Dima Unit 4 1800-1848 Group 1

CH 9

Industrial Revolution ian hamilton

1790 - 1860

Goods that were once of high quality had now become normal goods. Improvements to the turnpikes and the developments of canals and steamboats had helped disperse the goods across the nation. If the Industrial Revolution had not occurred then we may not have been able to ship our goods as quickly and may not have used boats, thus making our economy much weaker.

2nd Great Awakening

1790 - 1850

The Second Great Awakening was the unprecedented religious revival that spey the nation. It proved to be a major impetus for the reform movement of the era. Charles Grandison Finney played a large role in this reform by promoting man's "moral free agent" which claimed all humans could choose salvation. Lyman Beecher was also important because he promoted the Benevolent Movement which encouraged moral behavior in Americans.

If the Second Great Awakening had not happened, then the Temperance Movement, Benevolent Empire, and other moral reforms would not have occurred, thus allowing for abused alcohol consumption and no asylums for insane people.

Invention of the Cotton Gin Ian Hamilton

1793

The cotton gin was a revolutionary machine that seperated the seeds from the cotton. It was much more efficient than the slaves were and much quicker as well. If the cotton gin had not been developed cotton would not have boomed in demand, thus there would not have been a demand for slaves.

Social Classes Emerge Ian Hamilton

1800 - 1860

This is the time period in which American lives really improved. If there had not been a change in social classes then people would still be not prospering, thus the self made man would have not occurred as well as the different social classes.

Construction of the Erie Canal

1817 - 1835

The Erie Canal was a 364-mile waterway connecting the Hudson River and Lake Erie and was the first great engineering project in American history. The Erie Canal brought prosperity to the entire Great Lakes regions, and its benefits prompted civic and business leaders in Philadelphia and Baltimore to propose canals to link their cities to the Midwest.

If the Erie Canal had not been constructed, then New York and the Great Lakes regions would not have directly been connected, thus not allowing for as great of prosperity to the entire Great Lakes region and New York because goods would not have been able to be shipped as quickly and factories would not have been able to leave the east coast.

Temperance Movement

1820 - 1830

The Temperance Movement was led by the American Temperance Society and the goal was to curb the consumption of alcoholic beverages because it was being heavily abused. These goals were inspired by the moral ideals that the Second Great Awakening preached.

If the Temperance Movement would not have happened, then thousands of Americans would not have pledged to abstain from alcohol, thus causing more social conflicts, such as excessive crime which was common in poor neighborhoods.

Market Revolution

1820 - 1850

The Market Revolution was the dramatic increase in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. The Market Revolution reflected the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the creation of the transportation network of roads, canals, and railroads.

If the Market Revolution had not happened, then transportation networks would not have developed, thus decreasing the number of citizens in the Greater Mississippi River basin and the Midwest because federal land would not have been so affordable.

Benevolent Empire -Dylan Hadley

1820 - 1830

The "Benevolent Empire" started around 1820 and can be best described as many ideas and campaignes of moral reforms, as well as institutional reforms which were inspired by Christians a lot of times. If the Benevolent Empire was not set up, then the government would not have been "restored by God”, thus alcohol would have never been a problem within the states and the Temperance movement wouldn't have happened in attempt to regulate alcohol consumption

Introduction of the Division of Labor

1820 - 1830

The Division of Labor is a system of manufacture that divides production into a series of distinct and repetitive tasks performed by machines or workers. The system dramatically increased the output of companies and transformed from a rural output driven economy to a factory output driven economy.

If the division of labor had not been developed, then goods would not have been able to be produced as quickly and efficiently, thus greatly diminishing the amount of jobs, factories, and transportation systems, which would have not allowed the Market Revolution and wouldn't allowed America to compete with Britain in the textile industry.

Waltham- Lowell System Ian Hamilton

1820 - 1930

This is where the transition from farm girls to factory working girls. Americans wanted cheap labor and turned to women. If this had not occurred then women would not have gained the opportunity to work, thus they would not have gained rights and the economy would have declined.

Unions Form -Dylan Hadley

1825 - 1845

Unions began to form after they were legalized in 1842 after the court case commonwealth v. Hunt. In the United States, they protested for improved working conditions and more rights. If workers hadn't formed unions to go on strike then businesses wouldn't hear what the workers opinions were about their jobs, thus owners having more power over employees and causing immigrants to not take their spots for cheap labor over American citizens.

Nativist Movements

1840 - 1850

The Nativist Movement was a anti foreign sentiment in the United States that fueled anti-immigrant and immigration-restriction policies against the Irish and Germans and other ethnic immigrants in subsequent decades.

If the Nativist Movements had not happened, then immigration-restriction policies against the Irish and the Germans would not have been set in place, thus allowing massive number of immigrants to take Americans' jobs in the workplace.

High Immigration (raises competition for jobs)- Dylan Hadley

1840 - 1860

Cultural diversity was the result of a fast wave of immigration. Immigrants were Irish, German, and Britain. They settled mostly in the cities of New England and New York. If this wouldn't have happened, then the lack of jobs wouldn't have been an issue, thus, less poor people. Also, if this didn't happen, less hatred of Catholics would have been because so many immigrants were Catholic.

New Cultural Ideas and Differences -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1858

Immigration increased the demand and competition for jobs and it also increased the population in some states like New York. As the lower classes in society became more developed, a big culural idea came about called "the self-made mam". This was an idea that anyone could become wealthy in the higher class as long as they work hard. Most though, accepted jobs that payed minimal to get started. This sparked cultural differences with the Protestants and Catholics. The hatred of immigrants was turned about to religion. If these ideas and differences had not been brought out into society, then not as many people would have came to America because of the well appealing economy and culture. Thus, religious differences would have been minimal and culture would have been less-developed.

Potato Famine

1845 - 1852

The Potato Famine was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland. Many of the Irish people immigrated to America in search of work and religious freedom and to escape disease.

If the Potato Famine had not occurred, then thousands of Irishmen would not have immigrated to America and taken America jobs in the workplace and would not have brought Catholicism, thus lessening the amount of conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics and keeping higher working wages because there would be less workers available for jobs.

CH 10

Expanding Voting Rights -Dylan Hadley

1810 - 1819

More people were involved with voting as voting rights became more loose. More people were allowed to vote if they were white and payed taxes. This changed the tradition of notable presidents. New parties came about and politics were changed. If this didn't happen, then Notable Presidents would have remained in office, and no parties would have came about in the new political time.

Expansion of the Franchise

1810 - 1830

The expansion of the franchise dramatically symbolized the Democratic Revolution. By the 1830s, most states allowed nearly all white men to vote.

If suffrage in America had not expanded, then white men who did not own land or did not pay taxes could not vote, thus drastically changing the outcome of elections and the freedoms of Americans because voters would be limited to white wealthy landowners only.

Second Bank of the United States

1816 - 1834

The Second Bank of the United States was a national bank with multiple branches charted in 1816 for twenty years. Intended to help regulate the economy, the bank became a major issue in Andrew Jackson's reelection campaign in 1832, causing the Bank War.

If Henry Clay and Daniel Webster had not persuaded Nicholas Biddle to seek an early extension of the bank's charter, then Jackson would not have declared that Congress had no constitutional authority to charter a national bank, thus lessening the support for him by the Democrats, and not giving him such a dramatic win against his competitor, Henry Clay, in the election of 1832.

The Election of 1824 Ian Hamilton

1824

The election of 1824 was where 5 republican candidates ran for the United States Presidency. They were soon narrowed down to Andrew Jackson and John Adams. John Adams did not receive the most votes but was still able to win. If John had not won the presidency then the House of Representatives would not have been used to determine the president, thus they would be determined by the popular vote.

Presidency of John Adams

1824 - 1828

John Quincy Adams won the election of 1824 through what Jackson's supporters called a corrupt bargain. The corrupt bargain was the appointment by President John Quincy Adams of Henry Clay as his secretary of state, the traditional stepping-stone to the presidency. Clay had used his influence as Speaker of the House to elect Adams rather than Jackson in the election. Adams adopted the American System used by Clay.

If Adams had not become President, then the American System, which strengthened the Second Bank of the United States, would not have been in place, thus possibly diminishing the effects of the Panic of 1837.

Tariff of 1828

1828

Also known as a Tariff of Abominations, the Tariff of 1828 raised duties significantly on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods. Martin Van Buren hoped to win the support of farmers in New York, Ohio, and Kentucky with the tariff, but it enraged the South, which had no industries that needed tariff protection and resented the higher cost of imported duties goods.

If the tariff had not been passed during Adams' presidency, then the southerners who hated the tariff would not have heaped blame on President Adams, thus giving him a better chance at winning the election of 1828 against Jackson and changing the course of American Presidency in America.

Nullification Ian Hamilton

1828 - 1833

This is where the people adopted the idea of the Ordinance of Nullification. This is where the tariffs of 1832 and 1828 were voided and not followed. This angered Jefferson because he knew that the north would collapse if the tariffs were taken away. If the tariffs had not been lowered, then the states would still not abide by the tariffs, thus the government would have no control over people

Election of 1828 Ian Hamilton

1828

This election was a bit different than the previous election in 1824. Candidates were now using newspapers and word of mouth to campaign for themselves. The amount of people that voted went up to about 50 percent. If this had not happened then there would have been no campaigning for the candidates, thus people would not be knowledgeable on them.

Jacksonian Presidency

1829 - 1837

Andrew Jackson used his popular mandate to transform the policies of the national government and the definition of presidency.

If Andrew Jackson had not become president, then the executive branch would not be as strong, the mercantilist and nationalist American System would not have been destroyed, and would not have established a new ideology of limited government, thus not for a laissez faire style government, and potentially giving more power to the federal government.

Indian Removal Act

1830

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Jackson insisted that his goal was to save the Indians and their culture. Indians resisted the controversial act, but in the end, most were forced to comply.

If Jackson had not passed the Indian Removal Act, thousands of Indians would not have been forced to leave their homelands and relocate west, thus eliminating the Trail of Tears, the westward journey of the Cherokees from their lands in Georgia to Oklahoma, in which nearly a quarter of the Cherokees died en route.

Whig Party is Developed -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1834

The Whig Party was the second national party that came about in the United States. They named it "Whigs" because of American and British parties that didn't like the actions/rules of the British kings. If this didn't happen then voters wouldn't have been able to have a "party" thus, the old way of voting would continue.

Depression of 1837-1843

1837 - 1843

The Panic of 1837 was the first major economic crisis of the United States. Farmers and planters faced an abrupt 30% drop in world agricultural prices, and as farmers' income declined, they could not pay debts owed to stares and banks, many of which went bankrupt. It caused a severe depression that lasted until 1843.

If the Panic of 1837 had not happened, then the workers' movement would not have been thrown into disarray, thus allowing the goals of the Working Men's Party (such as abolition private banks and chartered monopolies, and the demand for universal education) to proceed much sooner and preventing future financial crisis like the Depression.

The Panic of 1837 Ian Hamilton

1837 - 1845

The Panic of 1837 was a panic that caused the nation to turn to turmoil. Unemployment had skyrocketed and the improvements to the transportation systems had been ceased. If this had not happened then the economy would have remained stable, thus people wouldnt have been homeless or jobless.

The Trail of Tears -Dylan Hadley

1838 - 1839

As part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died. This really showed what measures we would go to, just to have some more land. If this didn't happen, then the Indians still would have had their land, thus, less land for factories and homes.

The idea of "Log Cabin" Campaigns -Dylan Hadley

1840 - 1846

1840, the Whigs organized a National Convention. The outcome was the Nomination of Harrison for President and John Tyler for Vice President. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster wanted a new type of President who would "rubber stamp" the programs of tariffs and the national bank. The Log Cabin Campaign was the first time parties competed for votes through different ways of campaigning. Some even held parades. If this new idea didn't happen then more men wouldn't have voted thus, Harrison wouldn't have been voted into Presidency.

CH 11

Rise of Urban Population

1800 - 1840

The great rise in population in cities such as Philadelphia, New Orleans, and New York caused great changes in urban popular culture.

If the population had not risen in urban cities, then many young men and women would not have flocked to the cities in search of adventure and fortune, only to find a hard life. Thus not forcing young women, who were too proud to work as domestic servants or accept subsistence wages, to turn to prostitution and also changing the sexual freedom of young adults in America.

Underground Railroad

1810 - 1850

The Underground Railroad was an informal network of whites and free blacks in the South that assisted fugitive slaves reach freedom. It a tactic used by the American Anti-Slavery Society to free slaves.

If the Underground Railroad had not existed, then thousands of enslaved blacks would not have escaped, thus allowing more blacks to suffer brutal treatment by harsh slaveowners and lessening the number of free blacks in the North who could support the Anti-Slavery Society.

Oneida is Formed Ian Hamilton

1811 - 1886

This was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. He believed that all residents were married to each other. If this had not been created then the residents would not have followed the morals of before, thus adultery would probably have increased.

Shakers Emerge Ian hamilton

1820 - 1840

Americans began feeling unhappy about how their lives were. They wanted more and sought for more. They began creating new groups such as the shakers and the fourierists. If this had not happened then utopias may have not been created, thus they would not have sought for land rights.

Utopias -Dylan Hadley

1820 - 1860

Thousands of Americans grew dissatisfied with life in America's emerging market society and retreated into rural areas of the Northeast and Midwest. There they sought to create idea communities know as utopias, that would allow people to live differently and realize their spiritual potential. If this would not have happened, then thousands of people wouldn't have poured into the cities of the United States, thus, sexual norms, reinforced traditional racist feelings, and encouraged new styles of dress and behavior wouldn't have happened.

Abolition Begins -Dylan Hadley

1830

The abolitionist crusade of the 1830s drew on the religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening. It was a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western European and America, abolitionism was a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. If this wouldn't have came about, then rebellions wouldn't have happened, thus slavery would continue.

Joseph Smith publishes "The Book of Mormon"

1830

"The Book of Mormon" was published by Joseph Smith. He describes the special revelation of divine truth which he believed God had singled him out to receive. It was the birth of Mormonism.

If the "Book of Mormon" had not been published, then mormonism would not have developed, along with many anti-mormons who criticized the religion for its use of of polygamy, thus not condemning their practice to the territory of Utah which was forced the "forever" ban the practice of polygamy to become part of the Union.

Ministresly is Formed Ian Hamilton

1830 - 1845

This was where people created plays in theatres to practice racism. If this had not taken place then racism may have been a little less of an issue, thus african americans would not have been looked down at.

Uprisings led by Nat Turner

1831 - 1832

Nat Turner was a slave in Virginia who created a major slave revolt. He was a slave, but had taught himself how to read and write. He created a revolt and killed 55 people including men, women and children. If this had not happened then slaves would have been able to learn to read and write still and it would not have created slave owners to become scared of blacks, thus the american anti slavery would not have been created either.

Transcendentalism Ideas Begin -Dylan Hadley

1832

Transcendentalism was an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1832 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures. If this didn't happen, then Emerson wouldn't have been so influenced to write and be so open on his views, thus, less people would have been influenced by him to write.

Gag Rule

1836 - 1844

The Gag Rule was a procedure in the House of Representatives by which antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received so that they could not become subject of debate.

If the gag rule did not exist, the the House would have been forced to discuss topics related to slavery sooner and make decisions regarding the future of slaves, thus quickly the process of emancipation and making the acts of the American Anti-Slavery Society more effective.

Married Women Property Laws -Dylan Hadley

1839 - 1845

Motives pertaining to financially irresponsible husbands, property rights, etc. prompted legislatures in Mississippi, Maine, and Massachusetts. Then women activists in New York won a comprehensive statute that became the model for fourteen other states. The New York statute of 1848 gave women full legal control over the property they brought to a marriage. If this didn't happen, then women wouldn't have a say in laws and regulations, thus, men would have more power in politics and social life.

American Renaissance

1840 - 1860

The American Renaissance was a literary explosion during the 1840s inspired in part by Emerson's ideas on the liberation of the individual.

If the American Renaissance had not happened, then the idea of transcendentalism would not have spread throughout the country and inspired authors like Margaret Fuller to write her book, "Woman in the Nineteenth Century", thus lessening the inspiration and impact of women writers and reformers who fought for women's rights in America.

Dorothea Dix improves prisons and public hospitals

1841 - 1854

Dorothea Dix began a national movement to establish state asylums for the mentally ill.

If Dorothea Dix had not worked to create better insane asylums and prisons, then not only would many patients and criminals have had to suffer through extremely harsh conditions, but other women reformers and teacher would not have been inspired to take a stance in the workplace, thus not allowing for as great of a representation of women in education.

Seneca Falls Convention

1848

The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention in the United States. It resulted in a manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Independence.

If the Seneca Falls Convention had not happened, then the women's rights movement would not have grown as quickly in strength and purpose, thus delaying the proposition of laws that allowed married women to institute lawsuits, testify in court, and assume custody of their children in the event of divorce or a husband's death. Susan B. Anthony was an important advocate for women's rights. She secured a New York law granting women the right to control their own wages; to won property; and, if widowed, to assume sole guardianship of their children.

CH12

Republican Aristocracy Ian Hamilton

1776 - 1850

This is where southerners began dressing and acting with more class. If this had not happened then there would not have been a separation in class, thus there would not be a lower and upper class.

Emancipation in Northern States

1790 - 1840

By 1840, gradual emancipation laws had virtually ended bound labor in the North.

If blacks had not been free in the North, then men like Benjamin Banneker, Paul Cuffee, and Joshua Johnson (there were among the very few successful black men during this time) would not have have influenced the development of schools, mutual-benefit organizations, and fellowship groups which supported African Americans, thus not giving blacks a measure of cultural autonomy and keeping them as "slaves in the midsts of freedom".

Domestic Slave Trade

1800 - 1860

The Domestic Slave Trade emerged when the Atlantic Slave Trade was outlawed by congress. Slaves were transported across the country and were also inherited through generations due to the fact that they had no legal rights and were considered property.

If the Domestic Slave Trade had not happened, then thousands of slaves would not have been forced to leave their family behind and migrate across the country, thus resulting in a less dominant African-American culture because the blacks from many states would not have mingled and erased regional differences.

Cotton Boom

1800 - 1900

The cotton boom in America increased the need for slaves during a time when the supply of slaves limited due to the banning of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

If the cotton boom had been extremely profitable for planters, then thousands of slaves would not have been bought from the Upper South and transported to the Deep/Cotton South, thus not separating blacks from their families and creating a new branch of Southern Aristocracy in the form of Cotton Entrepreneurs.

Atlantic Slave Trade Outlawed

1807

In 1807, Congress outlawed the Atlantic Slave Trade which was many southern planters main source of acquiring slave labor.

If the Atlantic Slave Trade had not been outlawed, then southern planters would have continued buying slaves from across the Atlantic, thus not allowing for the formation of domestic slave trade in America such as the coastal trade and the inland system.

Secret Ballot -Dylan Hadley

1819

The Alabama Constitution of 1819 granted suffrage to all white men; it also provided for a secret ballot,rather than voice-voting; apportionment of legislative seats based on population; and the election of county supervisors, sheriffs, and clerks of court. If this wouldn't have happened, then people would be pressured to vote as others did, thus, the correct decision on taxation policy's, etc. wouldn't have been possible.

The Alabama Constitution of 1819

1819

The Alabama Constitution of 1819 granted suffrage to all white men, thus diminishing the power held by the planter aristocrats.

If the Alabama Constitution of 1819 had not been adopted, then the planter aristocrats would have held almost all the power in the state, thus not allowing taxation on slaves and causing an even more deprived life for poor freemen because they would face the consequences of not having taxes on slaves.

Free African Numbers increase in the North Ian Hamilton

1820 - 1829

The north was not nearly the supporter of slavery as the south was. This resulted in many slaves being freed in the north causing them to take low skilled jobs. If this had not happened then africans would not have been free, thus they would not have claimed the unskilled jobs.

The Adoption of the Gang-Labor System

1820 - 1850

Gang-labor systems were systems of work discipline used on southern cotton plantations in the mid-nineteenth century in which white overseerers or black drivers supervised gangs of enslaved laborers to achieve greater productivity. Slaves no longer had any free time and were banned from growing their own crops.

If the gang-labor system had not been adopted, then the task system would have been more universal among slaves in America, thus allowing slaves to grow their own crops and live a happier lifestyle thus lessening the number of slave uprisings and passive aggressive acts.

Disagreements on Texas Ian Hamilton

1821 - 1835

There were many different thoughts on Mexico. If this had not happened then there would not be disagreements over texas and mexicans and americans would not dislike each other.

Necessary Evil to Postive -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1830

Southern apologists in the 1830s argued that the institution was a positive good because it subsidized an elegant lifestyle for a white elite and provided tutelage for genetically inferior Africans. If this would have not happened, then more people would doubt slavery, thus, slavery might have been abolished sooner.

Benevolent Masters Ian Hamilton

1830 - 1860

Many masters believed they were benevolent masters committed to black and white families. A few of these masters took it upon themselves to treat slaves that were loyal to them with great amounts of respect. They believed that the only slaves they sold were slaves without worth to anyone else and were not loyal. If this had not happened slaves may have tried to escape more often, thus rebelling more often.

Slave Society -Dylan Hadley

1830 - 1850

The South was a society in which the institution of slavery affected all aspects of life. Most white southerners didn't own slaves though. Slave society was basically a society where the fundamental class conflict is based on the division of people into masters and slaves, with slaves being the dominant producing class, and ownership over this complete commodification of the human being controlled by masters. If this wouldn't have happened the South wouldn't have had direct contact with slaves, thus, less debates over the morals of slavery would have happened.

Battle of the Alamo

1836

The Alamo was the 1836 defeat by the Mexican army of the Texan garrison defending the Alamo in San Antonio. Newspapers urged Americans to "Remember the Alamo," and American adventurers lured by fifers of land grants, flocked to Texas to join the rebels.

Had the Battle of Alamo not occurred, then many Americans would not have flocked to Texas to join the rebels and eventually gain independence for Texas from Mexico, thus not creating the issue of annexation of the territory to the Union due to the possibility of a civil war.

Dual Cultures of Planter Elite -Dylan Hadley

Approx. 1840 - Approx. 1860

The westward movement split the plantation elite into two distinct groups: the traditional aristocrats of the Old South, whose families had gained their wealth from tobacco and rice, and the upstart capitalist inclined planters of the cotton states. If this wouldn't have occurred, then the elites might have taken over the whole South region, thus, slavery would have been very difficult to abolish at all, anywhere.