crowded living conditions, ineffective sanitation systems and rampant poverty. In 1849 Cholera broke out in several large cities. If Cholera had not broken out, large cities may have become overpopulated, thus leading to a shortage of jobs and an increased number of unemployed.


States expand voting rights

1810 - Approx. 1819

If voting rights had not been expanded, notables would not have declined, and thus no new political parties would be formed.

Cherokee Nation vs Georgia 1831 - War of 1812 and Indian Removal Act- C. Smith

1812 - 1831

During the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson had forced the Creeks to relinquish millions of acres, but Indian tribes still controlled vast tracts and wanted to keep them. As a result, there was resistance brought forth by the Cherokee Indians, and even winning a court case against Georgia. If the War of 1812 and the Cherokee resistance to its events had not occurred, then the further assimilation of Indian peoples into American society may have occurred; thus forever changing frontier life. I would add this information to the Indian removal act, as these events were vital to its ratification. I would add this information to the court case of Cherokee Nation vs Georgia, as the factors that took place in the war of 1812 and the Indian removal acts shortly afterwards laid down the issues argued within the Cherokee Nation V Georgia court case.

Indian Removal Act-Stacy

1816 - 1834

Act that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Jackson insisted that his goal was to save the Indians and their culture. Indians resisted the controversial act, but in the end most were forced to comply. This act created the Indian territory on national lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.

Adams becomes President

1824 - Approx. 1828

If Adams had not been elected, he would not have been able to endorse the American System, thus Jackson may not have tried to become the next president to change things.

Second Bank of the United States-Stacy

1824 - 1828

The Second Bank of the United States was founded in Philadelphia in 1816. The bank was privately managed and operated under a twenty year charter from the federal government, which owned 20% of its stock. The bank’s one, major role was to stabilize the nation’s money supply, which consisted primarily of notes and bills or credit.

Election of 1824


If the Election of 1824 had not have been dominated by modern political parties designed to get votes out of as many people as possible, the notable would not have declined, thus John Quincy Adams would not have been the last notable president.

Jacksonian Presidency- Veto of Second Bank- C. Smith

Approx. 1828 - Approx. 1832

I would add Jackson’s bank veto to the “Jacksonian Presidency” post. Jackson turned the tables on Clay and Webster by declaring that Congress had no constitutional authority to charter a national bank. If Andrew Jackson had not vetoed the bank, then it most likely would have been renewed early by its supporters, thus he may not have obtained victory in the 1832 election. I would add this information to the Jacksonian Presidency post, as its downfall was vital to the Jacksonian Era and ultimately his election.

Jacksonian Presidency

1829 - 1837

If Jackson had not been president, then would not have created the rotation in office, thus the Bank War would not have happened.

Tariff of Abominations-Stacy

1829 - 1837

A tariff enraged in the South, which produced the world’s cheapest raw cotton and did not need to protect its main industry. The tariff cost southern planters. They had to buy higher cost American textiles and iron goods which enriched northeastern businesses and workers, and paid the expenses of the national government.

Jacksonian Presidency Reply- Trail of Tears/ Anti-Indian Policy- C. Smith

1830 - Approx. 1834

In 1835, American officials and a minority Cherokee faction negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which specified that Cherokees would resettle in Indian Territory. Along the way, 3,000 Indians died of starvation and exposure. I would include the Trail of Tears in your post pertaining to the "Jacksonian Presidency", as it pertains to the Indian removal act and lead to the future mistreatment of Indians across the nation as migration lead to westward areas. Jackson could attribute his victory as a "self-made man" of the people by siding with the settlers in relocating Indians. This is part of why John Quincy Adams was not reelected, because the majority of American settlers sought for more land and prosperity by any means necessary; and Adams valued morals over money; unlike Jackson.

Revision of State Constitutions- Laissez faire policies- C. Smith

1830 - Approx. 1860

Inspired by Jackson and Taney, Democrats in the various states mounted their own constitutional revolutions. Between 1830 and 1860, twenty states called conventions that furthered democratic principles by reapportioning state legislatures on the basis of population and giving the vote to all white men. Voters also had more power because the new documents mandated the election, rather than the appointment, of most public officials, including sheriffs, justices of the peace, and judges. I would add these state constitutional revisions to the Jacksonian Presidency, as Jackson and Taney inspired these democratic changes.

Cherokee Nation vs Georgia 1831


If the Cherokee had not taken a stance against Indian Removal, then their independence would not have even been considered, thus, Americans would have felt even more ok about moving the Natives out of their way.

Mayor of NY vs Miln


If this case had not happened, there would be no effort to enhance regulatory power of the state, thus Marshall's interpretation may have been applied.

Panic of 1837


If it had not happened, then the labor movement would not have been eviscerated, thus there would have been more jobs.

Bank War-Stacy

1837 - 1843

Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States. The bank war escalated into an all out political battle. Jackson declared that his reelection represented the decision of the people against the bank. When the bank’s national charter expired in 1836, Jackson prevented its renewal.


Response to Formation of Oneidians- Christian Smith

Approx. 1770 - Approx. 1784

To add to Stacy’s post on the “Formation of Oneidian communities”, the formation of other utopian communities, such as the Shakers, also contributed to American society. Anna Lee Stanley led followers to America and established a church near Albany, New York. She had a vision that she was an incarnation of Christ. After her death in 1784, the Shakers honored her as the Second Coming of Christ, withdrew from the “profane” world, and formed disciplined religious communities. Were it not for Mother Ann, the Shaker communities would not have been established; thus utopian communities that reflected the Shakers’ core values would not have been established in the future.

Formation of the Shakers-Stacy

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1840

If Americans had not grown dissatisfied with their lifestyles, then they wouldn’t have sought to create utopias (Shakers embraced common ownership of property), thus no creation of the Fourierists.

Joseph Smith Publishes the Book of Mormon


If Smith had not done this, then there would not be a large amount of attention drawn to the Mormons, thus there would not have been such an intense hatred for Mormons.

Transcendentalism Emerges

1832 - Approx. 1832

If Emerson had not brought about Transcendentalism, then many of the other religious and Utopian societies would not have emerged, thus a less diverse America.

Formation of the Fourierists-Stacy

Approx. 1832 - Approx. 1850

If the Shakers’ growth had never slowed during the 1840s, then the Fourierists wouldn’t have been created (socialists ideas of liberating workers from capitalists employers to a slavish like system), thus no creation of the Oneidians.

Response to Transcendentalism-Christian Smith

Approx. 1832 - Approx. 1840

The founder of transcendentalism, as discussed in the post I am replying to, is undoubtedly Ralph Waldo Emerson. Without the ideas of Ralph Waldo Emerson, countless utopian communities and ideas for societal improvements would not have been established; thus restraining the progress of the nation.

Underground Railroad Response- Christian Smith

Approx. 1835 - Approx. 1840

To reply to the post regarding the creation of the Underground Railroad: The Underground railroad served African Americans and sparked so much change that ultimately lead to a civil war. If the Underground Railroad had not been established by countless caring citizens across America, then countless African Americans would not have been saved and migrated to the northern states; thus a shift in population composition would not have occurred in the northern states.

Mormons move to Illinois

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1850

If Smith had not moved the Mormons out of Missouri and into Nauvoo, then the Mormons would have possibly all been killed by mobs like Joseph Smith, thus much of the western frontier would have been left unsettled.

Creation of the Underground Railroad-Stacy

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1850

if abolitionists hadn’t turned to mass communication (steam powered press to print their anti-slavery campaign), then the underground railroad wouldn’t have been established, thus the American Anti Slavery society wouldn’t have had Resistance to Civil Government created.

Brook Farm Begins


Brook Farm was one of the first attempts at a utopia in America, if it had not been tried, then many other Utopias such as the Shakers would not have been attempted, thus a less diverse America.

Brook Farm is Disbanded


If Brook Farm had not failed, then there would have been way more attempts for a Utopian society in America, thus leading to a push toward perfection.

Response to Mormon Migration to Illinois- Christian Smith

Approx. 1846 - Approx. 1856

Discrimination due to foreign or unusual ideas was common in the Americas at this time, and still remains so. Led by Brigham young, about 6,500 Mormons fled the United States. Beginning in 1846, they crossed the Great Plains into Mexican territory and settled in the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah. Without the formation of Mormon communities and their migration across the nation; other communities would fail to follow suit and establish independence in areas acceptable to their culture.

Resistance to Civil Disobedience


If Thoreau had not written his book, then there wouldnt have been a spark of civil disobedience to unjust laws, which would result in a lot less violence because the people wouldn't act out against what they didn't agree with.

Formation of the Oneidians-Stacy

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1860

If the Fourierists had not rapidly declined, then there would have been no creation of the Oneidians (perfectionists would believed Christ had already returned to Earth and the people could aspire to sinless perfection in their earthly lives), thus no formation of mormonism.

Leaves of Grass


If Whitman had not written his book, then he wouldnt have started the idea of writing about human suffering with passion, thus he wouldn't have helped start a new era in the literary world.


Domestic Slave Trade Reply- Christian Smith

Approx. 1810 - Approx. 1860

I would also add to the Boom in Cotton topic the creation of the task system. The task system allowed for slaves to complete a task or goal for the day, and if completed, they received the rest of the day to rest or tend to their own personal fields. Without the creation of the task system, slaves would not have received as many freedoms, thus they may not have been emancipated.

Louisianna Becomes a Enters as a Slave State


If Louisianna had not entered as a slave state, then the surrounding slave states would have probably attacked it and tried to change it, thus creating a divided nation.

Mississippi Enters as a Slave State


If it had not become a slave state, surrounding slave states would have persectuted it and hated it and probably attacked it , thus creating a national divide.

Alabama Enters as a Slave State


If it had not become a slave state, surrounding slave states would have persectuted it and hated it and probably attacked it , thus creating a national divide.

Alabama Consitution


If it had not been written, then the idea of secret voting would not have spread and there would be a small percentage of voters in the state, thus possibly changing the outcome of many issues that were voted on such as taxes and slavery.

Free Black population increases in the North

1820 - 1829

If this had not happened, many low skill jobs wouldn't have been taked by Blacks thus white northerners would not have as much hatred toward blacks.

Free Black Population increase Reply- Christian Smith

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1845

I would add the powerful religious preservation of African religion through dance to your posts. African Americans expressed their Christianity in distinctive ways. The thousands of blacks who joined the Methodist church respected its ban on profane dancing but praised the Lord in what minister Henry George Spaulding called the “religious dance of Negroes”. Without the ingenious ways African Americans developed to worship, African religion would not have been preserved in the Americas; thus they would have fully assimilated into American society.

Alabama Enters as a Slave State Reply- Christian Smith

Approx. 1821 - Approx. 1835

I would also add to your list of events the settlement of Texas. The coastal and domestic slave trade sparked an economic boom in southern plantations and agricultural economy. The boom in these institutions lead to the settlement of western lands, including Texas. If the boom in coastal and domestic slave trade did not occur, the westward movement of citizens and the issue of admitting new states would not have been as complicated.

Reply to Mississippi Enters as a Slave State- Christian Smith

1821 - 1835

I would also add to your list of events the settlement of Texas. The admittance of Mississippi as a slave state added to the heated battle between the north and south. The boom in slavery lead to the settlement of western lands, including Texas. If the boom in coastal and domestic slave trade did not occur, the westward movement of citizens and the issue of admitting new states would not have been as complicated.

Taxation Policy-Stacy

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1850

If Alabama Democrats wanted to win the votes of taxpaying slave owners, then they had to advocate limited government and lower taxes, thus having to attack Whig parties for favoring their higher taxes and providing more government support.

Slave Society-Stacy

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1850

If this wouldn’t have happened the South wouldn’t have had direct contact with slaves, thus, less debates over the morals of slavery would have happened.

Boom in cotton production

1830 - 1839

If this had not happened, the cotton gin would not have been needed and slavery would not have decreased.

Battle of the Alamo-Stacy


The Alamo was the 1836 defeat by the Mexican army of the Texan garrison defending the Alamo in San Antonio. Newspapers urged Americans to “Remember the Alamo,” and American adventurers lured by fifers of land grants, flocked to Texas to join the rebels.
Had the Battle of Alamo not occurred, then many Americans would not have flocked to Texas to join the rebels and eventually gain independence for Texas from Mexico, thus not creating the issue of annexation of the territory to the Union due to the possibility of a civil war.

American Rebels Proclaim the independance of Texas

March 2, 1836

If Texas had not broken off from Mexico, then it wouldn't have become a slave state in the south, thus taking a strong and large amount of power away from the south.

Planter Elite-Stacy

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

If this wouldn’t have occurred, then the elites might have taken over the whole South region, thus, slavery would have been very difficult to abolish at all, anywhere.