Hadley Unit 4 1800-1846 Group 1


CH 9

2nd Great Awakening- Ian Hamilton

1790 - 1850

This was a Protestant Revival Movement during the early 19th Century of the United States. The ideas thought were that every person could be saved through revivals. Membership began increasing after 1820 among Baptist and Methodist Congregations. Charles Grandison Finney played a large role in the revival as well. He promoted mans moral free agent which claimed all men could claim salvation. If the 2nd Great Awakening had not happened then moral reforms would not have happened, thus allowing people to drink whenever they wanted and not having curfews.

Invention of the Cotton Gin - Grace Dima


The Cotton Gin was a simple machine that separated the seeds in a cotton boll from the delicate fivers, work previously done slowly by hands (usually done by slaves). Because this almost tripled the efficiency of cotton production, it greatly increased the southern planters demands for slaves.

If the cotton gin had not been invented, then the demand for slaves in the south would not have increased, thus not creating such a large social conflict over slavery between the north and the south, thus limiting the possibility of a civil war.

Better Machines

1800 - Approx. 1820

The industrialization era brought on complications no one would have thought. Business owners always were looking for more efficient ways of producing. New machines were beginning to come to America that often came from Britain. For example, the textile plant was built in Massachusetts, which was the first American factory to be able to perform all clothmaking operations under one roof. Also, the under the influence of the Transportation Revolution, new innovations like the Steamboat arrived making the transportation of goods quicker and more efficient. SmaLL machines invented to help agriculture included M'Cormick's Reaper and the Cotton Gin. If new Machines wouldn't have been invented and built, then the Industrial Revolution and the Market Revolution wouldn't have been such a big deal. Farmers and manufacturers could only sell as fast as they produced, and new innovations helped them produce more than ever.

Creation of the Erie Canal

1817 - 1825

The Erie Canal took a while to complete, but was reasonable considering it was 40 ft. wide and 365 miles long. The thing that sparked the building of the Erie Canal was that even on well-built gravel roads, overland travel was still way too slow and expensive. The creation of the Erie Canal got great support from the New York legislature's and New York merchants. If the Erie Canal wouldn't have been built, then farmers wouldn't have prospered as much and manufacturers wouldn't have been able to ship clothing, boots, and agricultural equipment to farm families as easy.

Transportation Revolution

Approx. 1819 - Approx. 1870

Reduced prices of land caused millions of people to new territories west of the Appalachians. In order to be able to link the Midwestern settlers to the seaboard states, Congress approved funds for a National Road that soon sparked ideas for other transportation. Next came the Erie Canal which was the longest waterway to connect the Hudson River and Lake Erie. Railroads were another technological innovation, not as popular, but was getting there. By 1860, the main carriers of wheat and freight from the Midwest to the Northeast was trains. If the Transportation Revolution never occurred, then products still would take a while to get from one place to another. Also, people wanted to move, thus without the Transportation Revolution, it wouldn't have been possible.

Division of Labor and the Factory

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1850

(Can be Social and Economical) Ideas of manufacturing spread across the Nation. One of these new ideas was Division of Labor. Manufacturers created a new type of factory which spread out the production of products amoung different people. For example, semiskilled journeymen were set up in large shops cutting leather into soles for shoes. Then they sent to rural towns where women sewed in fabric linings. Then other journeymen attached the soles to the other parts of the shoe and sent it to be packed and shipped. This more efficient system increased output and cut the price of shoes and boots. Some products wouldn't be able to be shipped from place to place, like hog carcasses, so a new type of factory was also created where a huge assembly line happened under one roof. It depended on the product but both types of factories had impressive technology and boosted the economy. If the Division of Labor and the Factory wouldn't have happened, then less amounts of products wouldn't have been able to produce thus less factories being built and the abundance of jobs wouldn't have existed.

Market Revolution

1820 - 1860

The Market Revolution provided a new connection with Northeastern companies and Midwestern companies. Ways to get products to buyers increased and massive systems of canals and roads linking states along the Atlantic coast with new states in the trans-Appalachian west came about. If the Market Revolution had not happened, then new transportation of products wouldn't have been possible and it would reduce trade inside and outside of American colonies. Also, if the Market Revolution had not taken place, then America wouldn't have become such an industrializing society.

Temperance Movement Ian Hamilton

1820 - 1830

The Temperance Movement was a movement in which the Temperance Society tried to rid the consumption of alcohol from people because people were abusing the amount of alcohol they drank. If the Temperance Movement had not occurred then people would not have stopped abusing alcohol, thus people would be drunk and crime and other problems would still be highly participated in.

Benvolent Empire Ian Hamilton

1820 - 1830

The Benevolent Empire was a 19th century religious movement that had the idea of creating a christian nation. The Movement had a commitment for social reform by the middle-class and upper-class. If the Benevolent Empire had not occurred then people would not see drinking like they were as a bad thing, thus they would continue to drink and do as they pleased and the temperance movement would not have happened. The nation would have much more crime as well due to the excessive drinking.

Women in the Work Force

1820 - Approx. 1850

We begin to see women introducing themselves into the work force in the 1820's with the Division of Labor. It began small, as women sold items out of their homes, as a step in the making of different products like clothing and shoes. Later, women began to work in factories which made people nervous because they didn't want to loose Republican Motherhood. Women were treated very well in factories including curfew, but soon rules became loose and women started to form unions as well as men. Starting in 1828, women mill workers went on strike and winning some relief and also, women operatives backed a strike by withdrawing their savings from an employer-owned bank. If Women in the Work Force wouldn't have happened, then social and political freedoms wouldn't have been associated with women and women wouldn't have many working rights thus, leading to a Nation still run mostly my just men.

Formation of Unions (Men and Women)

1825 - Approx. 1850

The Formation of Unions in the Nation began in 1825 protesting for low wages that the resented and also long hours, which restricted their family life and educational opportunities. This is seen throughout time, leading up to even some women unions that even won some relief. If workers had not won the right to unionize then unions wouldn't have existed. If they didn't unionize it would cause business owners to have too much power which would get workers to quit. If Unions would have been more effective, then so many workers wouldn't have quit, thus not creating job openings for foreign immigrants to take.

Mineral-Based Economy Introduced - Grace Dima


The mineral-based economy was an economy based on coal and metal rather than water and steam power.

If the mineral-based economy had not developed, then factories would have been reliant on water sources to support them, thus not allowing for factories to move away from water sources and expanding industry westward.

Nativist Movements Ian hamilton

1840 - 1850

The Nativist Movement was the opposition to immigration. This led to immigration restriction policies against Germans and Irish immigrants, and other immigrants as well. If this had not happened then the immigration policies would not have been established, thus allowing anyone to immigrate to the United States which would cause americans to be angry due to the overcrowding and the taking of jobs.

Commonwealth vs. Hunt - Grace Dima


Commonwealth vs. Hunt was a court case overturned common-law precedents and upheld the right of workers to form unions and call strikes to enforce closed-shop agreements that limited employment to union members.

If the courts had not issued unions legal, then employers would have had complete control over their workers, thus forcing them to work in harsh conditions with very little pay while they continued to get rich from the company's profits without having to pay taxes.

Potato Famine - Grace Dima

1845 - 1852

The Potato Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland. Many of the Irish people immigrated to America in search of work and religious freedom and to escape disease.

If the Potato Famine had not occurred, then thousands of Irishmen would not have immigrated to America and taken America jobs in the workplace and would not have brought Catholicism, thus lessening the amount of conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics and keeping higher working wages because there would be less workers available for jobs and would have prevented nativism movements.

CH 10

Expanding Voting Rights

1810 - 1819

Now, more people were involved with voting as voting rights became more loose. This changed the tradition of notable presidents. New parties came about and politics were changed. If this didn't happen, then Notable Presidents would have remained in office, and no parties would have came about in the new political time.

The Tariff Battle

1816 - Approx. 1825

The majore battle of the Adams administration came over tariffs. The Tariff of 1816 had placed high duties on imports of cheap cloth. In 1824, Adams and Clay secured a new tariff that protected New England and Pennsylvania manufacturers from more expensive woolen and cotton textiles and also English iron goods. Many states refused these tariffs that later gets into Nullification problems but if these tariffs didn't exsist, British imports would have domnated the market, thus, significantly inhibiting American industrial development.

The Bank Conflicts (Second Bank)

1816 - Approx. 1830

The Second Bank of the United States was set up to stabilize the nations money supply, but didn't really work. The Second Bank had many enemies, but a political "miscalculation" is what brought its downfall, by people who supported it. Jackson held to his guns about the national bank and around 1833, the Bank was "destroyed". If this wouldn't have happened, then small banks would have either gone out of business or merged to make just a few big national banks, thus, making it more difficult for people to deal with money.

Indian Removal/Trail of Tears

Approx. 1820 - Approx. 1840

White voices throughout the South and Midwest demanded the resettlement of Indian people west of the Mississippi River. This was because people wanted the last bit of land Indians had left. Many Indians were furious because in order to live where they were, they had adopted white ways. Soon, Jackson made it official with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.This created the Indian Territory on national lands that were acquired in the Louisiana Purchase and located in present day Oklahoma and Kansas. When some Indians had not moved by the deadline in 1838, the people left were marched 1200 miles to the new land for them known as the Trail of Tears. Many Indians died on this journey of starvation and exposure. If this wouldn't have happened, then Indians would have still lived all over America, thus, creating less space for factories and living space for whites.

The Corrupt Bargain of 1824 - Grace Dima


The corrupt bargain was a term used by Andrew Jackson's supporters for the appointment by President John Quincy Adams of Henry Clay as his secretary of state. Clay had used his influence as Speaker of the House to elect Adams rather than Jackson in the election in 1824.

If the corrupt bargain had not happened, then Jackson and Clay would not have hated each other so much, thus lessening the possibility that Clay would try to trick Jackson into vetoing the extension of the Second Bank of the United State's charter which was part of a plan to split the democratic party, but rather strengthened Jackson's presidency.

Election of 1824 Ian hamilton


The election of 1824 was where 5 republican candidates ran for the United States Presidency. They were soon narrowed down to Andrew Jackson and John Adams. John Adams did not receive the most votes but was still able to win. If John had not won the presidency then the House of Representatives would not have been used to determine the president, thus they would be determined by the popular vote.

John Quincy Adams becomes president Ian Hamilton

1825 - 1829

John Quincy Adams beat out Jefferson to become the President of the United States. This was an odd election because John had not won the popular vote and was elected by the House of Representatives. He encouraged the Native Americans to stay on their land and supported the National Bank. If this had not happened then John Quincy Adams would not have become president thus jefferson would not have been angry and fought so hard to become the president in the next election.

Tariff of Abominations Ian Hamilton

1828 - 1832

This is the tariff that occurred in 1828, that hurt the south and benefited the north. This benefited the north because it protected it against the monopolies of Britain. The south became enraged because they did not need this new protection since they were producing cotton and had basically a monopoly ran through it. If this had not happened then the south would have been a much stronger and would not have lost money, thus they would not have shifted the blame on John Quincy Adams and he may have won a second term.

Election of 1828 Ian hamilton


This election was a bit different than the previous election in 1824. Candidates were now using newspapers and word of mouth to campaign for themselves. The amount of people that voted went up to about 50 percent. If this had not happened then there would have been no campaigning for the candidates, thus people would not be knowledgeable on them.

Nullification Problems (Green or Red)

1828 - 1833

People warned that tariffs endangered the unions but for a while government didn't do anything. Soon the people adopted an Ordinance of Nullification declaring the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 to be null and void. This finally caught the governments attention and they hoped to find an "in-between". The states had to follow the tariffs but they were lowered. Many believed that this compromise was basically dodging a bullet because states not following laws could have ended badly. If the Tariffs wouldn't have been lowered, then the states would have ignored the government and not followed the tariffs, thus, the government would loose a lot of control.

The "Jacksonian"-Presidency

1830 - 1839

When President Jackson was in office, many big events happened. If he would have never been president, then the Second bank would have been still standing, thus, making sort of a "monopoly" of banks, and small banks would go out of business.

Force Bill of 1833 - Grace Dima


The Force Bill stipulated that the president could, if he deemed it necessary, deploy the U.S. Army to force South Carolina to comply with the law.

If the nullification of South Carolina had not happened, then Congress would not have passed the Force Bill at Jackson's request, thus Abraham Lincoln may not have been able to defend the Union during the secession of 1861 because he used the Force Bill in his strategy.

Formation of the Whig Party - Grace Dima


The Whig Party was the second national party that arose when a group of congressmen contested Andrew Jackson's policies and conduct. The party identified itself with the pre-Revolutionary American and British parties - also called Whigs - that had opposed the arbitrary actions of the British monarchs.

If the Whig Party had not formed, then strategic campaigning taxes such as denouncing opposing candidates and allowing women to join campaign festivities may not have existed, thus changing the outcome of elections due to lack of propaganda advertising the candidates from each party. This propaganda helped the Whigs get John Tyler elected into presidency.

Martin Van Buren's Presidency - Grace Dima

1836 - 1840

Martin Van Buren was Jackson's appointed successor, but faced great competition from the four candidates from the Whig Party for votes. The Whigs plan did not succeed in preventing his election, but he only got 51% of the popular vote, and did not get reelected in 1840. The Panic of 1843 was a major factor in his presidency.

If Van Buren would have revoked the Specie Circular and taken action to stimulate the economy, then more Americans would have supported him in the election of 1840, thus possibly getting him reelected and lessening the influence of the Whig Party, who was able to get John Tyler elected in 1840.

The Panic of 1837

1837 - Approx. 1845

The Panic of 1837 caused the American economy to fall into a very deep depression. By 1843, canal construction had dropped by 90%, prices and wages had fallen by 50%, and unemployment in seaports and industrial centers had reached 20%. If this wouldn't have happened, then unemployment wouldn't have been such an issue, thus, more stable incomes would have been available making the economy stronger.

CH 11

Rise of Urban Populations - Grace Dima

1800 - 1840

The great rise in population in cities such as Philadelphia, New Orleans, and New York caused great changes in urban popular culture.

If the population had not risen in urban cities, then many young men and women would not have flocked to the cities in search of adventure and fortune, only to find a hard life. Thus not forcing young women, who were too proud to work as domestic servants or accept subsistence wages, to turn to prostitution and also changing the sexual freedom of young adults in America.

The Underground Railroad

1810 - 1850

The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century slaves of African descent in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. If the Underground Railroad had not happened, then there would not have been as many freed slaves, thus lessening the amount of people who spoke out against slavery.

Oneida is Formed Ian hamilton

1811 - 1886

This was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. He believed that all residents were married to each other. If this had not been created then the residents would not have followed the morals of before, thus adultery would probably have increased.


1820 - 1860

Thousands of Americans grew dissatisfied with life in America's emerging market society and retreated into rural areas of the Northeast and Midwest. There they sought to create idea communities know as utopias, that would allow people to live differently and realize their spiritual potential. If this would not have happened, then thousands of people wouldn't have poured into the cities of the United States, thus, sexual norms, reinforced traditional racist feelings, and encouraged new styles of dress and behavior wouldn't have happened.

Shakers Emerge Ian hamilton

1820 - 1840

Americans began feeling unhappy about how their lives were. They wanted more and sought for more. They began creating new groups such as the shakers and the fourierists. If this had not happened then utopias may have not been created, thus they would not have sought for land rights.

The religion of 'mormons'


Many social movements were being sparked, one of them being Mormonism, which emerged from religious ferment amoung gamilies of Puritan descent who lived along the Erie Canal. They believed in a world of wonders, supernatural powers, and visions of the divine. If the religion wouldn't have came about, then the world wide religion of Mormon belief we have today wouldn't be there thus, more people would have to resort to Christianity or something other.

Minstresly is formed ian hamilton

1830 - 1845

This was where people created plays in theatres to practice racism. If this had not taken place then racism may have been a little less of an issue, thus african americans would not have been looked down at.

Abolitionism Begins

Approx. 1830

The abolitionist crusade of the 1830s drew on the religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening. It was a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western European and America, abolitionism was a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. If this wouldn't have came about, then rebellions wouldn't have happened, thus slavery would continue.

Uprisings led by Nat Turner ian hamilton

1831 - 1832

Nat Turner was a slave in Virginia who created a major slave revolt. He was a slave, but had taught himself how to read and write. He created a revolt and killed 55 people including men, women and children. If this had not happened then slaves would have been able to learn to read and write still and it would not have created slave owners to become scared of blacks, thus the american anti slavery would not have been created either.

Transcendentalism Ideas


Transcendentalism was an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1832 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures. If this didn't happen, then Emerson wouldn't have been so influenced to write and be so open on his views, thus, less people would have been influenced by him to write.

Gag Rule - Grace Dima

1836 - 1844

The Gag Rule was a procedure in the House of Representatives by which antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received so that they could not become subject of debate.

If the gag rule did not exist, the the House would have been forced to discuss topics related to slavery sooner and make decisions regarding the future of slaves, thus quickly the process of emancipation and making the acts of the American Anti-Slavery Society more effective.

Married Women's Property Laws

1839 - 1845

Motives pertaining to financially irresponsible husbands, property rights, etc. prompted legislatures in Mississippi, Maine, and Massachusetts. Then women activists in New York won a comprehensive statute that became the model for fourteen other states. The New York statute of 1848 gave women full legal control over the property they brought to a marriage. If this didn't happen, then women wouldn't have a say in laws and regulations, thus, men would have more power in politics and social life.

American Renaissance - Grace Dima

1840 - 1860

The American Renaissance was a literary explosion during the 1840s inspired in part by Emerson's ideas on the liberation of the individual.

If the American Renaissance had not happened, then the idea of transcendentalism would not have spread throughout the country and inspired authors like Margaret Fuller to write her book, "Woman in the Nineteenth Century", thus lessening the inspiration and impact of women writers and reformers who fought for women's rights in America.

Improvement of Prisons and Public Hospitals - Grace Dima

1841 - 1854

Dorothea Dix began a national movement to establish state asylums for the mentally ill.

If Dorothea Dix had not worked to create better insane asylums and prisons, then not only would many patients and criminals have had to suffer through extremely harsh conditions, but other women reformers and teacher would not have been inspired to take a stance in the workplace, thus not allowing for as great of a representation of women in education.

Seneca Falls Convention

1848 - January 2, 1848

This convention issued a rousing manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Indpendence. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman". Held in Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20, 1848. If this wouldn't have happened, women wouldn't have had a say in the issues, thus, lessening women's role even more in politics.

CH 12

Republican Aristocracy Ian hamilton

1776 - 1850

This is where southerners began dressing and acting with more class. If this had not happened then there would not have been a separation in class, thus there would not be a lower and upper class.

The Emancipation North

Approx. 1800 - 1840

By 1840, gradual emancipation laws had stopped bound labor in the North (Slavery). The South still needed some work though. If African Americans had not been freed, then they would not have had the opportunity to influence and develop schools as well as fellowship groups which supported African Americans and their freedom, thus, not giving blacks any say in culture or society.

Domestic Slave Trade Ian Hamilton

1800 - 1850

This is where slaves were split up from their families and traded to other parts of southern states. If this had not happened then slaves would not have been split up from their families, thus people may not have opposed slavery quite as much.

Atlantic Slave Trade Outlawed - Grace Dima


In 1807, Congress outlawed the Atlantic Slave Trade which was many southern planters main source of acquiring slave labor.

If the Atlantic Slave Trade had not been outlawed, then southern planters would have continued buying slaves from across the Atlantic, thus not allowing for the formation of domestic slave trade in America such as the coastal trade and the inland system.

Development of Secret Ballot


The Alabama Constitution of 1819 granted suffrage to all white men; it also provided for a secret ballot,rather than voice-voting; apportionment of legislative seats based on population; and the election of county supervisors, sheriffs, and clerks of court. If this wouldn't have happened, then people would be pressured to vote as others did, thus, the correct decision on taxation policy's, etc. wouldn't have been possible.

Alabama Constitution of 1819 - Grace Dima


The Alabama Constitution of 1819 granted suffrage to all white men, thus diminishing the power held by the planter aristocrats.

If the Alabama Constitution of 1819 had not been adopted, then the planter aristocrats would have held almost all the power in the state, thus not allowing taxation on slaves and causing an even more deprived life for poor freemen because they would face the consequences of not having taxes on slaves.

Black Protestantism Emerges - Grace Dima


Black Protestantism is a form of Protestantism that was devised by Christian slaves in the Chesapeake and spread to the Cotton South as a result of the domestic slave trade. It emphasized the evangelical message of emotional conversion, ritual baptism, communal spirituality, and the idea that blacks were "children of God" and should be treated accordingly.

If black protestantism had not emerged, then the slave society would not have shared such a homogenous culture, thus not allowing for organized, passive revolts against the slave owners and men like Bishop Richard Allen would not have developed churches that preached against slavery.

The Adoption of the Gang-Labor System - Grace Dima

1820 - 1850

Gang-labor systems were systems of work discipline used on southern cotton plantations in the mid-nineteenth century in which white overseerers or black drivers supervised gangs of enslaved laborers to achieve greater productivity. Slaves no longer had any free time and were banned from growing their own crops.

If the gang-labor system had not been adopted, then the task system would have been more universal among slaves in America, thus allowing slaves to grow their own crops and live a happier lifestyle thus lessening the number of slave uprisings and passive aggressive acts.

Free Africans numbers increase in North Ian Hamilton

1820 - 1829

The north was not nearly the supporter of slavery as the south was. This resulted in many slaves being freed in the north causing them to take low skilled jobs. If this had not happened then africans would not have been free, thus they would not have claimed the unskilled jobs.

Disagreements on Texas Ian hamilton

1821 - 1835

There were many different thoughts on Mexico. If this had not happened then there would not be disagreements over texas and mexicans and americans would not dislike each other.

Necessary Evil to Positive Good

Approx. 1830

Southern apologists in the 1830s argued that the institution was a positive good because it subsidized an elegant lifestyle for a white elite and provided tutelage for genetically inferior Africans. If this would have not happened, then more people would doubt slavery, thus, slavery might have been abolished sooner.

Cotton Becomes Popular

1830 - 1840

Cotton becomes one of the main crops in America which majorly increased the want for slaves. This is also why there was many African Americans migrating because they were being sold to plantations. If this had not happened then increased slavery would not have happened, thus African Americans would not have had to be torn apart from families to be sold.

If the cotton boom had been extremely profitable for planters, then thousands of slaves would not have been bought from the Upper South and transported to the Deep/Cotton South, thus not separating blacks from their families and creating a new branch of Southern Aristocracy in the form of Cotton Entrepreneurs.

Slave Society

1830 - 1850

The South was a society in which the institution of slavery affected all aspects of life. Most white southerners didn't own slaves though. Slave society was basically a society where the fundamental class conflict is based on the division of people into masters and slaves, with slaves being the dominant producing class, and ownership over this complete commodification of the human being controlled by masters. If this wouldn't have happened the South wouldn't have had direct contact with slaves, thus, less debates over the morals of slavery would have happened.

The Battle of the Alamo


The Battle of the Alamo was the defeat by the Spanish army of the Texan garrison defending the Alamo in San Antonio. Americans big saying about it was "Remember the Alamo." The battle also raised more people to support the rebels. If the Battle of Alamo didn't happen, then many Americans would not have flocked to Texas to join the rebels and then soon gain independence from Mexico, thus not making the issue of annexation of the Union.

The Dual Cultures of the Planter Elite

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

The westward movement split the plantation elite into two distinct groups: the traditional aristocrats of the Old South, whose families had gained their wealth from tobacco and rice, and the upstart capitalist inclined planters of the cotton states. If this wouldn't have occurred, then the elites might have taken over the whole South region, thus, slavery would have been very difficult to abolish at all, anywhere.