Hamilton Unit 4 1800-1846 Group 1

CH 10

Expanding Voting Rights -Dylan Hadley

1810 - 1819

More people were involved with voting as voting rights became more loose. More people were allowed to vote if they were white and payed taxes. This changed the tradition of notable presidents. New parties came about and politics were changed. If this didn't happen, then Notable Presidents would have remained in office, and no parties would have came about in the new political time.

Expansion of the Franchise - Grace Dima

1810 - 1830

The expansion of the franchise dramatically symbolized the Democratic Revolution. By the 1830s, most states allowed nearly all white men to vote.

If suffrage in America had not expanded, then white men who did not own land or did not pay taxes could not vote, thus drastically changing the outcome of elections and the freedoms of Americans because voters would be limited to white wealthy landowners only.

Second Bank of the United States - Grace Dima

1816 - 1834

The Second Bank of the United States was a national bank with multiple branches charted in 1816 for twenty years. Intended to help regulate the economy, the bank became a major issue in Andrew Jackson's reelection campaign in 1832, causing the Bank War.

If Henry Clay and Daniel Webster had not persuaded Nicholas Biddle to seek an early extension of the bank's charter, then Jackson would not have declared that Congress had no constitutional authority to charter a national bank, thus lessening the support for him by the Democrats, and not giving him such a dramatic win against his competitor, Henry Clay, in the election of 1832.

Election of 1824

1824

This is one of the most interesting elections that our nation has had. This is the election in which Andrew Jackson received the majority of the votes, but did not receive an absolute majority of the votes. He was then beat out by John Quincy Adams. If this had not occurred then Jackson would have become president, thus the democratic party would not have been in presidency.

Act of Nullification

1828 - 1833

This is where South Carolinans disliked the tariffs and nullified them. This wiped out the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. If this had not happened then the high tariffs would remain and they would continue to abide by them, thus the southerners may have been stronger and more stable.

Election of 1828

1828

The Election of 1828 is where candidates began campaigning through newspapers, and word of mouth which had been done previously. They also added that a president would be elected through the popular vote system. If this had not happened then the presidents would have no way of campaigning themselves to citizens, but by word of mouth. They would also be elected by the government instead of the citizens, thus the president elections would not be a reflection of the citizens wants, and the president wouldn't campaign.

Tariff of Abomination

1828 - 1832

This is a tariff that occurred in 1828. This tariff made the southerners very angry. The South was the main producers of the cotton and this hurt them very bad. The North needed the governments protection, but the south did not. If this had not happened then the Southern Planters would not have lost money and would be thriving and be very strong, thus they would have been able to win Civil War and slaves would still be used.

Jacksonian Presidency - Grace Dima

1829 - 1837

Andrew Jackson used his popular mandate to transform the policies of the national government and the definition of presidency.

If Andrew Jackson had not become president, then the executive branch would not be as strong, the mercantilist and nationalist American System would not have been destroyed, and would not have established a new ideology of limited government, thus not for a laissez faire style government, and potentially giving more power to the federal government.

Indian Removal Act of 1830

1830

Andrew Jackson was not very kind to the Native Americans. He supplied them with land and some money, but was very malicious and used force when they were removed. If this act had not been enacted then the indians would still be living in the east, thus the indians would still be living in the east and the trial of tears would not have occurred.

Second Bank Removed

1833

Andrew Jackson was not a firm believer in having a national bank. He also was able to destroy the national bank as well. He took their gold and silver and distributed among the states to destroy them. If this had not had happened then the banks would still be thriving, thus people would have not received the gold and silver coins.

Whig Party Developed -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1834

The Whig Party was the second national party that came about in the United States. They named it "Whigs" because of American and British parties that didn't like the actions/rules of the British kings. If this didn't happen then voters wouldn't have been able to have a "party" thus, the old way of voting would continue.

Panic of 1837

1837

This is where the England Bank stopped the cash and credit from coming to the United States. If this had not occurred then the United States would not have been cut off of the cash and credit by Britain, thus they would have had no panic and the economy would remain the same.

Depression of 1837-1843 - Grace Dima

1837 - 1843

The Panic of 1837 was the first major economic crisis of the United States. Farmers and planters faced an abrupt 30% drop in world agricultural prices, and as farmers' income declined, they could not pay debts owed to stares and banks, many of which went bankrupt. It caused a severe depression that lasted until 1843.

If the Panic of 1837 had not happened, then the workers' movement would not have been thrown into disarray, thus allowing the goals of the Working Men's Party (such as abolition private banks and chartered monopolies, and the demand for universal education) to proceed much sooner and preventing future financial crisis like the Depression.

The Trail of Tears -Dylan Hadley

1838 - 1839

As part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died. This really showed what measures we would go to, just to have some more land. If this didn't happen, then the Indians still would have had their land, thus, less land for factories and homes.

The idea of "Log Cabin" Campaigns -Dylan Hadley

1840 - 1846

1840, the Whigs organized a National Convention. The outcome was the Nomination of Harrison for President and John Tyler for Vice President. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster wanted a new type of President who would "rubber stamp" the programs of tariffs and the national bank. The Log Cabin Campaign was the first time parties competed for votes through different ways of campaigning. Some even held parades. If this new idea didn't happen then more men wouldn't have voted thus, Harrison wouldn't have been voted into Presidency.

CH 11

Rise of Urban Population - Grace Dima

1800 - 1840

The great rise in population in cities such as Philadelphia, New Orleans, and New York caused great changes in urban popular culture.

If the population had not risen in urban cities, then many young men and women would not have flocked to the cities in search of adventure and fortune, only to find a hard life. Thus not forcing young women, who were too proud to work as domestic servants or accept subsistence wages, to turn to prostitution and also changing the sexual freedom of young adults in America.

Underground Railroad

1810 - 1850

The Underground Railroad was a secret service that helped free slaves from slavery. The volunteers were whites against slavery and free blacks. If this had not existed then thousands of slaves would have remained enslaved and would not have been freed, thus allowing slavery to continue to thrive and slaves would have continued receiving their poor treatment.

Oneida is formed

1811 - 1886

This was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. He believed that all residents were married to each other. If this had not been created then the residents would not have followed the morals of before, thus adultery would probably have increased.

Shakers emerge

1820 - 1840

Americans began feeling unhappy about how their lives were. They wanted more and sought for more. They began creating new groups such as the shakers and the fourierists. If this had not happened then utopias may have not been created, thus they would not have sought for land rights.

Utopias -Dylan Hadley

1820 - 1860

Thousands of Americans grew dissatisfied with life in America's emerging market society and retreated into rural areas of the Northeast and Midwest. There they sought to create idea communities know as utopias, that would allow people to live differently and realize their spiritual potential. If this would not have happened, then thousands of people wouldn't have poured into the cities of the United States, thus, sexual norms, reinforced traditional racist feelings, and encouraged new styles of dress and behavior wouldn't have happened.

Abolition Begins -Dylan Hadley

1830

The abolitionist crusade of the 1830s drew on the religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening. It was a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western European and America, abolitionism was a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. If this wouldn't have came about, then rebellions wouldn't have happened, thus slavery would continue.

The Book of Mormon

1830 - 1855

The Mormon religion emerged from families of Puritan descent and lived along the Erie Canal. The founder of the Mormon religion was Joseph Smith Jr. He was born in a poor family who worked as farmers and shoe keepers. He published the Book of Mormon and claims that he translated it from gold plates that was shown to him by an angel. If this had not happened then the mormon religion would not have existed today, thus wiping out a religion that is practiced by many today.

Uprisings led by Nat turner

1831 - 1832

Nat Turner was a slave in Virginia who created a major slave revolt. He was a slave, but had taught himself how to read and write. He created a revolt and killed 55 people including men, women and children. If this had not happened then slaves would have been able to learn to read and write still and it would not have created slave owners to become scared of blacks, thus the american anti slavery would not have been created either.

Transcendentalism Ideas Begin -Dylan Hadley

1832

Transcendentalism was an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1832 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures. If this didn't happen, then Emerson wouldn't have been so influenced to write and be so open on his views, thus, less people would have been influenced by him to write.

Gag rule is adopted

1836 - 1844

Whites began vandalizing african americans churches, temperance halls, and orphanages. Andrew Jackson asked Congress to restrict the abolitionists mail. Congress did not comply, but adopted this gag rule and this kept slavery off of the congress's table. If this had not happened then blacks would not have remained slaves for nearly as long, thus they would have become free and violence acts may not have occurred as frequently.

Married Women and New Property Laws -Dylan Hadley

1839 - 1845

Motives pertaining to financially irresponsible husbands, property rights, etc. prompted legislatures in Mississippi, Maine, and Massachusetts. Then women activists in New York won a comprehensive statute that became the model for fourteen other states. The New York statute of 1848 gave women full legal control over the property they brought to a marriage. If this didn't happen, then women wouldn't have a say in laws and regulations, thus, men would have more power in politics and social life.

American Renaissance - Grace Dima

1840 - 1860

The American Renaissance was a literary explosion during the 1840s inspired in part by Emerson's ideas on the liberation of the individual.

If the American Renaissance had not happened, then the idea of transcendentalism would not have spread throughout the country and inspired authors like Margaret Fuller to write her book, "Woman in the Nineteenth Century", thus lessening the inspiration and impact of women writers and reformers who fought for women's rights in America.

Improvement of Prisons and Public Hospitals - Grace Dima

1841 - 1854

Dorothea Dix began a national movement to establish state asylums for the mentally ill.

If Dorothea Dix had not worked to create better insane asylums and prisons, then not only would many patients and criminals have had to suffer through extremely harsh conditions, but other women reformers and teacher would not have been inspired to take a stance in the workplace, thus not allowing for as great of a representation of women in education.

The Seneca Falls Convention

1848

This is where the manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Independence occurred. If this had not happened then womens rights would have not grown and have been heard nearly as much if at all, thus decreasing their activeness in politics.

CH 12

Republican Aristocracy

1776 - 1850

This is where southerners began dressing and acting with more class. If this had not happened then there would not have been a separation in class, thus there would not be a lower and upper class.

Domestic Slave Trade

1800 - 1850

This is where slaves were split up from their families and traded to other parts of southern states. If this had not happened then slaves would not have been split up from their families, thus people may not have opposed slavery quite as much.

Atlantic Slave Trade Outlawed - Grace Dima

1807

In 1807, Congress outlawed the Atlantic Slave Trade which was many southern planters main source of acquiring slave labor.

If the Atlantic Slave Trade had not been outlawed, then southern planters would have continued buying slaves from across the Atlantic, thus not allowing for the formation of domestic slave trade in America such as the coastal trade and the inland system.

Secret Ballot -Dylan Hadley

1819

The Alabama Constitution of 1819 granted suffrage to all white men; it also provided for a secret ballot,rather than voice-voting; apportionment of legislative seats based on population; and the election of county supervisors, sheriffs, and clerks of court. If this wouldn't have happened, then people would be pressured to vote as others did, thus, the correct decision on taxation policy's, etc. wouldn't have been possible.

Alabama Constitution

1819

This new constitution allowed all white men, and provided a secret ballot that was appointed based on population. If this had not happened then not as many people would be able to vote, thus the voting would be based on a much smaller percentage of people.

Black Protestantism Emerges - Grace Dima

1820

Black Protestantism is a form of Protestantism that was devised by Christian slaves in the Chesapeake and spread to the Cotton South as a result of the domestic slave trade. It emphasized the evangelical message of emotional conversion, ritual baptism, communal spirituality, and the idea that blacks were "children of God" and should be treated accordingly.

If black protestantism had not emerged, then the slave society would not have shared such a homogenous culture, thus not allowing for organized, passive revolts against the slave owners and men like Bishop Richard Allen would not have developed churches that preached against slavery.

Free Africans numbers increase in the North

1820 - 1829

The north was not nearly the supporter of slavery as the south was. This resulted in many slaves being freed in the north causing them to take low skilled jobs. If this had not happened then africans would not have been free, thus they would not have claimed the unskilled jobs.

The Adoption of the Gang-Labor System - Grace Dima

1820 - 1850

Gang-labor systems were systems of work discipline used on southern cotton plantations in the mid-nineteenth century in which white overseerers or black drivers supervised gangs of enslaved laborers to achieve greater productivity. Slaves no longer had any free time and were banned from growing their own crops.

If the gang-labor system had not been adopted, then the task system would have been more universal among slaves in America, thus allowing slaves to grow their own crops and live a happier lifestyle thus lessening the number of slave uprisings and passive aggressive acts.

Disagreements on Texas

1821 - 1835

There were many different thoughts on Mexico. If this had not happened then there would not be disagreements over texas and mexicans and americans would not dislike each other.

Slave Society -Dylan Hadley

1830 - 1850

The South was a society in which the institution of slavery affected all aspects of life. Most white southerners didn't own slaves though. Slave society was basically a society where the fundamental class conflict is based on the division of people into masters and slaves, with slaves being the dominant producing class, and ownership over this complete commodification of the human being controlled by masters. If this wouldn't have happened the South wouldn't have had direct contact with slaves, thus, less debates over the morals of slavery would have happened.

Necessary Evil to a Postitive Good -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1830

Southern apologists in the 1830s argued that the institution was a positive good because it subsidized an elegant lifestyle for a white elite and provided tutelage for genetically inferior Africans. If this would have not happened, then more people would doubt slavery, thus, slavery might have been abolished sooner.

Lawyers become influential in southern politics - Grace Dima

1830

Lawyers acquired wealth by managing the affairs of the slave-owning elites, representing planters and merchants in suits for debt, and helping smallholders and tenants register their deeds and contracts. They regularly won election into public office.

If lawyers had not such a great influence in politics, then many of the slave-owners would have suffered taxes on slaves like the planters in Alabama, thus hurting their profits and giving the non-slave owning farmers more influence in politics.

Cotton Production Increases

1830 - 1839

Cotton was in very high demand during this time. Cotton was very hard for slaves because it had such a long growing season as well. The invention of the cotton gin helped cotton farmers to be able to produce much more cotton. If this had not happened then the cotton gin would not have been needed to be made, thus african americans would not have had to do such hard labor during these years.

Battle of the Alamo

1836

This was a major event in the Texas Revolution. The mexicans were led by President General Antonio López de Santa Anna. He led an assault and killed all of the Texian defenders. If this had not happened then many texian defenders would have not died thus President General Antonio López de Santa Anna's army would not have been destroyed as a later result.

Dual Cultures of the Planter Elite -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

The westward movement split the plantation elite into two distinct groups: the traditional aristocrats of the Old South, whose families had gained their wealth from tobacco and rice, and the upstart capitalist inclined planters of the cotton states. If this wouldn't have occurred, then the elites might have taken over the whole South region, thus, slavery would have been very difficult to abolish at all, anywhere.

CH 9

Development of Social Classes and Culture

1790 - 1861

Industrial revolution and the market Revolution improved the lives of many Americans, who now lived in larger houses, cooked on iron stoves, and wore better made clothes.The new economic order spawned distinct social classes; a small but wealthy business elite, a substantial middle class, and a mass propertyless wage earners. If the new social classes had not been developed then the culture would remain the same throughout the country. Thus leaving the American ideas the same.

2nd Great Awakening - Grace Dima

1790 - 1850

The Second Great Awakening was the unprecedented religious revival that spey the nation. It proved to be a major impetus for the reform movement of the era. Charles Grandison Finney played a large role in this reform by promoting man’s “moral free agent” which claimed all humans could choose salvation. Lyman Beecher was also important because he promoted the Benevolent Movement which encouraged moral behavior in Americans.

If the Second Great Awakening had not happened, then the Temperance Movement, Benevolent Empire, and other moral reforms would not have occurred, thus allowing for abused alcohol consumption and no asylums for insane people.

Market Revolution

1793 - 1909

This was a major change in the United States on how manual labor was conducted. There was a change in how goods were now processed and how labor was organized to process trade goods for consumption. I believe the market revolution is also the expansion of the market through canals as well. If the Market Revolution had not occurred then we would still be using the same organizational and processing of goods. Thus we would not be as expanded and would still be using the same methods we were before.

Development of Machine Tools

1793 - 1860

There were many developments of machines like the development of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney. The cotton gin aloud workers to pluck the seeds out of cotton at a much faster rate than anyone could do without the cotton gin. This led to the major increase in both slaves and land. Eli also invented interchangeable parts which greatly affected the Us Military and our weaponry system. It aloud us to take parts from one gun and use them on another gun. If the Development of Machine Tools had not taken place then our country would not have gained new tools or technology. Thus our country would have no new tool or technology and the Industrial Revolution would not have as great of effect on our country.

Invention of the Cotton Gin - Grace Dima

1793

The Cotton Gin was a simple machine that separated the seeds in a cotton boll from the delicate fivers, work previously done slowly by hands (usually done by slaves). Because this almost tripled the efficiency of cotton production, it greatly increased the southern planters demands for slaves.

If the cotton gin had not been invented, then the demand for slaves in the south would not have increased, thus not creating such a large social conflict over slavery between the north and the south, thus limiting the possibility of a civil war.

Transportation Revolution

1807 - 1912

The developments of the Canals and Steamboats was a major contribution to the Transportation Revolution. If this had not been developed then Employers would not be able to sell their goods to as many people and would lose money. Thus Employers would not have as much money and the economy would also fall.

Construction of the Erie Canal

1819 - 1825

The Erie Canal was essential for merchants and farmers to transport their goods on. The Erie Canal is in New York, it runs from the Lake Erie to the Hudson River in the East. If the Erie Canal had not been built then farmers and merchants would not be able to transport their goods to their various locations as fast. Thus the Erie Canal was essential for the farmers and goods to transport their goods, because they did not have the time or money to transport them by horses on turnpikes. It was also a much cheaper way to ship goods and even helped other states decide to build canals.

Waltham-Lowell System

1820 - 1830

This was a system that helped ensure parents that their daughters would be strict rules that they must follow. They were required to regularly attend church, were not allowed to drink alcoholic beverages and were forced to have a strict curfew. If this had not been implemented then the Women most likely would not have been able to work. Thus causing the companies to be forced to hire men which were much more costly

Benevolent Empire -Dylan Hadley

1820 - 1830

The idea of a Benevolent Empire started in the 1820's and can be described as ideas and campaignes of moral reforms as well as institutional reforms which were much inspired by Christians. If the Benevolent Empire was not set up, then the government would not have been "restored by God”, thus alcohol would have never been a problem and the Temperance movement wouldn't have happened.

Temperance Movement - Grace Dima

1820 - 1830

The Temperance Movement was led by the American Temperance Society and the goal was to curb the consumption of alcoholic beverages because it was being heavily abused. These goals were inspired by the moral ideals that the Second Great Awakening preached.

If the Temperance Movement would not have happened, then thousands of Americans would not have pledged to abstain from alcohol, thus causing more social conflicts, such as excessive crime which was common in poor neighborhoods.

Free Workers form Unions

1822 - 1835

Unlike Women Men were not happy at all at being a wageworkers. They began using the Dutch word boss to refer to their Employer. This shows that If the unions had not been formed then the employers would have kept the working conditions, and wages the same, because no one would have complained. Thus if the workers had not formed Unions they still would be unhappy and in the same working conditions from day to day.

Immigrants raise competition for jobs -Dylan Hadley

1840 - 1860

Cultural diversity was the result of a fast wave of immigration. Immigrants were Irish, German, and Britain. They settled mostly in the cities of New England and New York. If this wouldn't have happened, then the lack of jobs wouldn't have been an issue, thus, less poor people. Also, if this didn't happen, less hatred of Catholics would have been because so many immigrants were Catholic.

Commonwealth verses Hunt -Dylan Hadley

1842

The court case of Commonwealth vs. Hunt was a case was over the right to unionize. Labor unions were found to be legal. If this had not happened then unions would not have existed, thus causing working conditions to get even worse and employee rights would be diminished.

Potato Famine - Grace Dima

1845 - 1852

The Potato Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland. Many of the Irish people immigrated to America in search of work and religious freedom and to escape disease.

If the Potato Famine had not occurred, then thousands of Irishmen would not have immigrated to America and taken America jobs in the workplace and would not have brought Catholicism, thus lessening the amount of conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics and keeping higher working wages because there would be less workers available for jobs and would have prevented nativism movements.

Women Enter the Workforce -Dylan Hadley

1960

Women in the workforce earning wages or a salary are part of a 'modern' period, one that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men; yet women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce. Until modern times, legal and cultural practices, combined with the longstanding religious and educational differences, restricted women's entry and participation in the workforce. If women wouldn't have joined the work force, then families would have relied on just the man's salary to support them, thus, the classes of rich, middle, and poor wouldn't have been established as definite as they were.